WHEN DO ABSORBED TASTES FORBID?
If old wine fell onto grapes, all agree it forbids them b'Nosen Ta'am (if the Isur can be tasted in the mixture);
(Abaye): If new wine fell onto grapes, it forbids them b'Mashehu (even if only a drop fell in);
(Rava): If new wine (i.e. grape juice) fell onto grapes, it forbids them b'Nosen Ta'am.
Abaye forbids them b'Mashehu. It depends on the taste. Since grapes and grape juice have the same taste, this is like Min b'Mino (Isur and Heter of the same species are mixed together), so it forbids b'Mashehu. (This is like R. Yehudah.)
Rava forbids b'Nosen Ta'am. It depends on the name. Grapes and grape juice are different. This is like Min b'She'eino Mino (when Isur and Heter of different species are mixed together), which forbids b'Nosen Ta'am.
Question (against Abaye - Mishnah): If Yayin Nesech fell onto grapes (if they are broken, they are forbidden. We are thinking that new wine fell.)
Suggestion: The wine forbids b'Nosen Ta'am. (Tosfos - some explain that we infer this from the Seifa, which forbids only a beneficial taste. Whenever any amount forbids, even a detrimental taste forbids.)
Answer #1: No, the wine forbids b'Mashehu.
Rejection: The Seifa says that if it benefits the taste, it forbids. Surely, also the Reisha forbids b'Nosen Ta'am!
Answer #2: Old wine fell. All agree that it forbids b'Nosen Ta'am.
(Abaye): If wine vinegar and beer vinegar were mixed together, or Se'or (sourdough) made from wheat and Se'or of barely became mixed, since these have different tastes, this is like Min b'She'eino Mino. It forbids b'Nosen Ta'am;
(Rava): Since these have the same name (both are called vinegar (or Se'or)), this is like Min b'Mino. It forbids b'Mashehu.
Version #1 - Rashi - Support (Abaye, for himself - Mishnah): If spices of two or three names from the same species, or from three different species, were mixed together, they join to forbid the food (b'Nosen Ta'am).
Version #2 -Tosfos - Support (Abaye, for himself - Mishnah): If spices of two or three different Isurim that are all from the same species, or from three different species, were mixed together, they forbid the food (b'Nosen Ta'am). If they were mixed with a dry food, they join to comprise the quantity that does not become Batel (e.g. for Terumah, one in 100). (end of Version #2)
(Chizkiyah): The case is, all the spices sweeten.
This is like Abaye. Since they have the same taste, they join to forbid, even if they are from different names (Rashi; Tosfos - Isurim) and species!
According to Rava, since the names (Tosfos - Isurim) are different, they should not join!
Answer (Rava): The Mishnah is R. Meir, who says that all Isurim join.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah citing R. Meir): All Isurim join to forbid. "Lo Sochal Kol To'evah" is a Lav forbidding all Torah Isurim.
DOES THE SMELL MATTER?
If forbidden vinegar fell into (a larger quantity of) permitted wine, all agree that it forbids the wine b'Nosen Ta'am;
(Abaye): If forbidden wine fell into (a larger quantity of) permitted vinegar, it forbids b'Mashehu;
(Rava): It forbids b'Nosen Ta'am.
Abaye says that it forbids b'Mashehu. The wine receives the smell of the vinegar when it is above it (before it falls in). Even though it tastes like wine, it is considered vinegar. This is like Min b'Mino;
Rava says that it forbids b'Nosen Ta'am. Wine that smells like vinegar and tastes like wine is considered wine. This is like Min b'Eino Mino.
Version #1 (Rashi): A Nochri may smell a Yisrael's wine through Bas Tiha (a hole in the cork. We do not decree lest the Yisrael smell (and benefit from) the Nochri's wine);
Version #2 (R. Chananel, brought in Rashba): A Nochri may suck a Yisrael's wine through Bas Tiha (a straw, midway through the straw there is a hole, the wine is drawn from the barrel and falls out the hole (to gather it in a Keli). Since the Nochri does not touch the wine, it is permitted); (end of Version #2)
(Abaye): A Yisrael may not (R. Chananel - suck, for he will) smell a Nochri's wine through Bas Tiha.
(Rava): He may smell it.
Abaye forbids, for he says that smell is important (smelling is like drinking);
Rava permits, for he says that smell is not important.
Support (for himself - Rava - Mishnah): If bread was baked in an oven heated with cumin of Terumah, Yisraelim may eat the bread, because it does not absorb the taste, only the smell.
Rejection (Abaye): There is different, for the Isur (the Terumah) is burned.
(Rav Mari): Tana'im argue as Abaye and Rava do.
(Mishnah - R. Meir): If one removed hot bread from an oven, and put it on top of a barrel of Terumah wine, the bread is forbidden to a Zar (non-Kohen);
R. Yehudah permits it;
R. Yosi permits wheat bread, but forbids barley bread, for barley absorbs (the smell of the wine).
Suggestion: R. Meir says that smell is important, and R. Yehudah says that it is not.