[21a - 41 lines; 21b - 37 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.

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[3] . [ 16]

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1)[line 1] ?- is he not asking correctly? (i.e., this is a good question!)

2)[line 4] - they should collect it [as a separate collection]

3)[line 6]- an entire Asiris ha'Eifah

4)[line 8] (" ", " "" '")- (a) once he thought about it, he was able to answer it (RAV CHAIM KANIEVSKY); (b) when you are able to answer it [I will ask another question] (KORBAN HA'EDAH); the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON is ; see below, entry #7

5)[line 9] () [] - [since] the Torah refers to the Korban Minchah as "Tamid" [it must be that a Minchas Chavitin is always offered in the evening as well] (RAV CHAIM KANIEVSKY)

6)[line 9] - the three Login of oil (one of the ingredients of the Chavitei Kohen Gadol; see Background to 9:14)

7)[line 12] ( )- this, too, requires an answer

8)[line 12]- three-fingered handfuls of Levonah offered with the Chavitei Kohen Gadol (see Background to 9:14; see also Hagahos ha'Gra here)

9)[line 19] , - just as there (when offering the Korban Tamid) it is necessary [to offer it along with three Login of oil], so is it necessary to do so here (when offering the Chavitei Kohen Gadol)

10)[line 21] - the law was

11)[line 22]" []"- [although the Parah Adumah is not a Korban, it is referred to by the Torah as] a "Chat'as" (Bamidbar 19:9).

12)[line 24]- (a) they would treat it disrespectfully (TIKLIN CHADTIN); (b) they would rub their hands in it [in order to clean them] (RAV CHAIM KANIEVSKY)

13)[line 25] - (a) once they began to treat it with the proper respect [rendering the original Gezeirah unnecessary] (TIKLIN CHADTIN, first explanation); (b) when they began to avoid purifying one who was only possibly Tamei [for fear of being Mo'il in it] (KORBAN HA'EDAH)

14)[line 27] - that woman (see Background to 19:18)

15)[line 29]- lost [in the way described in Mishnah 19a; namely, that money was found in between two Shofaros and is of undetermined origin]

PEREK #8 KOL HA'ROKIN

16)[line 31] (MASHKIN D'ZAV)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)Any bodily fluid of a Zav or Zavah (see Background to 18:22) classifies as a Ma'ayan - literally a fountain - has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah. A Ma'ayan is a fluid which replenishes itself. The Zov, semen, saliva and urine of a Zav; as well as the blood, saliva and urine of a Zavah, are therefore all Avos ha'Tum'ah.

(e)Our Mishnah is discussing spittle of undetermined origin found in the streets of Yerushalayim.

17)[line 33] - the upper marketplace

18)[line 34]- that [spittle] found in the middle of the street

19)[line 38] - for the way down [to the Mikvah] is not the same [path] as the way up [from the Mikvah]

20a)[line 40]- a basket

b)[line 40]- a shovel or rake [for gathering bones]

c)[line 40]- (a) an instrument that crushes stones [so as to render them more easily transportable]; alt. a spade (according to our Girsa in the GEMARA); (b) an instrument that crushes bones [so as to render them more easily transportable] (RAMBAM, see Girsa section and Insights)

21)[line 41]"- on the fourteenth [of Nisan, the day upon which the Korban Pesach is slaughtered]

22)[line 33] (TEVILAS KEILIM)

(a)If a utensil becomes Tamei (see above, entry #16), it must be immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, it is then Tahor. The Chachamim decreed that one may not immerse Kelim in a Mikvah on Shabbos or Yom Tov, since it appears as if he is fixing the utensil.

(b)If one finds a knife in Yerushalayim on the fourteenth of Nisan, he may assume it to be Tahor. Since everyone requires a knife to slaughter the Korban Pesach, had it been Tamei its owner most certainly would have immersed it in a Mikvah on the thirteenth. That way, night would have fallen before the fourteenth, which is when the Korban Pesach must be offered.

23)[line 42] - he must immerses it [in a Mikvah for what may be the] second time [if he wishes to use it to slaughter his Korban Pesach, since he is in doubt whether its owner immersed it to begin with]

24)[line 42]- a cleaver. (This is a knife primarily used to chop meat and cut through bones, as opposed to slaughtering animals.)

25)[line 38] - he may slaughter with it (the Kufitz) immediately. Even if the owner of this cleaver did not require it for slaughtering as he had a smaller knife more suitable for the task, he surely immersed the cleaver before Yom Tov. This is because the Kufitz is necessary to chop up the Korban Chagigah (see Background to Pesachim 70:1) on the fifteenth of Nisan. Since the fourteenth fell on Shabbos, there would be no opportunity to immerse it in a Mikvah before the fifteenth after the thirteenth.

21b----------------------------------------21b

26)[line 2] - Nochrim (who have the status of a Zav) who wash clothing

27)[line 3]- wild donkeys

28)[line 4]- slaughter [to feed the king's lions]

29)[line 4] - wade in blood until their knees

30)[line 8]- a mule

31)[line 12] (NEVEILAH)

(a)A Neveilah is the carcass of a Kosher animal that expired from any cause other Halachically acceptable slaughter. The Torah states, "Lo Sochlu Chol Neveilah, La'Ger Asher bi'Sh'arecha Titnenah va'Achalah, O Machor l'Nochri, Ki Am Kadosh Atah La'HaSh-M Elokecha" - "Do not eat any Neveilah; give it to the stranger in your gates that he may eat it, or sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy nation to HaSh-m your G-d" (Devarim 14:21).

(b)One who consumes a k'Zayis of Neveilah receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1). A piece of Neveilah which is at least the size a k'Zayis causes a person or vessel to become Tamei through Maga (contact). It will also cause a Kli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) to become Tamei if it enters the vessel's airspace. If a person carries such a piece of Neveilah, he will become Tamei (Tum'as Masa), which in turn will be Metamei the clothes he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

(c)Beis Shamai are of the opinion that only the flesh of a Neveilah is Metamei; no amount of its blood will have any such effect. What Beis Hillel maintain is the subject of a Machlokes. Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah explains the opinion of Beis Hillel to be that the amount of blood which would equal a k'Zayis were it to dry out is Metamei as if it were a k'Zayis of flesh (Shabbos 77). Rebbi Yehoshua ben Beseira (or Pesora) maintains that Beis Hillel does not argue with Beis Shamai; the blood of a Neveilah is Tehorah. When Rebbi's mule expired, the ruling was that its blood was Tahor. What was unclear in the case of Rebbi's mule was whether this meant that it was completely Tahor, or simply Tahor as long as there was no k'Zayis of it in one place.

32)[line 10] - did not answer him

33)[line 11]- was upset

34)[line 12]- (lit. learning) an answer

35)[line 13] - that case [of the status of blood from a Neveilah was ruled to be Tahor]

36)[line 14] - he brusquely brushed him off; alt., he pushed him away with his foot

37)[line 15]- because

38)[line 16] - I was distracted

39)[line 17]" "- "And your life will hang before you; you shall be fearful night and day, and not trust in your life." (Devarim 28:66)

40a)[line 17] - who [owns no land, and therefore] buys wheat for the following year [since he is unsure whether or not there will be wheat available then]

b)[line 18]- a grain wholesaler [who may run out of produce or jack up his prices at any time]

c)[line 19]- a baker [who may run out of goods or jack up his prices at any time]

41)[line 20] ( )- what is the conclusion?

42)[line 21]- This implies that it is *completely* Tahor

43)[line 22](HECHSHER L'TUM'AH)

(a)Food becomes Tamei when it comes into contact with a source of Tum'ah - but only if it had first come into contact with one of the seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei. From then on, even after it dries, it can still become Tamei. The seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei are: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. Wetting foods in a manner which enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher."

(b)Food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food is pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, like the word "Yiten" - "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" - "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food, as it is when he himself applies them.

(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. Therefore, even if the owner desired the liquid for an entirely different purpose and only at a later point did it come into contact with food, that liquid will enable the food to become Tamei. If, however, the owner intended to dispose of the liquid, then it will not enable the food to become Tamei, for such a liquid is not considered valuable.

(d)Our Gemara suggests that that which Rebbi Yehoshua ben Pesorah ruled that the blood of a Neveilah is Tahor was in reference to its lack of ability to enable Hechsher Ochlin. This is because only the blood of a Halachically slaughtered animal is considered Dam with regard to Tum'ah.

44)[line 23](TUM'AS SHERETZ)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)There are eight Sheratzim - scampering animals - described by the Torah as sources of Tum'ah (Vayikra 11:29-38). A dead Sheretz or part of a dead Sheretz the size of an Adashah (lentil bean) is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). If a person or object makes either willing or unwilling contact with a Sheretz, he/it becomes Tamei; this is known as Tum'as Maga. The eight Sheratzim (based upon Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah" and other sources) are:

1.CHOLED - a weasel [alt., a martin or an ermine (ARUCH), a rat (TARGUM, TOSFOS YOM TOV), a mole or mole-rat (ARUCH), or a field mouse (TARGUM YONASAN)]. The Gemara describes a Choled as a predatory animal which tunnels under the ground, potentially weakening the foundation of houses.

2.ACHBAR - a mouse; some sources appear to include a rat in the definition of Achbar as well

3.TZAV - a toad (RASHI Vayikra 11:29, Nidah 56a; this is also evident from the Mishnah in Taharos 5:1 which implies that it is easily confused with a frog - see Rishonim there). Alternatively, a turtle (ME'AM LOEZ, TIFERES YISRAEL to Taharos ibid.). According to the Septuagint it is a land crocodile (perhaps the monitor, see KO'ACH; this would fit with the Gemara (Chulin 127a) which associates it with the salamander and snake). Others identify it as a ferret.

4.ANAKAH - a hedgehog or porcupine; alternatively, a beaver (RADAK). [The Septuagint identifies the Anakah as a mole, shrew mouse or field mouse.] Rabeinu Sa'adya Ga'on identifies it as a gecko, a type of lizard with a soft speckled hide which may grow to five inches in length; "Anachah" means to groan, and the gecko makes a groaning sound.

5.KO'ACH - a lizard (RADAK quoting RASHI) [chameleon, according to the Septuagint.] According to some translations the Ko'ach would appear to be the monitor or monitor lizard. This is the largest reptile living in the Holy Land, growing to be as long as four feet. Found on the coast, in the Negev, and in the Aravah, it feeds upon rodents and other reptiles (RADAK, RABEINU SA'ADYA GAON).

6.LETA'AH - a lizard; alt., a white lizard, otherwise known as the great gecko.

7.CHOMET - a snail or slug (RASHI) [alt., a lizard; or a skink, a short-legged lizard of which four varieties are found in Eretz Yisrael]

8.TINSHEMES - a mole (Rashi Chulin 63a) [alt., a large-headed lizard which burrows underground, most probably a species of gecko]

(e)One who becomes Tamei through direct contact with a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim, nor enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. He need not wait before immersing in a Mikvah. After doing so, he must wait until nightfall to become Tahor; after that time he may once again eat Terumah and Kodshim and enter the Azarah.

(f)In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz in the airspace of an earthenware vessel causes the vessel as well as all food items within it to become Tamei, whether the Sheretz has touched them or not.

45)[line 23] - and there is no other Halachah which is comparable (presumably, this means that the flesh of any blood that does not enable Hechsher Ochlin is not Metamei)

46a)[line 24][] - perhaps that which there is no comparison [refers to] the minimum size that is Metamei

b)[line 24] - but its blood (of a Sheretz) is Metamei [at the same minimum amount] as its flesh (namely, that equivalent to a lentil)

47)[line 26] - like Rebbi Yehudah (who maintains that the opinion of Beis Hillel is that the blood of a Neveilah is Metamei at the volume of a Revi'is [Menachos 103b])

48)[line 28] - who had gone down [to Chutz la'Aretz to teach Torah]

49)[line 28] - was the Halachic authority for the Nasi's family

50)[line 33]- in the middle of the road

51)[line 34][] - unconcernedly

52)[line 36] - [the Chachamim] did not require [one to consider] utensils [of undetermined status found in Yerushalayim to be Tamei]

53)[line 37] - it serves as proof

54)[line 38] ()- (a) the Meritzah (RA"SH SIRILIYO); (b) the Magreifah (TIKLIN CHADTIN)

55)[line 38]- a fingernail

56)[line 38]- (a) for it crushes (RAMBAM, BARTENURA, TIKLIN CHADTIN); (b) for it hastens [when one digs with it] (RIVEVAN, RA"SH SIRILIYO) (see above, entry #20)

57)[line 39] - the status of the knife follows that of the Kufitz (which is the opposite ruling from that which was stated in our Mishnah; TIKLIN CHADTIN; see Insights for a different explanation)

58)[line 40]- the curtain which hung at the entrances to the Ulam

59)[line 40] (TUM'AH D'RABANAN)

(a)The various levels of Tum'ah are: 1. Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, 2. Av ha'Tum'ah, 3. Rishon l'Tum'ah, 4. Sheni l'Tum'ah, 5. Shelishi l'Tum'ah, and 6. Revi'i l'Tum'ah. If Terumah becomes a Shelishi, it is Pesulah. This means that although it may not be eaten, it does not affect other Terumah to make it a Revi'i. Such Terumah may not be eaten, although one may benefit from it through burning it.

(b)The Chachamim decreed that a liquid which comes into contact with a person or object which can be Metamei Terumah (i.e. a Sheni l'Tum'ah) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. They did so in order that people should be careful to guard liquids against becoming Tamei. It is far easier for liquids to become Tamei than for dry food to become Tamei, since liquid does not require Hechsher ("preparation" for becoming Tamei through contact with one of the seven liquids which cause that condition; see above,entry #43). Liquids become Tamei as soon as Tum'ah touches them (Pesachim 18b).

(c)The Rabanan further decreed that unless one has been careful since last washing his hands to keep them Tahor, they are assumed to have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

(c)An additional decree enacted by the Chachamim is that liquids that have the status of a Rishon or Sheni l'Tum'ah are Metamei utensils. This is because there are liquids that are Metamei utensils mid'Oraisa; namely, the Ma'ayanos of a Zav or Zavah which are Avos ha'Tum'ah (see above, entry #16). Our Mishnah is discussing a Paroches that became Tamei from a liquid which is Tamei only mid'Rabanan.

60)[line 40]- inside [the Beis ha'Mikdash]

61)[line 41]- spread

62a)[line 42]- The ten-Amah wide area surrounding the Beis ha'Mikdash (the entire Azarah as well as the Ezras Nashim). Twelve steps, upon which people sat, descended from the Mikdash until the end of these ten Amos, and the steps were covered by an awning.

b)[line 42] - on the roof of the colonnade which was situated along the inside of the wall of Har ha'Bayis

63)[line 42] - nightfall

64a)[line 44]() []- (O.F. lices) threads with a ring (or two knots) in their center which hang from a loom. One thread of the warp passes through each one.

b)[line 44]- cord (a thread of the warp)

65)[line 44]- it was woven

66)[line 45] - (a) the cost of the Paroches was 820,000 Dinarim (TIKLIN CHADTIN); (b) the Paroches was fashioned from 820,000 threads (RIVEVAN); c) the Paroches was woven by 82 young maidens (who were not old enough to become Teme'ei Nidah; BARTENURA)

67)[line 46] - the verse states that the Paroches should be made of "Techeles v'Argaman v'Sola'as Shani v'Shesh Mashzar" - "turquoise-dyed wool, purple-dyed wool, scarlet-dyed wool, and linen; twisted" (Shemos 26:31). Our Gemara, in order to gain the proper understanding of the meaning of "Mashzar," first goes through all terms that could have been - but were not - used.

68a)[line 46]- twisted

b)[line 46]- doubly twisted

c)[line 49]- braided

69a)[line 50] - embroidery

b)[line 50] - weaving in which the design is described by the weave itself

70)[line 51]- image

71)[line 52]- smooth

72)[line 52]- and the other

73)[line 53]- an eagle

74)[line 54]- an exaggeration

75)[line 55]- upon [the Mizbe'ach]

76)[line 55]- Kur (a measure equal to thirty Se'ah) [of ashes]

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