[20a - 51 lines; 20b - 44 lines]
We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.
 גמרא כ. [שורה 1]
בעי משיזגא אסקופתי'
צ"ל בעי משיזגא בשר אסקופתי'
(כ"ה בתקלין חדתין וכ"ה בדפו"י, ובהרבה ראשונים ודפוסים אי' "נחת משזגא" או "נחת משוגה (??)")
 גמרא כ: [שורה 40]
(ממי שהבריות שלו) מי שהברית כרותה לו
בר"ש סיריליו ודפוסים ישנים אי' רק ממי שהבריות שלו וכפירוש הקה"ע, דהיינו מתרומת הלשכה, וכדאי' בקרא, "חק עולם לד'" (ובבבלי מנחות איתא,*משל עולם*, כדאי' בהגהות הגר"א, והיא היא)
 הגהות הגר"א אות [א]
צ"ל מתניתין פליגא כו'
צ"ל "צ"ל מתניתא פליגא כו'"
(וכ"ה בתקלין חדתין)
1a)[line 1]בָּעִי מְשֵׁיזְגָה- wanted to wash
b)[line 1]אִסְקוּפְתֵּיה- The Talmid ha'Rashbash writes that it is clear from the context that this is the name of a certain cut of meat. The Rash Sirilio defines this word as the Greek word for *hat*, and explains that the story told in our Gemara is about someone who went to wash his hat, in which he was carrying pieces of meat. (Alternatively, perhaps this refers to a cut of meat from the "Shipuy ha'Kova" - the epiglottis - which is at the top of the trachea.)
2)[line 1]וְאִינַשְׁתָּהּ- (a) and it fell from his hands into the water; (b) and he forgot it at the edge of the river
3)[line 1]ואזיל ליה- and he went away
4)[line 2]מֵיסְבִינָא- to take it
5)[line 2]דְנָא אמר (דַאֲנָא אמר (שאני אומר)ֽ- for I [could] say
6a)[line 3]ההיא שָטַף נַהֲרָא- that [kosher piece of meat], the river washed away
b)[line 3]ואַייתִי חוֹרִי דנבילה תַּחְתּוּי- and brought a different [piece of meat] that is from a Neveilah in its place
7)[line 4]טָעִין קוּפַּד- carrying a piece of meat
8)[line 5]דַיְיתָא (דַיָה)- a kite (a hawk-like bird that eats mice, hares, and carrion); alternatively, a vulture (TARGUM ONKELUS Vayikra 11:14)
9)[line 5]וּטְלַקְתֵּיה- and let it go
10)[line 7]וְנַסְבָּא ההוא אוֹחְרָנָא- and took the other [kosher piece of meat]
11)[line 8]גִינָאִי שטף זִיקִין- the Gina'i River washed away [leather] bottles of wine
12)[line 8]עוּבְדָא- the case
13)[line 9]יְחַכְּמוּן שַפָּיֵיא קִיטְרֵהוֹן- let those who pour wine (i.e., the wine dealers) recognize their knots [with which they tied the bottles, and they will then be permitted to use them]
14)[line 9](נקוניקה) נוּקָנִיקָה- (a) (lucanica in Latin) a type of sausage; intestines (Dakin) stuffed with spiced meat (ARUCH Erech נוקיקא); (b) barrels (KORBAN HA'EDAH, TIKLIN CHADTIN)
15)[line 10]אִשְׁתַּכַח בִּכְּנִישְׁתָּא דְבּוּלִי- were forgotten in the synagogue of Buli
16)[line 11]יְחַכְּמוּן סִקוּרַיָיא עַבִידְתְּהוֹן- let (a) the sausage makers; (b) those who mark barrels with red paint recognize their work
17)[line 12]בְּאַסְרַטֵי דְגוּפְתָּא- in a wide thoroughfare in Gufta
18)[line 12]והתירוהו- and they allowed it [to be retained and eaten]
19a)[line 14]גַיִיס- an army
b)[line 14]שוּנַת הים- lit. teeth of the sea; outcroppings of rock upon which the waves break
c)[line 15]איסרטיא- a wide thoroughfare
d)[line 15]פְּלַטְיָא- a wide, open plaza wherein people gather to do business
20)[line 16]מִתְיַיאַשִׁין מהן- give up hope of [ever recovering] them
21)[line 17]משום שחיטת נכרי- [that he did not have to consider the possibility that the meat was] slaughtered by a Nochri
22)[line 17]וְאִישְׁתַּכַח מן דבית רבי- and it was found to have come from the house of Rebbi (this demonstrates the propriety of relying upon the majority]
23)[line 18]עִיגוּל דְגוּבְנָא- a wheel of cheese
24)[line 18]פּוּנְדְקָא- the inn
25)[line 25]וַאַנַן חַמְיִין- but we see
26)[line 25]מַכְרִיזִין- announcing [lost objects found under such circumstances, in an attempt to find their owners]
27)[line 26]אַתְּ, אִין הַוְיָיתָה מַשְׁכַּח, לא נַסְבַת?ֽ- you, should you find [a lost object under such circumstances], would you not take it?
28)[line 27]הַלְוַאי כַּד נַשְׁכַּח, נשכח מן פְּיוּסָא וּלְגַוָא- were it only that when we found lost objects, we would find them on the inside of the Pivsaros (small paths to the side of wide streets; sidewalks). The reason for this wish of Rebbi Yonah is that since the main thoroughfare is an area in which one gives up hope of recovering his lost item, it would then be permitted to keep it.
29)[line 28]אשכח ולא נסיב- a) Rebbi Yonah; b) his son, Rebbi Mana found such a lost object and did not keep it [but rather attempted to find its owner]
30)[line 30]מגדל עֵדֶר- an ancient settlement mentioned in Bereishis (35:21) located on a hill halfway between Chevron and Beis Lechem. This is the current location of Gush Etziyon. According to Targum Yonasan Ben Uziel, this is where Mashi'ach will ultimately reveal himself.
31)[line 30]וּכְמִדָתָה- and an equal distance
32)[line 31]זכרים עולות- [any] male animals [found must be assumed to be] Korbenos Olah [that have run away from Yerushalayim] (since only a male animal may be offered as a Korban Olah)
33)[line 33]היו מְמַשְׁכְּנִין- they would take property as collateral
This refers to the Korban Minchah (meal-offering; see Background to 6:34) and wine libation that are offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah (Bamidbar 15:3-16).
35)[line 38]גר שמת(NICHSEI HA'GER)
When a Jew dies, his closest relatives inherit his estate (according to the hierarchy established by the Torah as recorded in Bamidbar 27:8-11). Since all Jews are related to each other (through Yakov Avinu and his sons), every Jew by definition has heirs. A convert, however, may possibly have no heirs (since his Nochri relatives do not inherit his estate). When a convert dies without heirs, his estate becomes Hefker (ownerless). The first person who takes possession of his belongings becomes their owner.
36)[line 40]כהן גדול שמת- Our Mishnah is discussing a case involving a Kohen Gadol who passed away, before a replacement has been named. Even without an acting Kohen Gadol, the daily Asiris ha'Eifah (see Background to 19:14) must be offered, albeit with certain modifications. The Tana'im in our Mishnah disagree as to who funds the Korban in such a situation.
37)[line 42]שלימה- whole (as opposed to half in the morning and half in the evening)
38)[line 43]נֵאוֹתִין בהן- may benefit from them (by using them to prepare Korbanos that are eaten by the Kohanim)
39)[line 43]פרה(PARAH ADUMAH)
(a)A Parah Adumah is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow which has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).
(b)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
(a)It is forbidden to derive any personal benefit from that which is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol bi'Sh'arecha... v'Chol Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount of benefit for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he is liable to receive Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable for Misah b'Yedei Shamayim). In addition, he must pay Hekdesh for the benefit which he received; however, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, he must bring a Korban known as a Korban Me'ilah. He must then reimburse Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, equal to a quarter of the original value). The object then loses its Kedushah. This is true of any object which has the status of Kedushas Damim (i.e. it itself will not be used by Hekdesh, but rather its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object which has the status of Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live animal pledged to be offered as a Korban) does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
(d)Our Mishnah teaches that the prohibition of Me'ilah does not apply to the ashes of a Parah Adumah.
41)[line 44]קינין הפסולות- the Kinim (see Background to 18:22) found to be physically unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach [that had been purchased with money left in the Shofar designated for this purpose; see Mishnah 18a and Background ibid.]
42)[line 45]הַמְסַפֵּק את הקינין- he who supplies the birds for the Kinim
43)[line 47]לַבָּא בדמיהן שנו- our Mishnah is discussing one who wishes to offer a Korban with the value of the animal found [by transferring its Kedushah to two separate animals, one an Olah and the other a Shelamim - and not the offering of the animal itself] (see Insights for a detailed explanation of the give-and-take in this section of the Gemara)
44)[line 47]אומרים לו לאדם צֵא וּמְעוֹל בקדשים?- do we tell someone to go and transgress the prohibition against Me'ilah (see above, entry #40; see Insights)
45)[line 50]ואין השלמים באין מן הזכרים ומן הנקבות?- is it not true that both male and female animals be offered as Korbenos Shelamim [and why therefore does our Mishnah assume that a male animal found must be an Olah]?
46)[line 1]כְּמַה דאת אמר תַּמָן- just as you said over there
47)[line 2]מותרות- animals designated as public Korbenos Chatas that ended up being unnecessary as such (Mishnah 6b)
48)[line 2]כן אַתְּ אמר אוֹף הָכָא (הכא נמי)- so you may say here
49)[line 4]אין זה מֵזִיד?ֽ- is this not an intentional attempt to divest an animal designated as a Korban of its Kedushah, which accomplishes its aim only according to Rebbi Meir (Kidushin 53b)? This is a question upon the original statement of Rav Hoshaya, at the beginning of the Gemara; see Hagahos ha'Gra, and Insights.
50a)[line 6]עד דאַנָא תַּמָן- while I was still there [in Bavel]
b)[line 6]שַמְעִית קַל רב יהודה- I heard the voice of Rav Yehudah
51)[line 10]חוֹצֶה אותה- divide it in half
52a)[line 12]מקריב מֶחְצָה- [if a Kohen Gadol passes away in the middle of the day,] half [of his Asiris ha'Eifah] is offered [in the morning]
b)[line 12]ומחצה אבד- and the other half is lost; it cannot be used for any purpose. This does not seem to fit with the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, who maintains that the second half is not sanctified until the evening.
53)[line 13]אפילו מָעוֹת- The Gemara answers that Rebbi Yochanan's opinion, quoted above, is that even leftover money designated for the Kohen Gadol's Korban Minchah must be disposed of, even though it is not Kadosh; therefore, the second, unused half of this Korban is no better.
54)[line 14]נִמְצְאוּ שני חַצָאִין קְרֵיבִין ושני חצאין אַבוּדִין- [the above Beraisa continues to explain that if a replacement is designated for the deceased Kohen Gadol immediately, he must prepare a full Asiris ha'Eifah, but offer only the second half of it.] The end result is that two half-Korbanos are offered [that day], while two half-Korbanos are lost.
55a)[line 16]תְּעוּבָּר צוּרָתָן- see Background to 19:26
b)[line 16]בית השריפה- the place where invalidated Korbanos are burned (also known as the Beis ha'Deshen)
56)[line 17]עִשָׂרוֹן מְקַדֵש- the Isaron (the container which holds the Asiris ha'Eifah) automatically confers Kedushah upon it (it is therefore completely Kadosh from the time that is placed in the container according to this opinion)
57)[line 19]עשירית האיפה שלו(MINCHAS CHINUCH(
On the day upon which a Kohen first performs the service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, he offers a Korban Minchah. This Korban is identical to the Minchas Chavitin offered by the Kohen Gadol every day (see Background to 19:14)
58)[line 19]וְעוּבְדָה בידו- and he himself offers it
59)[line 21]בָּעִי מֵימַר- thought that it was logical to say
60)[line 23]לְחִינוּכוֹ- for *both* the obligation to offer a Minchas Chavitin due to that which it is his first day performing the Avodah, as well as that of his obligation to offer a Minchas Chavitin due to that which it is his first day performing the Avodah as a Kohen Gadol. The Bavli (Menachos 71a) concludes that the Halachah does not follow Rebbi Mana, and that each of these must be offered separately; therefore, in such a situation the Kohen Gadol must offer a total of *three* Asiriyos ha'Eifah.
61)[line 24]חובת היום- the obligation [of a Kohen Gadol to offer a Minchas Chavitin every] day
62)[line 24]"[עַל מַחֲבַת בַּשֶּׁמֶן תֵּעָשֶׂה מֻרְבֶּכֶת תְּבִיאֶנָּה,] תֻּפִינֵי [מִנְחַת פִּתִּים תַּקְרִיב רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַה']"- "It should be made on a pan with oil, you shall bring it scalded; a baked flour-offering, broken into pieces, shall you offer as a pleasing aroma to HaSh-m" (Vayikra 6:14).
63a)[line 24]בשעת הבאה תופיני- (a) you must bake when it is offered (RASH SIRILIO, KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) you may bake it when it is offered (RAV CHAYIM KANIEVSKY)
b)[line 25]ואין בשחרית תופיני- (a) do not bake the half offered in the morning before dawn (RASH SIRILIO, KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the half that is offered in the afternoon need not be baked in the morning (RAV CHAYIM KANIEVSKY)
64)[line 25]הֶעֶמִידוּ עוֹשִׂין חַבִיתִּין- those who made the Minchas Chavitin arose [before dawn]
65)[line 27]חַמִין לִרְבוּכָה- hot water necessary to boiling [the dough of the Minchas Chavitin]
66)[line 28]מְטַגְנָה- fry it
67a)[line 29]תֵּאָפֶינָה נָא- bake it when it is partly cooked (i.e. fried, since the frying process cooked the outside of the thick rolls but not their inside)
b)[line 30]תֵּאָפֶינָה נָאֶה- bake it when it is nice to look upon (as opposed to blackened from the frying pan)
c)[line 30]תֵּאָפֶינָה (רִיבָּה) [רַבָּה]- (a) bake it many times; it should be baked, fried and then baked again. This is not a derivation from the wording of the Pasuk like the previous two; rather, Rebbi Dosa understands "Tufinei" according to the understanding if *both* "Na" and "Na'eh." (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 1st explanation); (b) bake it when it is large (spread out from the frying pan, which is what constitutes "Na'eh"); i.e., after frying (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 2nd explanation); (c) according to the Girsa "תֵּאָפֶינָה רַכָּה" - bake it when it is soft [from the large quantity of oil in the frying pan, which is what constitutes "Na'eh"]; i.e., after frying (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 3rd explanation)
68)[line 31]אַתְיָין אִלֵין פְּלַגְוָותָא, כְּהִינֵין פלגוותא- the Machlokes of these Amora'im follows that of those Amora'im
69)[line 33]לא סוף דבר שמת- these laws (that a whole Isaron must be prepared for the second half of the Minchas Chavitin) apply not only when the Kohen Gadol has passed away
70a)[line 34](אלא) אפילו נטמא- (a) but even when he has become Tamei (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) [does the previous statement apply] even when he has become Tamei [and will return to the Avodah]? (TIKLIN CHADTIN, according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON, who is not Gores the word "Elah")
b)[line 34]ואפילו נִדְחֶה מִמוּם- (a) [does the previous statement apply] even when he has developed a permanent blemish that renders him forever unfit to perform the Avodah? (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) or only when he has developed a permanent blemish that renders him forever unfit to perform the Avodah? (TIKLIN CHADTIN, according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON)
71)[line 35]דבר דליה (דְבַּרְדְלַיָה)- from Bardilaya, a place near Lydda
72)[line 40]מִמִי שֶהַבְּרִיוֹת שלו- from He to whom all creatures belong (see Girsa Section #2)
73)[line 42]כָּלִיל לְהַקְטָרָה- it is completely burned
74)[line 43]מְחַלְפָה שִׁיטְתֵיה דר"ש- Rebbi Shimon has [apparently] changed his opinion!
75)[line 43]תמן אמר משל יורשין- (a) in our Mishnah he said that [as a result of a Rabbinic decree, the Korban must be paid for by public funds - which implies that mid'Oraisa it is paid for] by the late Kohen Gadol's inheritors (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on is: תמן אמר משל צבור דבר תורה - in the Beraisa quoted above he said that the Korban is paid for by public funds mid'Oraisa (TIKLIN CHADTIN)
76)[last line]והכא אמר משל ציבור?- (a) and in the Beraisa quoted above he said that the Korban is paid for by public funds [mid'Oraisa]? (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on is: והכא אמר מתנאי בית דין? - and in our Mishnah he said that it is a result of a Rabbinic decree? (TIKLIN CHADTIN)