YOMA 58 (28 Sivan) - Dedicated in memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev [ben Rav Avrohom Tzvi] Gustman zt"l, Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivas Netzach Yisrael-Ramailes (Vilna, Brooklyn, Yerushalayim), author of Kuntresei Shi'urim, and renowned Dayan in pre/post-war Vilna, on the occasion of his Yahrzeit. Dedicated by his Talmidim, Harav Eliezer Stern of Brooklyn, New York, and Dr. Yehoshua Daniel of Efrat.

[a - 30 lines; b - 33 lines]

1)[line 5] ACHAS V'LO SHTAYIM MI'DAM HA'PAR...- a) once [applied to the Mizbe'ach] and not twice from the blood of the Par, and once [applied to the Mizbe'ach] and not twice from the blood of the Sa'ir; b) even in a situation in which the blood of the Par or Sa'ir spilled before the applications were finished and another had to be offered, the applications continue from where they left off and were not restarted (TOSFOS YESHANIM, RITVA)

2)[line 12]MIZRAK- a [sanctified] bowl [used to collect the Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) of a slaughtered Korban]


(a)Certain Mitzvos require that there be no Chatzitzah (intervening substance) between the person performing the Mitzvah and the substance with or in which the action is performed. One example of such a Mitzvah is Tevilah (immersion in a Mikvah), in which the person's skin must be in contact with the water. Another is the Avodah (divine service) performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash, during which no substance may intervene between the Kohen and his Bigdei Kehunah (see Background to 39:57), the Kli Shares (sanctified utensil) which is required to perform the Avodah, or between his bare feet and the sanctified floor of the Azarah.

(b)A question dealt with by the Amora'im in numerous places is whether or not Min b'Mino (a like item or substance) constitutes a Chatzitzah or not. One such example is one Mizrak inside another. The blood is collected in the inner Mizrak, while the Kohen is holding the outer Mizrak.

4a)[line 15]HOSHIV- placed

b)[line 16]IRA- poured

5)[line 17] KEDEI L'ARVAN YAFEH YAFEH- [the blood was then poured from the container which now held all of the mixed blood back into the empty one] in order to mix them thoroughly

6)[line 18] HAYAH OMED...- This Mishnah (Zevachim 15b) discusses the performance of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Our Gemara points out that the bare foot of one Kohen acts as a Chatzitzah between the bare foot of another Kohen and the floor of the Azarah, which implies that even Min b'Mino Chotzetz.

7)[line 20] D'LO MATZI MAVTIL LEI- for [the Kohen whose foot is below] is unable to view [his foot] as subordinate [to the top Kohen's foot while performing Avodah, since he, too, must be on the standing on that floor]

8)[line 21] DERECH SHEIRUS B'CHACH?- [even if there is no issue of Chatzitzah,] is this considered the proper manner in which to perform Avodah?

9)[line 22]"[] ...""[V'LAKCHU] ES KOL KLEI HA'SHARES ASHER YESHARSU VAM BA'KODESH..."- "[And they shall take] all of the sanctified utensils through which they shall serve in the Kodesh..." (Bamidbar 4:12). Although multiple utensils are implied, the word "serve" implies a single service.

10)[line 25]SIV- the fibrous tendril-like part of a date palm, which encircles it just below its surface

11)[line 27]D'MECHALCHEL- it is absorbent


(a)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah (see Background to 2:6) and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

(b)The water for the Mei Chatas must be drawn directly from a stone vessel; no Chatzitzah is allowed. The Mishnah (Parah 6:3) states that if a sponge lies in the bowl, then all of the water above it may be used for Mei Chatas. It is clear that although the water in the sponge is invalid, the sponge itself does not act as a Chatzitzah between the Kli and the water above it. Since it is absorbent, water is between it and the bottom of the Kli, and the sponge is therefore Halachically considered as if it is in the middle of the Kli.

13)[line 29]KELISHI- thin

14)[last line] B'KOMETZ PASUL (KEMITZAH)

(a)Korbenos Minchah are offerings that contain flour. In all private Menachos, a Kometz of the offering is burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since the Korban Minchah is in the category of Korbanos known as Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Zevachim 104:29).

(b)A Kometz is defined as that which can be held between the middle three fingers and the palm. The Kohen places his hand in the mixture and removes one handful. He then wipes away the excess extending beyond his three middle fingers using his thumb and pinky until only the Kometz remains. This is described in the Torah as, "And he shall remove from it with his three-fingered fistful..." (Vayikra 6:8).

(c)The Kometz must be placed in a Kli Shares (sanctified vessel) in order to attain its status as a Kometz and allow the rest of the Korban Minchah to be eaten. Since it is not a liquid, it will not be absorbed into or seep under an intervening substance in the Kli. Therefore, if Siv or any other such Chatzitzah was in the Kli, then the Kometz has not yet been sanctified.


15)[line 1]" ', [ ...]""V'YATZA EL HA'MIZBE'ACH ASHER LI'FNEI HASH-M..."- "And he shall go out to the Mizbe'ach which is before HaSh-m [and atone upon it, and he shall take from the blood of the bull and the blood of the goat and place it all around, on the corners of the Mizbe'ach]" (Vayikra 16:18).

16)[line 1] MIZBE'ACH HA'ZAHAV- TY #71; The Amah-by-Amah golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal, upon which the Ketores (see Background to 38:17) was burned

17)[line 1] MECHATEI V'YORED- a) to apply the blood [to the Keranos of the Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav] in a downward motion [as he walked to each one, so as not to soil the sleeve of his Kutones with the bottom of the trail of blood] (RASHI); b) to walk around the Mizbe'ach (TOSFOS YESHANIM); c) to purify the Mizbe'ach as he walked around it (RI, cited in the TOSFOS YESHANIM, TOSFOS YOM TOV)


(a)The blood which exits the body of every Korban following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). In the case of a Chatas, it is then applied to the sides of all four Keranos (cubic Amah posts placed upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach). The Kohen begins with the southeastern Keren and proceeds to his right, continuing with the northeastern corner, etc.

(b)It is through this service that atonement is gained for he who offers the Chatas. This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Ki ha'Dam Hu, ba'Nefesh Yechaper" - "for it is the blood that will atone for the soul" (Vayikra 17:11).

19)[line 6] TAHARO SHEL MIZBE'ACH- the top of the Mizbe'ach


(a)The outer Mizbe'ach in the Beis ha'Mikdash, also known as the Mizbach ha'Olah (TY #47), consists of three square concrete and stone platforms placed one atop the other. The base (Yesod) measures thirty-two Amos square by one Amah high. (The Yesod did not full extend around the entire Mizbe'ach; see (b) below.) The middle platform measures thirty Amos square by five Amos high. The upper platform upon which the sacrifices were burned (termed the "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah" by the Rambam), was twenty-eight Amos square by three Amos high. A Keren (lit. horn) - a block measuring one Amah cubed - was placed upon each corner of the upper platform (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8). The Amos with which the Mizbe'ach is measured consist of five Tefachim (Menachos 97a).

(b)The Yesod protruded for one Amah along the entire northern and western sides. It protruded for the length of only one Amah to the south of the southwest corner and one Amah to the east of the northeast corner, however. As such, there was no Yesod on the southeastern corner. The blood of many Korbanos was dashed upon the flank of the Mizbe'ach above the Yesod, from which point it ran down the side to the Yesod (Midos 36a, Mishnah 2; Zevachim 37a, based upon Vayikra 5:9). What remained of this blood was poured directly onto the Yesod (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra 4:7; etc.).

21)[line 7] SHEL MIZBE'ACH HA'CHITZON- [the blood of] those [Korbenos Chatas] offered upon the outer Mizbe'ach

22)[line 8]AMAH- the Amah-high, Amah-wide channel of water running through the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash

23)[line 8] NACHAL KIDRON- the name of a valley to the south of Yerushalayim

24)[line 8]GANANIN- gardeners

b)[line 8]ZEVEL- fertilizer

25)[line 8] MO'ALIN BAHEN (ME'ILAH)

(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" ("You may not eat in your settlements... your pledges that you will pledge" - Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.

(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he receives Malkus and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.

(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances.

(d)Our Mishnah teaches that the restrictions of Me'ilah apply to the blood of the Chata'os that washed out to Nachal Kidron.


(a)If the Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) issues a ruling in error permitting a transgression that is punishable by Kares, and those in Eretz Yisrael - either the majority of Klal Yisrael or most of the Shevatim - act upon their ruling, then they must offer a Par He'elem Davar to atone for the nation. This Korban consists of twelve bulls offered as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each tribe. If the sin committed was that of idolatry, then the Korban differs and is termed Se'irei Avodas Kochavim (see next entry; RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).

(b)After their slaughter, the blood of each bull is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal toward the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, while the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bulls are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry the carcasses out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon [Yoma 67b], those involved with burning the Paros are also Metamei Begadim.)

(d)If a Kohen Gadol unintentionally transgresses a sin that is punishable by Kares, he must offer a bull as a Korban Chatas. This known as a Par Kohen Mashi'ach. It is treated in the same manner as the bulls of a Par He'elem Davar.

27)[line 10] CHUTZ LA'MIZBE'AVH- on the outside of the Mizbe'ach [ha'Zahav]; that is, between the Mizbe'ach and the opening to the Heichal, as opposed to between the Mizbe'ach and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

28)[line 12]"[ ] ' [ ]""... LI'FNEI HASH-M..."- "[And he shall sprinkle from the blood seven times] before HaSh-m [in front of the curtain over the Kodesh ha'Kodashim]" (Vayikra 4:6;17). This verse appears in a nearly identical fashion regarding both the Par Kohen Mashi'ach and the Par He'elem Davar.

29)[line 17]... . ...DIVREI REBBI AKIVA. REBBI YOSI HA'GELILI OMER...- Rebbi Akiva agrees with Rebbi Yehudah (51b), who maintains that there were two curtains separating the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim in the second Beis ha'Mikdash. Therefore, the outer one was open on the southern side. Since this was the side that the Kohen Gadol found himself on, this was the side of the Mizbe'ach that he started applying the blood to. Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili, however, agrees with Rebbi Yosi that there was only one curtain, open on the northern side. Therefore, the Kohen started from the northeastern corner.

30)[line 21] B'HAHU KEREN D'PAGA B'REISHA- with that corner which he meets up with first (i.e., the southeastern one according to Rebbi Akiva and the northeastern one according to Rebbi Yosi)


(a)Shlomo ha'Melech built a large, heavily ornamented Mikvah in the Beis ha'Mikdash for the use of the Kohanim. It measured ten Amos in diameter, and was five Amos tall. The lower three Amos of the pool were squared off, whereas the top two were in the shape of a circle. The water of the Mikvah was connected to the channel of water flowing through the Beis ha'Mikdash, thus rendering it kosher for immersion. The pool rested upon twelve copper bulls, as the Pasuk describes: "Standing upon twelve bulls - three facing northward, three facing westward, three facing southward, and three facing eastward - and the pool was suspended above them, and their haunches faced inward (Divrei ha'Yamim II 4:4; Melachim I 7:25).

(b)Each direction mentioned in the verse is listed to the right of the direction before it.

32)[line 26] DERECH YEMIN L'MIZRACH- to the right, eastward. This is a borrowed term; it applies to the service performed upon the Mizbe'ach, which is approached from its ramp on the southern side of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It is the standard way to refer to Avodah performed when turning to the right, even when west is to the right as in this case.

33a)[line 29]PNIM- [the application of blood to the] inner [Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav]

b)[line 29]MI'CHUTZ- [the application of blood to the] outer [Mizbe'ach]


(a)One should not let the opportunity to perform a Mitzvah pass him by. Even if plans on performing that very Mitzvah with a different person or object, he should seize the first chance presented to him and not wait for later.

35)[last line]L'MEISAV- to place [blood]