[66a - 33 lines; 66b - 19 lines]
1a)[line 1]חמרא עתיקאCHAMRA ATIKA- old wine (that has a taste different than that of grapes)
b)[line 2]חמרא חדתאCHAMRA CHADTA- new wine (that tastes like grapes)
2a)[line 2]במשהוB'MASHEHU (MIN B'MINO)
(a)When a forbidden object is mixed with a permitted object, the mixture may be prohibited to be eaten mid'Oraisa, prohibited to be eaten mid'Rabanan, or permitted to be eaten, as follows:
1.If most of the mixture is Isur, it is prohibited mid'Oraisa.
2.If most of the mixture is Heter, but the Isur is more than one sixtieth of the Heter, i.e. the Isur is "Nosen Ta'am" (lends taste) to the Heter, it is prohibited mid'Rabanan (since "Ta'am k'Ikar," the "taste" is like the essence, is a Din d'Rabanan - there are those who prohibit this mixture mid'Oraisa, when the two mixed substances are unidentical ("Min beshe'Eino Mino"), asserting that "Ta'am k'Ikar" is mid'Oraisa).
3.If the amount of Isur is less than one sixtieth of the Heter, and is not Nosen Ta'am to the Heter, the mixture is permitted.
(b)The above applies when unidentical substances are mixed (e.g. they were cooked together and the Isur is Nosen Ta'am to the Heter). However, when a liquid mixes with an identical liquid, the Tana'im argue as to the status of the mixture. According to Rabanan, since identical substances are not Nosen Ta'am to each other at all, the Isur can be nullified by a majority of Heter (and sixty parts of Heter are not required). According to Rebbi Yehudah, the opposite is true. Even a miniscule amount (a "Mashehu") of Isur prohibits the mixture, since mid'Oraisa the Isur is not nullified at all. (When two identical dry substances become mixed together, all agree that the majority in the mixture determines the mixture's Halachic status - TOSFOS Yevamos 82a, DH Rebbi Yehudah. See, however, RASHI cited by Tosfos 81b DH Rebbi Yehudah.)
b)[line 3]בנותן טעםB'NOSEN TA'AM (MIN BESHE'EINO MINO B'NOSEN TA'AM)- see previous entry
3)[line 3]בתר טעמא אזלינן / בתר שמא אזלינןBASAR TA'AMA AZLINAN / BASAR SHEMA AZLINAN
(a)Abaye and Rava argue regarding how we define a case of a forbidden item that became mixed with a permitted item. Abaye maintains that we follow the taste of the items. In a case where the two items (such as new wine and grapes) have the same taste, it is considered a mixture of Min b'Mino (in which forbidden and permitted quantities of the same species are mixed together). The entire mixture is forbidden if it contains even a small amount of Yayin Nesech (this follows the ruling of Rebbi Yehudah; see above, entry #2a:b).
(b)Rava maintains that we follow the names of the items. Since new wine and grapes are defined and labeled as different items, it is considered a mixture of Min b'she'Eino Mino (in which forbidden and permitted quantities of different species are mixed together). The Yayin Nesech forbids the entire mixture only if its taste would be noticeable in the mixture (i.e. more than one sixtieth - RASHI).
4a)[line 5]ומין במינו במשהוMIN B'MINO B'MASHEHU- see above, entry #2a:b
b)[line 8]ומין בשאינו מינו בנותן טעםMIN BESHE'EINO MINO B'NOSEN TA'AM- see above, entry #2a:a:2
5a)[line 14]חלא דחמראCHALA D'CHAMRA- wine vinegar
b)[line 15]וחלא דשיכראCHALA D'SHICHRA- vinegar made from beer
6a)[line 15]וחמירא דחיטיCHAMIRA D'CHITEI- wheat sourdough
b)[line 15]וחמירא דשעריCHAMIRA D'SA'AREI- barley sourdough
7)[line 24]תבליןTAVLIN- spices
8a)[line 24]ב' וג' שמותSHENAYIM V'SHELOSHAH SHEMOS- (a) two or three different names (species; RASHI); (b) two or three different prohibitions (TOSFOS, RITVA). See Insights.
b)[line 24]והן מין אחדV'HEN MIN ECHAD- and they are of one species
c)[line 24]או מין ג'O MIN SHELOSHAH- or three different species (the YA'AVETZ corrects the Girsa to read, "או ג' מינים" "O SHELOSHAH MINIM")
d)[line 25]אסורין ומצטרפיןASURIN U'MITZTARFIN- they are forbidden and they combine [to form the minimum amount (i.e. Nosen Ta'am) which forbids the permitted food]
9)[line 25]במיני מתיקהMINEI MESIKAH- types of sweet [spices]
10)[line 26]למתק בהן את הקדירהL'MATEK BAHEN ES HA'KEDEIRAH- to sweeten the cooked dish (lit. the pot)
11)[line 28]כולי חד טעמא הואKULEI CHAD TA'AMA HU- they all have the same taste
12a)[line 1]ריחיה חלא וטעמא חמרא, חלאREICHEI CHALA V'TA'AMA CHAMRA, CHALA- if its bouquet is that of vinegar and its taste is that of wine, it is considered vinegar
b)[line 3]ריחיה חלא וטעמא חמרא, חמראREICHEI CHALA V'TA'AMA CHAMRA, CHAMRA- if its bouquet is that of vinegar and its taste is that of wine, it is considered wine
13)[line 5]בת תיהאBAS TIHA- (a) [a small reed that is placed into] a hole in the stopper of a barrel of wine, to smell whether the wine is able to be stored (RASHI, with the additional explanation of TOSFOS DH Bas); (b) a small reed that is placed into a large reed that sticks out of a barrel of wine, to smell the wine (TOSFOS, citing RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)
14)[line 6]עובד כוכבים בדישראל, שפיר דמיOVED KOCHAVIM BID'YISRAEL SHAPIR DAMI- when an idolater is the one who is smelling the wine of a Jew, it is permitted
15a)[line 8]ריחא מילתא היאREICHA MILSA HI- the aroma of a substance is considered significant, and smelling it is considered like drinking it (TOSFOS)
b)[line 9]ריחא לאו מילתא היאREICHA LAV MILSA HI- the aroma of a substance is considered insignificant
16)[line 11]שהסיקוSHE'HISIKO- that he stoked
17)[line 11]בכמוןKAMON- cumin
(a)See Background to Avodah Zarah 62:13.
19)[line 14]דמיקלא איסוריהD'MIKLA ISUREI- the prohibited substance is destroyed
20)[line 15]הרודהHA'RODEH- one who peels the bread off the wall of the oven