[22a - 45 lines; 22b - 9 lines]
We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.
 גמרא כב. [שורה שלפני האחרון]הנקודתיים מיותרות
 הגהות הגר"א כב. אות [א]
דבספ"ק דכלים בתוספות
צ"ל דבספ"ק דכלים בתוספתא
1)[line 5]מִדִבְרֵיהֶם- see Background to 21:59
2)[line 9]זה וזה לא דבר תורה?- are they not both [Tamei] mid'Oraisa [and what logic exists, therefore, to differentiate between them]?
3)[line 10]לא מְקַשְׁיָיא?- is it not problematic?
4)[line 13]לא הָווּ בה רבנן אלא על דבר קפרא- [the reason why the Rabanan did not ask a contradiction from the words of Beis Hillel is because] the Rabanan were not discussing [the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan,] but [rather] the opinion of Bar Kapara (RAV CHAIM KANIEVSKY).
5)[line 18]בְּגִין דר"ע אמר מקום טומאתו שם תהא שריפתו- because of Rebbi Akiva who says... The Gemara answers that Beis Shamai do not actually rule that Kodesh meat which received Tum'ah from an Av ha'Tum'ah inside of the Beis ha'Mikdash need not be taken out in order to burn it; they agree that it must be removed. Rather, the intention behind their statement is to stress that they do not agree with Rebbi Akiva, who does not allow Kodesh meat which received Tum'ah from a Vlad ha'Tum'ah outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash to be brought inside in order to burn it.
6)[line 22]בְּגִין דר"ש אמר מַאֲכָלוֹ וּמַשְׁקוֹ של מצורע מִשְׁתַּלְחִין חוץ לשלש מחנות- (a) [this is a Gezeirah] because of Rebbi Shimon, who says that food or drink [that became Tamei from coming into contact with] a Metzora must be sent out of Yerushalayim [similar to the Metzora himself]; (b) the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON is בגין דר"ש אמר מאכלו ומשקו של מצורע אין מביאין לשלש מחנות - because of Rebbi Shimon, who says that food or drink [that became Tamei from coming into contact with] a Metzora may not be brought into any part of Yerushalayim (see Insights)
(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen.
(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
(d)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields.
(e)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 59:5).
(f)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring three Korbanos to complete his Taharah. These Korbanos consist of two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, and the other is offered as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he cannot afford these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still necessary for his Asham.
(g)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham while the Log of oil rests upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of its blood is placed upon the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, some on his right thumb, and some on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for he who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah have the status of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor is only as Kadosh as Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora can put his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.
8)[line 24]אֵיבָרֵי התמיד נִיתָּנִין(KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, is offered in the morning, and the second - called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim - is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5). The Korban Tamid is an Olah, and is therefore offered in its entirety upon the Mizbe'ach.
(b)Our Mishnah describes the location where the limbs of the Tamid were placed while they were awaiting a Kohen to carry them to the top of the Mizbe'ach.
9)[line 25]כֶּבֶשׁ- the ramp of the Mizbe'ach
10)[line 26]מוספין(KORBAN MUSAF)
(a)Apart from the Korban Tamid, The Torah requires additional (Musaf) animals to be offered as public offerings on Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh, and the festivals. What type of and how many animals must be offered depend upon the day (Bamidbar 29 and 30).
(b)Our Mishnah - which mentions "Musafim" without specifying which Korban Musaf is being referred to - is discussing the Korban Musaf of Shabbos.
11)[line 27]כַּרְכּוֹב- (a) the Amah-wide area between the corner posts (Keranos) atop the Mizbe'ach, which was left clear for the Kohanim to walk upon (Gemara); (b) the Amah-wide ridge halfway up the Mizbe'ach, along which the Kohanim would walk (BARTENURA)
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing those fruits which were the first to emerge in one's field at the beginning of the season to the Beis ha'Mikdash. After arriving in the Beis ha'Mikdash, while the basket is still on his shoulder, the owner of the fruit recites specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) which thank HaSh-m for taking us out of Egypt and giving us the land of Eretz Yisrael. He then places his basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael is blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land [heard from a leading botanist - MK].)
(c)In certain instances, one does not recite any verses when bringing Bikurim (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if one brings Bikurim between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite any verses (see 36b and Rashi there).
13)[line 29]בפני הבית- as long as the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing
14)[line 29]מַעֲשַׂר דָגָן(TERUMAH; MA'ASER RISHON; MA'ASER SHENI; MA'ASER ANI)
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.
(b)Once Terumah is separated from the produce, the first tithe must be separated. One tenth of the remaining produce is given to a Levi; this is known as Ma'aser Rishon. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon and give it to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26. This is called Terumas Ma'aser.
(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor.
(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 13:22-28).
15)[line 29]מעשר בהמה(MA'ASAR BEHEMAH)
(a)The Torah states, "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m" - "And all of the cattle and flocks of sheep and goats shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod; the tenth one shall be consecrated to HaSh-m" (Vayikra 27:32). Once a year, one must designate every tenth Kosher animal born into his herd/flock over the course of the previous year as Ma'asar Behemah. This is accomplished by gathering all of each type of animal born in the previous year into a corral. They are then made to leave the corral in a single-file line through a narrow opening. Their owner stands by and counts them, marking every tenth one.
(b)Animals designated as Ma'asar Behemah are eaten by their owner. If they are unblemished, they are offered as a Korban Shelamim (see Background to 6:35) and eaten by their owner in Yerushalayim. If they have a Mum, their owner may slaughter and eat them as he would any Kosher animal.
16)[line 30]בכורות(BECHOR BEHEMAH TEHORAH)
(a)Every first-born male offspring of an ox, goat or sheep is Kadosh when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for he who owns the animal to sanctify it by verbally declaring it to have the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one is Makdish a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may be eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.
(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum, it becomes the property of the Kohen and it is slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen may give it away or sell it - even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner, nor may it be redeemed with money.
(d)When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).
(e)If a Nochri owns any part of a Bechor, no Kedushah rests upon it, as the verse states, "Li Kol Bechor b'Yisrael" (Bamidbar 3:13). The question in our Gemara is: if one-tenth of the animals in a flock must be given to the king for tax purposes, does that render one-tenth of any given animal the property of the king, thereby preventing all of the animals from receiving the Kedushah of Bechor?
17)[line 31]המקדיש שקלים וביכורים- one who designates a half-Shekel or the first fruits of his field as Kodesh [nowadays, even though he should not so]
18)[line 33]קֶרֶן- one of the cubic Amah blocks placed upon each corner of the top of the Mizbe'ach
19)[line 34]סָבַר מֵימַר- thought it was correct to say
20)[line 35]חַיְילֵיה- his strength; i.e. his proof
21)[line 35]שִׁירוֹ(SHIRAS HA'LEVIYIM B'VEIS HA'MIKDASH)
(a)Wine libations (Nesachim) accompany many of the Korbanos (Bamidbar 15:1-16). Part of the service performed by the Leviyim in the Beis ha'Mikdash is to sing chapters of Tehilim and accompany this song with musical instrumentation at the time that the wine is poured into the designated pipes which are located atop the Mizbe'ach ha'Olah. When the wine is poured, a signal is given for the Leviyim to begin the Shirah.
(b)Our Gemara discusses the Shirah sung as an accompaniment to the Korbenos Musaf of Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh.
22)[line 36]שַנְיָיא הִיא תַּמָן (שאני התם)- there it is different
23)[line 37]בְּרַם הכא- here, however
24)[line 38]כל הַתָּדִיר מחבירו קודם את חבירו(TADIR VESHE'EINO TADIR, TADIR KODEM)
(a)When one finds himself faced with two Mitzvos to perform, the rule is "Tadir veshe'Eino Tadir, Tadir Kodem." This means that, all other factors being equal, that which occurs more frequently should be performed first.
(b)The source for this ruling is the following verse: "Milvad Olas ha'Boker Asher l'Olas ha'Tamid, Ta'asu Es Eleh" - "Aside from the Korban Olah offered in the morning that is for the continual burnt offering, you should offer these" (Bamidbar 28:23). This verse refers to Korbenos Musaf offered "aside from" - and following - the daily burnt offering of the Korban Tamid of the morning. The wording of the Pasuk implies that the Tamid precedes the Musaf due to that which it is offered on a daily basis (Mishnah, Zevachim 89a).
(a)A Nochri becomes a proselyte to Judaism after completing the following stages: 1. accepting upon himself the obligation to perform all of the Mitzvos of the Torah; 2. undergoing circumcision; 3. immersing in a Mikvah; and 4. bringing an animal or two birds as a Korban Olah. The Korban does not prevent the conversion, and is not presently required. (Kerisus 9a, see Kerisus Chart #1, RAMBAM Isurei Bi'ah 13:4-5)
26)[line 40]צריך להביא קִינוֹ ריבעית כסף- must designate money with which to purchase two birds for his Korban [when the Beis ha'Mikdash will be rebuilt]
27)[line 41]מפני התַּקָלָה- for it may lead him to transgress [the prohibition against Me'ilah (see Background to 20:40)]
If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether his own or that of someone else - to Hekdesh, there are two ways to do so. The first is to appraise him based upon how much he would fetch on the slave market. This takes into account factors such as physical strength, trade skills, health, etc. This is known as the Damim - worth - of a person. Every individual also has a Torah value, known as an Erech. The Torah designates a specific value for every person based upon his or her gender and age, as specified in Vayikra 27:1-8. For this value, it is irrespective if the individual is healthy, sick, strong, weak, etc.
THE "ERECH" SPECIFIED BY THE TORAH IN VAYIKRA 27: AGE MALE FEMALE 1 month - 5 years 5 Shekalim 3 Shekalim 5 years - 20 years 20 Shekalim 10 Shekalim 20 years - 60 years 50 Shekalim 30 Shekalim 60 years and over 15 Shekalim 10 Shekalim
(a)"Cherem" is a term applied to an object one wishes to consecrate. There are two types of Charamim: (a) Chermei Kohanim, which are given to the Kohanim for their personal use and cannot be redeemed; and (b) Chermei Shamayim, which are given to Bedek ha'Bayis and may be redeemed like any other object donated to Bedek ha'Bayis.
(b)The Mishnah in Mo'ed Katan teaches that Hekdesh may receive payments from those who pledged something to Hekdesh using the word "Cherem" (an example of "b" above).
30)[line 42](מַגְבִּיהִין תרומות ומעשרות)- see above, entry, #14
31)[line 43]הַכְּסוּת- [if it is a piece of] clothing
32)[line 43]תֵיעָקֵר- it should be uprooted
33)[line 44]עָבַר והקדיש- if a Ger incorrectly designated money as Hekdesh [with which to purchase two birds for his Korban]
34)[last line]הַדָא אָמְרָה (זאת אומרת)- this teaches us
35)[last line]רבי יוּדָה עַנְתוּדַרְיָיא- this is the name of an Amora
36)[last line]הכא- here, i.e., with regard to the money with which a Ger intends to purchase two birds for his Korban
37)[line 1]והכא- here, i.e., with regard to one who designates a half-Shekel as Kodesh nowadays, according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah bar Shimon who maintains that Rebbi Shimon rules that it does not become Kadosh
38)[line 1]תַּמָן- with regard to the Kedushah of a Shekel nowadays
39)[line 3]וְהֵיאָך (וההוא)- and that one
40)[line 6]וְיַנִיחֶנָהּ עד שיבנה בית המקדש?- [the Gemara asks,] why not simply place the Shekel aside until the Beis ha'Mikdash will be rebuilt?
41)[line 6]כְּבָרִאשׁוֹנה- [in Nisan,] as it originally was
42)[line 7]והכא מַאי אִית לָךְ?- but here [with regard to the money with which a Ger intends to purchase two birds for his Korban,] what reason is there [to say that it should not be Kadosh]?
43)[line 8]כר"ש- according to the opinion of Rebbi Shimon [as quoted in our Mishnah]
HADRAN ALACH PEREK KOL HA'ROKIN U'SELIKA LACH MASECHES SHEKALIM
TAM V'NISHLAM SHEVACH LA'KEL BOREI OLAM