[a - 41 lines; b - 24 lines]
1)[line 1]הכל מודיםHA'KOL MODIM ...- In Temurah (23a), the Gemara discusses one who lost the animal that he had designated as a Chatas and therefore consecrated a second animal, only to find the first before actually offering the second. Rebbi rules that one should be offered as a Chatas and the other left to die, as one of the five Chata'os that are left to expire is a Chatas whose owner has atoned with a different animal (see Background to 62:14). The Chachamim maintain that this is only applicable when the animal is not found until after the atonement has been achieved. In this case, one should be offered as a Chatas and the other left to graze until it develops a Mum, at which point it should be sold to fund Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach (see Background to 62:13). Rebbi Aba says in the name of Rav that this Machlokes applies only to the second animal, when the first Korban was offered. If the second Korban was offered, then everyone agrees that the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Chata'os ha'Mesos applies. In the case of our Mishnah, the remaining goat from the first pair is as if it had been lost and then recovered, since it was temporarily unfit for sacrifice when it stood alone. The Chachamim in the Mishnah state that the unused goat is left to graze only because it is a communal Chatas, implying that a privately owned Chatas in a similar state would be left to die. This fits with the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, who maintains that the goat under discussion is the remaining goat of the first pair, according to the assertion of Rebbi Aba.
2)[line 2]הוה ליה כמפריש שתי חטאות לאחריותHAVAH LEI MAFRISH SHTEI CHATA'OS L'ACHRAYUS
(a)If one is concerned that he may lose the animal which he has consecrated as a Korban Chatas, he may choose to designate a second such animal to serve as a backup (Achrayus). If, indeed, the first animal is lost, then the second one may be offered as the Chatas in its stead.
(b)Should the first animal be offered as a the Chatas without mishap, then a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that the second animal must be left to graze until it develops a Mum (blemish), at which point it is sold to fund Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach (see Background to 62:13).
(c)Rav maintains that the Chachamim in our Mishnah refer to the extra goat in the second pair when stating that it must be left to graze. Even according to the opinion of Rebbi, this goat should be left to graze even if it had been privately owned, since it had never been rendered unfit as a Korban even temporarily. It is comparable to a Chatas that had been designated as such for the purpose of Achrayus.
3)[line 6]מעיקרא כמפריש לאיבוד דמיME'IKARA K'MAFRISH L'IBUD DAMI- [the animal was] originally [designated] based upon the assumption that it would [not be offered and would therefore have to] be left to die [were it privately owned, in which case it is comparable to the second animal about which Rebbi and the Chachamim disagree. Rav understands the Mishnah according to the opinion of Rebbi (Temurah 23a)]
4)[line 12]לרבי יהודה, במאי מיכפר?L'REBBI YEHUDAH, B'MAI MICHAPER?- with what shall he atone with according to Rebbi Yehudah? [It cannot be with the remaining animal or blood from the first pair, since Rebbi Yehudah clearly states his opinion that Ba'alei Chayim Nidachin at the end of the Mishnah!]
5)[line 13]רבי יהודה אשני שבזוג ראשון קאיREBBI YEHUDAH A'SHENI SHEB'ZUG RISHON KA'I- Rebbi Yehudah is referring to the extra goat of the first pair [when he says that it must be left to die]. At this point it is clear that there are two disagreements between the Chachamim and Rebbi Yehudah according to Rav: 1. Regarding the remaining goat of the first pair, the Chachamim rule that it should be used in the Avodah, while Rebbi Yehudah maintains that it must be left to die, and 2. The Chachamim rule that the extra goat of the second pair should be left to graze, while Rebbi Yehudah maintains that this is the one used in the Avodah.
6)[line 14]ואיכא דקא מותיב הכיV'IKA D'KA MOSIV HACHI- and there are some who ask [the question from the words "v'Od Amar Rebbi Yehudah ... (64b)] thusly [to be on the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, and not that of Rav]
7a)[line 17]בחטאת צבורB'CHATAS TZIBUR- [whether or not] a Chatas belonging to the Tzibur [is left to expire (see Background to 62:14)]
b)[line 18]בבעלי חייםB'BA'ALEI CHAYIM- [whether or not] live animals [are forever rejected (see Background to 64:5)]
8a)[line 21]דאכתי לא איתעביד מצותיהD'AKATI LO IS'AVID MITZVASEI- for its [main] Mitzvah [of being sprinkled inside the Kodesh ha'Kodashim etc.] has not yet been accomplished
b)[line 21]הא איתעביד ליה מצותיהHA IS'AVID LEI MITZVASEI!- its [main] Mitzvah [of being selected in the Goral] has been accomplished! (The lack of sending the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach - and even the lack of Viduy recited over it, according to Rebbi Yehudah - do not cause the Sa'ir to be invalidated.)
9)[line 27]שקליהןSHIKLEIHEN (SHEKALIM)
(a)Many sacrifices are offered on behalf of the public in the Beis ha'Mikdash, such as the daily Temidim and the Korbenos Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals. The funds used to purchase the animals for these Korbanos are taken from a treasury known as the Terumas ha'Lishkah. Every Jewish male, regardless of whether he lives in Eretz Yisrael or the Golah or how wealthy he is, is required by the Torah to contribute one half-Shekel annually to this Lishkah.
(b)These half Shekalim are collected prior to Rosh Chodesh Nisan, in order that the Korbanos of each year (which begins with the month of Nisan with regard to Korbanos) would be purchased from the money collected for that year. One month earlier, on the first of Adar, Beis Din would begin the drive to collect the Shekalim (see Insights to 2a). Despite this early effort, some commentaries maintain that some Shekalim would not arrive until following Rosh Chodesh Nisan. Others understand that all of the Shekalim would arrive by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, as the collection from areas distant from Yerushalayim began earlier in the year. This appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi as well (Daf 2a; see Mishnas Eliyahu 2b).
(c)The RAMBAM maintains that this yearly donation was not fixed at exactly half a Shekel; it was set as half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (basic monetary unit in use at the time). If, however, the value of the Matbe'a ha'Yotzei was less than the value of one half-Shekel, then a larger coin was required. The RA'AVAD and RAMBAN, however, are of the opinion that the value of the half-Shekel remains constant.
(d)The Shekel in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which is that referred to by the Torah in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel" (Shemos 30:13), is equivalent to the Sela prevalent during the period when the Gemara was written. Half of such a Shekel, then, is half a Sela, or two Dinarim. People began referring to a half-Sela coin as a "Shekel," due to that which they "gave it" ("Shoklim" Oso) annually in fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel (RAMBAN ibid.).
10)[line 28]תרומהTERUMAH- the Terumas ha'Lishkah; see Background to 62:3
11)[line 28]גזבריןGIZBARIN- treasurers
12)[line 31]עוליןOLIN- count
13)[line 34]חובות של שנה זו קריבות לשנה הבאהCHOVOS SHEL SHANAH ZU KEREIVOS L'SHANAH HA'BA'AH- that designated [in order to fulfill one's obligation for] the current year may be used [to fulfill his obligation] for the coming year
14)[line 37]שעירי ע"זSE'IREI AVODAH ZARAH
(a)If the Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) issues a ruling in error permitting idolatry, and those in Eretz Yisrael - either the majority of Klal Yisrael or most of the Shevatim - act upon their ruling, then they must offer Se'irei Avodah Zarah to atone for the nation. This Korban consists of twelve bulls offered as Korbenos Olah, along with twelve goats offered as Korbenos Chatas - one on behalf of each Shevet. (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b)After their slaughter, the blood of each goat is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal toward the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, while the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the goats are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry their carcasses out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon [Yoma 67b], those involved with burning the goats are also Metamei Begadim.)
15)[line 38]כולן ימותו: דברי רבי יהודהKULAN YAMUSU: DIVREI REBBI YEHUDAH- Rebbi Yehudah rules that the leftover Korbanos from Yom ha'Kipurim are left to expire, instead of leaving them over to the following year. This contradicts the explanation of Rava in the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah earlier.
16)[line 3]"... זֹאת עֹלַת חֹדֶשׁ בְּחָדְשׁוֹ, לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה.""... ZOS OLAS CHODESH B'CHODSHO, [L'CHODSHEI HA'SHANAH]"- "... this is the Olah offering of each month [that is to be offered] in its respective month, [for the months of the year]" (Bamidbar 28:14). This verse follows the description of the Musaf offerings of Rosh Chodesh.
17)[line 4]חדש והבא לי קרבן מתרומה חדשהCHADESH V'HAVEI LI KORBAN MI'TERUMAH CHADASHAH- [there is a month when you should] renew and bring me [public] offerings from the new Shekalim
18)[line 5]פר, מאי איכא למימר?PAR, MAI IKA L'MEIMAR?- what will you say for the bull [that is purchased with the Kohen Gadol's personal funds]?
19)[line 8]מצוה היאMITZVAH HI- (in this context) a preferred action, although not one that invalidates if not performed
20)[line 16]גזירה משום חטאת שמתו בעליהGEZEIRAH MISHUM CHATAS SHE'MESU BE'ALEHA- it is a decree for fear that a) the Kohen Gadol who purchased this bull will die over the course of the following year, and that people will not then realize that it is a Chatas she'Mesu Be'aleha (see Background to 62:14) (RASHI); b) any Kohen may die. They are all considered to be "owners" of the Par since it atones for them all. (TOSFOS)
21)[line 17]שעיר, מאי איכא למימר?SA'IR, MAI IKA L'MEIMAR?- what will you say for the goat [whose owners can never die, since it is a public Korban (see Background to 62:14)]
22)[line 20]גזירה? היא גופה חטאת שעברה שנתה היא!GEZEIRAH? HI GUFA CHATAS SHE'AVRAH SHENASAH HI!- a decree [that perhaps such a thing will happen? By definition,] such an animal [left from one Yom ha'Kipurim to the next] is a Chatas that is more than a year old!
23)[line 22]"... שָׁנָה תְמִימָה ...""... SHANAH SEMIMAH ..." (BATEI AREI CHOMAH)
(a)Houses located in a city that had been walled at the time of Yehoshua's conquest of Eretz Yisrael are termed Batei Arei Chomah. If one sells such a house, he has the right to purchase it back within one year of selling it. If he does not redeem it during that time, then it is "Chalut" (becomes the permanent property of) the purchaser (Vayikra 25:29-30; see Charts to Erchin #4, sections 4a and 4b.)
(b)The term used to describe the period of one year is "Shanah Temimah" - a complete year. The Tana'im disagree as to the implication of this phrase. Whatever the phrase means, it also refers to the length of time that defines a year when measuring the age of a Korban (TOSFOS YESHANIM).
24)[line 23]כמנין ימות החמהK'MINYAN YEMOS HA'CHAMAH- like the days in a solar year [-- 365 - which is eleven days more than that of a regular lunar year]