[50a - 36 lines; 50b - 46 lines]
1)[line 2]בנין אבBINYAN AV
In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" - father in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated in that subject to other comparable subjects.
2)[line 8]כלילKALIL- it shall be entirely offered; it was totally burned on the fires of the Mizbe'ach
3)[line 10]תיתי חדא מתרתיTEISI CHADA MI'TARTEI- the requirement of north of one of the three should be derived from the other two through a Tzad ha'Shaveh (see Background to Zevachim 44:12)
4)[line 16]בגזירה שוהB'GEZEIRAH SHAVAH
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b)A sage may use the method of Gezeirah Shavah only if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, in the event that he did not learn this directly from his teachers
5)[line 17]תודהTODAH (KORBAN TODAH)
7)[line 21]מעשר דגןMA'ASER DAGAN
8)[line 24]"[אם על תודה יקריבנו, והקריב על זבח התודה] חלות מצות [בלולת בשמן, ורקיקי] מצות [משחים בשמן], וסלת מרבכת חלות [בלולת בשמן]""[IM AL TODAH YAKRIVENU, V'HIKRIV AL ZEVACH HA'TODAH] CHALOS MATZOS [BELULOS BA'SHEMEN, U'REKIKEI] MATZOS [MESHUCHIM BA'SHAMEN], V'SOLES MURBECHES CHALOS [BELULOS BA'SHAMEN]"- "[If he offers it as a thanksgiving sacrifice, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving] loaves of Matzos [mixed with oil, and flat] Matzos [saturated with oil], and Matzos made of boiled flour [mixed with oil]" (Vayikra 7:12).
After a Korban Olah is slaughtered, it is skinned (Hefshet) and sectioned (Nitu'ach) and given to the Kohanim who were selected to offer that particular Olah (Vayikra 1:6). They all stand in one line, holding the limbs in a very specific arrangement (Yoma 26b). The Kohanim then take the sections to the Kevesh (the ramp of the Mizbe'ach) where they are salted. From there they are taken to the top of the Mizbe'ach to be burned.
The Pri Megadim (in his Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) quotes and discusses various explanations for the word Teiku:
1.It is sealed in its container ("Tik") (ARUCH, Erech Tik).
2.Tehei Ka'i - "Let it (the question) stand" (MUSAF HA'ARUCH).
3.Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - "Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions" (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos).
11)[line 31]וזהו קל וחומר בן קל וחומר בן בנו של קל וחומרV'ZEHU KAL VA'CHOMER BEN KAL VA'CHOMER BEN BENO SHEL KAL VA'CHOMER- and this is a Kal va'Chomer, the son of a Kal va'Chomer, and is actually the grandson of a Kal va'Chomer; i.e. if we would apply the Kal va'Chomer followed by a Kal va'Chomer to a matter of Kodshim, we would in effect be using three "generations" of Kal va'Chomer
12)[line 38]מלקMALAK - he performed Melikah (MELIKAH)
The first stage in the offering of a Chatas ha'Of (see Background to Zevachim 43:4) or an Olas ha'Of (see Background to Zevachim 44:5) is Melikah. The Kohen holds the bird in his right hand and pierces its neck from the back with his right thumbnail, (In the case of a Chatas, he makes sure to cut through one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but not to sever the entire neck of the bird - Vayikra 5:8).
13)[line 39]בית הבליעהBEIS HA'BELI'AH- the throat