[66a - 47 lines; 66b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1]נתעברהNIS'ABRAH- if an extra month was added to the year

2)[line 1]נתעברה למוכרNIS'ABRAH L'MOCHER- if it was a leap year, the advantage belongs to the seller. (Therefore, even if thirteen months have passed, the house does not become the permanent property of the buyer (see Background to 65:23) until one full solar year has passed. In contrast, according to Rebbi, the count is always 365 days, regardless of whether an extra month was added to the year, and thus it is possible that the sin-offering has not passed its first year by the next Yom Kippur.)

3)[line 2]פר מאי איכא למימרPAR, MAI IKA L'MEIMAR?- what will you say for the bull [that is purchased with the Kohen Gadol's personal funds]?

4)[line 5]כאילו היא עומדת בבית הקברותK'ILU HI OMEDES B'VEIS HA'KEVAROS- [if a sin-offering has passed its year, we view it] as if it were standing at the cemetery [where a Kohen cannot get to it, and it is left to graze until it becomes blemished and is then redeemed]

5)[line 7]תקלהTAKALAH- a stumbling block

6)[line 8]מעריכיןMA'ARICHIN (ERECH)

(a)An Erech (endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]," he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8. It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.

(b)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether his own or that of someone else:

1.For ages 1 month to 5 years - the Erech for males is 5 Shekalim and for females is 3 Shekalim

2.For ages 5 years to 20 years - the Erech for males is 20 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

3.For ages 20 yrs. to 60 years - the Erech for males is 50 Shekalim and for females is 30 Shekalim

4.For ages 60 years and older - the Erech for males is 15 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

7)[line 8]מחרימיןMACHRIMIN (CHEREM)

There are two types of Charamim (a type of vow or pledge):

1.Chermei Kohanim, which are given to the Kohanim for their personal use and cannot be redeemed from the Kohen;

2.Chermei Gavo'ah (or Chermei Shamayim), which are given to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Bedek ha'Bayis and can be redeemed like any other Hekdesh.

8)[line 10]תיעקרTEI'AKER- it should be uprooted (killed)

9)[line 10]כסותKESUS- clothing

10)[line 10]ירקבוYIRKEVU- they should [be left to] rot

11)[line 11]יוליך הנאה לים המלחYOLICH HANA'AH L'YAM HA'MELACH- the benefit he receives from them "should go to Yam ha'Melach," i.e. it must be destroyed

12)[line 14]דגיזה ועבודהGIZAH V'AVODAH

It is forbidden to shear or work with an animal that is Kodesh, as is learned from Devarim 15:19. Even if the animal develops a Mum (a blemish that invalidates it), this prohibition remains (Bechoros 15a, based on Devarim 12:15).

13a)[line 16]דלאו בני הקרבה נינהוD'LAV BNEI HAKRAVAH NINHU- those [animals which were designated as Korbanos but] which cannot to be offered

b)[line 16]לא טריד בהוLO TARID BEHU- one is not pre-occupied with them

14)[line 18]קרבן פסחPESACH (KORBAN PESACH)

(a)In the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon (Shemos 12:6). A Korban Pesach consists of an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year of life. The Korban may be slaughtered in any part of the Azarah (the inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash; see Zevachim 56b).

(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).

(c)One who is able to offer the Korban Pesach and neglects to do so receives the punishment of Kares. The Mitzvah of Korban Pesach is one of only two positive commandments punishable by Kares.

15)[line 19]יקרב בשניYIKRAV B'SHENI (PESACH SHENI)

If the Kohanim, the Klei Shares, or the majority of the Jewish people are Tamei Mes on the fourteenth day of Nisan, the Korban Pesach is brought b'Tum'ah. Otherwise, those who are Tahor bring it b'Taharah on the fourteenth of Nisan, while those individuals who are Temei'im bring their Korban the following month on Pesach Sheni (the fourteenth day of Iyar) and eat it the following evening.

16)[line 21]בפלוגתא דרבי ורבנןB'FELUGTA D'REBBI V'RABANAN- the Beraisos argue about how to calculate the year and thus about whether it is possible to use this animal next Pesach.

17)[line 25]וסומךSOMECH (SEMICHAH)

Semichah refers to the positive commandment to lean with all of one's might on the head of his sacrifice before it is slaughtered (Vayikra 1:4).

18a)[line 27]חטאוCHATU- they have committed unintentional sins

b)[line 27]עווAVU- they have committed intentional sins

c)[line 27]פשעוPASH'U- they have committed sins with the intent to rebel against HaSh-m

19)[line 33]בעזרהBA'AZARAH- the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash

20)[line 34]שם המפורשSHEM HA'MEFORASH- the four-letter Name) [the pronunciation of] the Shem ha'Meforash (the Holy Name of HaSh-m); the Tetragrammaton

21a)[line 35]כורעיםKOR'IM- bow by bending the knees

b)[line 35]ומשתחויםMISHTACHAVIM- bow by prostration on the ground

22)[line 39]קבעKEVA- established; i.e., the Kohanim established that only a Kohen, an not a non-Kohen, would lead the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach away

23)[line 41]ערסלאARSELA- the name of a person (who was a Yisrael and not a Kohen)

24)[line 41]וכבשKEVESH- a raised platform

25)[line 42]מתלשיםMETALSHIM- they would pull at and uproot [the hair of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach]

26)[line 43]טול וצאTOL V'TZEI- grab [it] and get out [of here fast]

27)[line 44]לא קאמרLO KA'AMAR- but he did not say, "The sons of Aaron, your holy people"

28)[last line]"[וְשִׁלַּח ביד] איש אתי""[V'SHILACH B'YAD] ISH ITI"- "and he shall send it [away] with a designated man" (Vayikra 16:21).


29)[line 1]מזומןMEZUMAN- designated. The person who takes out the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach must be appointed from before Yom ha'Kipurim.

30)[line 3]כפרה כתיבא ביהKAPARAH KESIVA BEI- [one might have thought that since] the term "Kaparah" is written in the verse, [even a Zar may send away the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach]

31)[line 5]שאם היה חולהSHE'IM HAYAH CHOLEH- that if the Sa'ir is ill, the Kohen may carry it [in a Reshus ha'Rabim]

32)[line 5]מרכיבו על כתפוMARKIVO AL KESEIFO (HOTZA'AH)

See Background to Eruvin 20:11.

33)[line 6]חי נושא את עצמוCHAI NOSEI ES ATZMO

(a)The Torah does not prohibit carrying live people (or animals, according to Rebbi Nasan) from one Reshus to another on Shabbos, because the live person "carries himself."

(b)The commentaries offer various explanations for why one is exempt for such an act of Hotza'ah. (The Gemara's statement that the live person "carries himself" is very ambiguous.) According to TOSFOS (Shabbos 95a DH she'ha'Chai as explained by KORBAN NESAN'EL on the Rosh, #6), this means that the act of carrying live objects is a different class of carrying. Since it was not done in the Mishkan, it is not included in the Melachah of Hotza'ah.

34)[line 8]עירובERUV (ERUVEI CHATZEROS)

See Background to Yoma 10:46.

35)[line 9]ואין עירוב והוצאה ליום הכפוריםEIN ERUV V'HOTZA'AH L'YOM HA'KIPURIM

(a)The laws of Eruvei Chatzeiros (see previous entry) and Hotza'ah (see above, entry #32) apply only to Shabbos and not to Yom ha'Kipurim (although the laws of Yom ha'Kipurim are otherwise just as stringent as the laws of Shabbos).

(b)TOSFOS DH Amar Rafram cites the Gemara in Temurah 14a where this opinion is refuted. According to the Halachah, Yom ha'Kipurim is no different from Shabbos with regard to Eruvei Chatzeiros and Hotza'ah.

36)[line 11]נטמא משלחו נכנס טמא לעזרה ומשלחוNITMA MESHALCHO, NICHNAS TAMEI LA'AZARAH U'MESHALCHO- that is, if the Ish Iti who was chosen from before Yom Kippur becomes Tamei, he may enter the Azarah while Tamei to send away the Sa'ir. (A new person may not be chosen in his place since the person who takes out the Sa'ir must be appointed from before Yom Kippur.)

37)[line 13]יכול הוא להרכיב אני ואתםYACHOL HU L'HARKIV ANI VA'ATEM- (a) it (the goat) is [strong and is] able to carry both me and you on its back (RASHI); (b) he (the Ish Iti) may carry both me and you on his back [since we are all healthy. He is not allowed to carry the goat if it is sick] (MAHARSHA).

38)[line 15]אהא בשלום אני ואתםEHEI V'SHALOM ANI VA'ATEM- (a) both you and I shall be in peace; i.e. we will not have to be the ones to send it (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa EHEI V'SHILU'ACH (with a Ches instead of a Mem Sofis) - both you and I may be [appointed by the Beis Din of Kohanim to stand in his place as] the messenger; [he, however, may not appoint another messenger on his own] (MAHARSHA)

39)[line 17]אמר להם, "כן יאבדו..."AMAR LAHEM, "KEN YOVEDU..."- (a) he said to them, "So may all Your enemies be destroyed, HaSh-m!" (Shoftim 5:31) (RASHI); (b) he said to them, "So may all Your enemies be destroyed, HaSh-m!" That is, it will certainly die from the fall; he need not descend to kill it, as the Mishnah states on 67a, "... and it was already cut into limbs before it fell halfway down the cliff." Accordingly, Rebbi Eliezer differs from the Chachamim in all three questions (MAHARSHA).

40)[line 21]פלוני מהו לעולם הבא?PELONI MAHU L'OLAM HA'BA?- What about so-and-so in the World to Come? The students' question may have referred to a certain person in their time, or to Shlomo ha'Melech (RASHI).

41)[line 21]לא שאלתוני אלא על פלוניLO SHE'ALTUNI ELA AL PELONI- perhaps you have not asked me except about so-and-so; i.e. about Avshalom (RASHI).

42)[line 22]מהו להציל (רועה) כבשה מן הארי?MAHU L'HATZIL (RO'EH) KIVSAH MIN HA'ARI?- was it necessary to save Bas Sheva from David ha'Melech? That is, do you agree with Rebbi Yonasan that all soldiers in the wars of David ha'Melech divorced their wives before they went out to battle, in which case Bas Sheva was not married? (RABEINU CHANANEL)

43)[line 24]מהו להציל הרועה מן הארי?MAHU L'HATZIL HA'RO'EH MIN HA'ARI?- was it necessary to save Uriyah from David ha'Melech? That is, do you rule that Uriyah committed treason when he mentioned Yoav before mentioned the king? (RABEINU CHANANEL)

44)[line 25]ממזרMAMZER

(a)There are prohibited marital relations that invalidate the ensuing offspring and render them Mamzerim. The Tana'im argue as to the nature of these prohibited relations. According to Rebbi Yehoshua, they must be relations that are punishable by Misas Beis Din. Rebbi Shimon ha'Timni rules that all relations that are punishable by Kares, even if they are not punishable by Misas Beis Din, produce a Mamzer. According to Rebbi Akiva, even relations that are prohibited by a Lav produce a Mamzer (Yevamos 49a). Other Tana'im argue regarding the opinion of Rebbi Akiva. There are those who assert that he rules that only relations prohibited by a Lav produce a Mamzer. Others hold that even those prohibited by an Aseh produce a Mamzer (except for a Kohen Gadol who has relations with a non-virgin - Kesuvos 30a). The Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon ha'Timni, that only relations punishable by Kares produce a Mamzer (Yevamos ibid.).

(b)A Mamzer is prohibited to marry into the community of HaSh-m, that is, Jewish people of unsullied lineage. He may, however, marry a Mamzeres and a Giyores (MISHNAH Kidushin 69a). The Tana'im and Amora'im argue as to whether a Safek Mamzer is prohibited mid'Oraisa to marry both a Mamzeres and a Jewess of unsullied lineage, because of the doubt, or whether he is permitted mid'Oraisa to marry either of them, since he is not included in the category of Mamzer that the Torah prohibited (Yevamos 37a, Kidushin 73a, 74a).

45a)[line 26]מה הוא לירש?MAH HU L'YARESH?- does a Mamzer inherit?

b)[line 26]מהו ליבם?MAHU L'YABEM?- may a Mamzer perform Yibum?

46a)[line 26]מהו לסוד את ביתו?MAHU LASUD ES BEISO?- may one plaster (whitewash) his house [in the present day, while the Beis ha'Mikdash is destroyed]?

b)[line 27]מהו לסוד את קברו?MAHU LASUD ES KIVRO?- may one plaster (whitewash) his grave?

47)[line 27]לא מפני שהפליגן בדבריםLO MIPNEI SHE'HIFLIGAN BI'DEVARIM- [he answered them evasively] not because he desired to divert their attention with words [out of ignorance of the answer]

48)[line 32]בפלךPELECH- spindle

49)[line 33]"וכל אשה חַכְמַת לב בידיה טוו""V'CHOL ISHAH CHACHMAS LEV B'YADEHA TAVU"- "And every woman who was wise-hearted did spin with her hands" (Shemos 35:25).

50a)[line 34]זיבח וקיטר בסייףZIBE'ACH V'KITER B'SAYIF- if he slaughtered and burned [an animal, then he was punished] with Sayif (death by beheading)

b)[line 34]גפף ונישק במיתהGIPEF V'NISHEK B'MISAH- if he embraced (hugged)

c)[line 35]בהדרוקןHIDROKAN- (a) a swelling and sickness of the stomach (Shabbos 33a); (b) a disease of the mouth (Rashi Eruvin 41) - this explanation does not appear in the manuscripts (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #8)

51)[line 36]והתראהHASRA'AH

(a)If a person transgresses a Lav for which the punishment is the death penalty or lashes, he can only be put to death or lashed if he has been given a proper Hasra'ah (warning). The warning must be, "Abstain, because this action is prohibited and you will be punished with the death penalty (or with lashes) for doing it," or something to that effect. The warning must specifically name the Lav or Av Melachah that the person is about to transgress.

(b)The Gemara here discusses why various members of Klal Yisrael received different death penalties for the sin of the Eigel ha'Zahav. One opinion says that the punishments varied based on the level of warning given.

52)[line 38]"ויעמד משה בשער המחנה ויאמר מי לה' אלי; ויאספו אליו כל בני לוי""VA'YA'AMOD MOSHE B'SHA'AR HA'MACHANEH VA'YOMER MI LA'SH-M ELAI, VA'YE'ASFU ELAV KOL BNEI LEVI"- "Then Moshe stood at the gate of the camp and said, 'Who is on G-d's side, come to me!' And all of the Levites gathered unto him" (Shemos 32:26).

53)[line 40]"האומר לאביו ולאמו לא ראיתיו...""HA'OMER L'AVIV UL'IMO 'LO RE'ISIV' ..."- "Who said of his father and of his mother, 'I have not seen him' ..." (Devarim 33:9).

54)[line 42]אלכסנדרייםALECHSANDERIYIM- people who came from Alexandria, Egypt

55)[line 42]ומתוך ששונאים את הבבלייםUMI'TOCH SHE'SON'IM ES HA'BAVLIYIM- the term "Babylonian" was used derogatorily because of the Jews' hatred of that people

56a)[line 45]מה שהי צפירא דיןMAH SHAHI TZEFIRA DEIN- why is this goat lingering

b)[line 45]וחובי דרא סגיאיןV'CHOVEI DARA SAGI'IN- while the sins of the generation [that are upon it] are numerous?

57)[line 45]מיקירי ירושליםMI'YEKIREI YERUSHALAYIM- some of the dignitaries of Yerushalayim

58)[last line]צוקTZUK- the precipice from which the goat was pushed off, as it states in the verse, "v'Nasa ha'Sa'ir Alav Es Kol Avonosam El Eretz Gezeirah" - "And the goat shall bear upon it all their iniquities to a land of cliffs and crags" (Vayikra 16:22).