ZEVACHIM 100 (10 Av) - Dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's mother, Mrs. G. Kornfeld, in memory of her father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel. Isi Turkel loved Torah and worked to support it with, literally, his last ounce of strength. He passed away on 10 Av 5740.

[100a - 37 lines; 100b - 36 lines]

1)[line 3] TOFES LEILO MID'ORAISA- "grabs" its [following] night [to make it prohibited for the Onen to eat Kodshim] mid'Oraisas

2a)[line 16]"[ ;] ""[VELA'ACHOSO HA'BESULAH HA'KEROVAH ELAV ASHER LO HAYESAH L'ISH;] LAH YITAMA"- "[And for his virgin sister who is next [of kin] to him who has had no husband;] for her he may become Tamei" (Vayikra 21:3).

b)[line 16] LAH YITAMA

(a)The Torah (Vayikra 21:1-4) forbids Kohanim from coming into contact with corpses while concurrently commanding them to handle the burial of certain relatives. Those relatives are the Kohen's mother, father, son, daughter, brother, sister from his father (if she is an unmarried virgin), and wife (if the wife is permitted to be married to him).

(b)If a Kohen is married to a woman with Kidushin mid'Rabanan (e.g. if she married him as a minor after her father died), her husband is allowed and required to handle her burial. (The Gemara (Yevamos 89b) concludes that the Kohen is actually permitted to bury her mid'Oraisa, even though she is only married to him with a Kidushin mid'Rabanan. Since the Kohen inherits her, nobody else will handle her burial, and therefore she is like a Mes Mitzvah - see below, entry #6 and Insights to Yevamos 89:1.)

(c)The prohibition to come into contact with a corpse applies only to male Kohanim who are not Chalalim. (However, immediately before, and during, the three pilgrimage holidays (Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos), every Jew, male or female, is commanded to be Tahor - RASHI, Yevamos 29b DH v'Lo Mitames.) The positive command to handle the burial of the seven relatives mentioned above (a) applies not only to Kohanim, but also to all Jews (see below, entry #15).

3)[line 19]V'NIMNU- and they took a vote [about him]

4)[line 20] HAREI SHE'HALACH- if it happened that he (a Kohen Gadol who is a Nazir) went

5)[line 22]"[, , , ] [ ; - ]""[L'AVIV, UL'IMO, L'ACHIV, UL'ACHOSO] LO YITAMA [LAHEM B'MOSAM; KI NEZER ELOKAV AL ROSHO]"- "He shall not make himself Tamei [for his father, or for his mother, for his brother, or for his sister, when they die - because the crown of HaSh-m is upon his head]" (Bamidbar 6:7).

6)[line 23] MES MITZVAH

(a)When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes Mitzvah. The person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8)

(b)The body must be buried where it is found; "Mes Mitzvah Koneh Mekomo" - it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of a field that belongs to someone else, it is buried there. (However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7).)

7)[line 29]RESHUS- it is optional

8a)[line 31]HA'KEROVIM- the relatives

b)[line 32]HA'RECHOKIM- non-relatives


9)[line 2] KODEM SHE'SHACHTU V'ZARKU ALAV- before they slaughtered and cast [the blood of the Korban Pesach] on his behalf

10)[line 4] MAH D'HAVAH HAVAH- (lit. whatever was, was) the event has passed and it cannot be changed (we are not worried that he will not offer his Korban Pesach, as was the worry of Abaye on Daf 100a, since his Korban Pesach has already been brought)

11)[line 5] ACHILAS PESACHIM ME'AKVA- not eating from the Korban Pesach prevents him from fulfilling the Mitzvah of offering the Korban Pesach

12)[line 6]TZAYIS- take heed

13)[line 6] ?MAI D'RABBAH BAR RAV HUNA?- What is the case of Rabbah bar Rav Huna (that Ravina mentioned)?

14a)[line 7] YOM SHEMU'AH- the day that one hears about the death of a close relative (within thirty days of the relative's death, which is known as a Shemu'ah Kerovah. A Shemu'ah Rechokah is the person hears about the death of a close relative after thirty days have passed since the relative's death.)

b)[line 8] K'YOM KEVURAH- is like the day of burial of a close relative

15)[line 8] L'MITZVAS SHIV'AH U'SHELOSHIM - for the Mitzvos of Shiv'ah and Sheloshim (AVEILUS: SHIV'AH U'SHELOSHIM)

(a)The seven relatives for whom one is obligated to mourn are one's father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter and wife. When any of these relatives die, one is obligated to bury the dead and observe the laws of Aninus (until the burial) and Aveilus (after the burial). For a discussion of the laws of Aninus, see Background to Zevachim 98:19.

(b)There are some laws of Aveilus that apply for seven days, some which apply for thirty days and others that apply for twelve months.

1.The laws that apply for seven days are refraining from bathing and washing clothes.

2.The laws that apply for thirty days are refraining from taking a haircut and from ironing clothes.

3.The laws that apply for twelve months (after the death of a parent) are refraining from buying new clothes and from attending weddings and other Semachos.

16)[line 8] UL'ACHILAS PESACHIM- and with regard to eating the Korban Pesach at night, [the Yom Shemu'ah (see above, entry #14a) is like the day of Likut Atzamos (see next entry)]

17)[line 9] K'YOM LIKUT ATZAMOS - is like the day of "the gathering of the bones" [for relocation] (LIKUT ATZAMOS)

The practice in the time of the Mishnah and Gemara was to first bury the dead in a moist deep place in order for the flesh to decompose quickly. After the body decomposed the bones were gathered and buried in a coffin in an honorable, dignified place, usually in the family burial cave (RASHI). It was permitted to move the bones because they were buried with the intention to move them later. The bones would only be moved after a year had passed. (ROSH to Moed Katan 1:10, based on the YERUSHALMI Moed Katan 1:5 and MASECHES SEMACHOS, i.e. EVEL RABATI Chapter 12)

18)[line 19] BEDUSA HI- it is fiction, i.e. a mistake

19)[line 19] MICHDI ALAH KAI- since we are dealing with these topics (Yom ha'Kevurah and Yom Likut Atzamos)

20)[line 19]" " "ZEH VA'ZEH" MIBA'I LEI- the Beraisa should have used the words "Zeh va'Zeh" to refer to Yom ha'Kevurah and Yom Likut Atzamos, instead of the words "Echad Zeh v'Echad Zeh"

21)[line 20]MIS'ONEN- dose he observe the practices of an Onen

22)[line 23] , ?HA KAVRO, ISHTERI LEI?- if he buries him (his relative), is he now permitted [in those things that are prohibited to an Onen on the day of death]?

23)[line 23]"[ , ; , ; ,] ""... V'ACHARISAH K'YOM MAR"- "[And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it like the mourning for an only son,] and its end like a bitter day" (Amos 8:10) - This prophecy reveals the punishment of a nation of sinners, comparing it to the day of death of an only son. (RASHI explains that it refers to the end of a person who takes a harlot, who eventually dies as a result of his licentious lifestyle, causing other to mourn his death, but his explanation is not accepted by the other Rishonim)

24)[line 26] []TARETZ [HACHI]- explain it [thusly]

25)[line 34]" ""HEN HA'YOM"- "these today" (Vayikra 10:19) - The Gemara take these words out of context to mean that "these [Korbanos that I offered] today [are different from the Korbanos of the coming generations. I am permitted to eat them tonight but in coming generations, Aninus Lailah will prohibit them from being eaten at night by a Kohen whose close relative died that day. At that time, there will be other Kohanim who were not Onenim who will be able to eat them.]"

26)[line 34] ANI HA'YOM ASUR- I, today, am prohibited