YOMA 51 - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter, Shifra, and family. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael be preserved in all of his descendants.

[a - 21 lines; b - 35 lines]


(a)Every first-born male offspring of an ox, goat or sheep is Kadosh when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for he who owns the animal to sanctify it by verbally declaring it to have the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one is Makdish a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may be eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.

(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum, it becomes the property of the Kohen and it is slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen may give it away or sell it - even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner, nor may it be redeemed with money.

(d)When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

2)[line 1]מעשרMA'ASER (MA'ASAR BEHEMAH)

(a)The Torah states, "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m" - "And all of the cattle and flocks of sheep and goats shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod; the tenth one shall be consecrated to Hash-m" (Vayikra 27:32). Once a year, one must designate every tenth Kosher animal born into his herd/flock over the course of the previous year as Ma'asar Behemah. This is accomplished by gathering all of each type of animal born in the previous year into a corral. They are then made to leave the corral in a single-file line through a narrow opening. Their owner stands by and counts them, marking every tenth one.

(b)Animals designated as Ma'asar Behemah are eaten by their owner. If they are unblemished, they are offered as a Korban Shelamim (see Background to 6:38) and eaten by their owner in Yerushalayim. If they have a Mum, their owner may slaughter and eat them as he would any Kosher animal.

3)[line 3]ומאי שנא?U'MAI SHNA?- and what is the difference [between "Temurah", which refers to all animals of Temurah, and "Zevach", which refers to a specific Korban]?

4)[line 3]שם תמורה אחת היאSHEM TEMURAH ACHAS HI- [all animals that receive their Kedushah through] Temurah are equal [with regard to the Halachos stated here]

5)[line 7]אין שוחטין הפסח על היחידEIN SHOCHTIN HA'PESACH AL HA'YACHID- a Korban Pesach may not be slaughtered for an individual. This is the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah (Pesachim 91a). Therefore, a Pesach cannot make a Temurah, since only a Korban belonging to an individual will confer Kedushah upon its Temurah.

6)[line 8]פסח שניPESACH SHENI

(a)The Torah states, "Any man who is Tamei Mes, or who is far away ... [who wishes to] make a Pesach for Hash-m. In the second month, on the fourteenth day in the afternoon they shall make it; together with Matzah and Maror they shall eat it" (Bamidbar 9:10-11).

(b)The Gemara explains that this verse refers not only to one who was Tamei with Tum'as Mes, but also to one who cannot eat a Korban Pesach due to Tum'ah of any kind. The Gemara defines one who is "far away" as one who is more than fifteen Mil away from the walls of Yerushalayim on midday of Erev Pesach. The Gemara concludes that the Halachah of Pesach Sheni applies to nearly anyone who is unable to offer the Korban Pesach on Pesach Rishon (the fourteenth of Nisan; see Pesachim 93a-b).

(c)As the above verse states, the Korban Pesach Sheni is offered on the fourteenth of Iyar. There is discussion among the commentaries whether the Pesach Sheni should be offered specifically after the afternoon Korban Tamid, or whether it may be offered even before the Korban Tamid. (See Tosfos to Yoma 29a, DH Ela, and Sha'ar ha'Melech 3:9.)

7)[line 9]מי דחי טומאה?MI DACHI TUM'AH?- does [Pesach Sheni] push off Tum'ah? This is a theoretical question; the intention of the Gemara is that Rav Sheshes concurs with the opinion that Pesach Sheni indeed does not defer Tum'ah. This is the subject of a Machlokes Tana'im, which the Gemara will soon quote.

8)[line 10]ותנאV'TANA- and the Tana [Rebbi Meir, quoted on 50a]

9)[line 12]בכנופיאB'CHENUFYA- amongst a multitude of people [since it is offered during the festivals, when all of Klal Yisrael is congregated in Yerushalayim]

10a)[line 14]אם כןIM KEN- if the "Pesach" referred to by Rebbi Meir includes Pesach Sheni

b)[line 14](יהא) דוחה את השבת ואת הטומאה(YEHEI) DOCHEH ES HA'SHABBOS V'ES HA'TUM'AH?- [is it accurate to state that] "The offering [of the Korban Pesach] defers both Shabbos and Tum'ah"? [Pesach Sheni may not be offered by individuals who are Tamei!]

11a)[line 19]מפני טומאה דחיתוMIPNEI TUM'AH DECHISO- because he was Tamei [at the time of Pesach Rishon] he was pushed away

b)[line 19]ויעשה בטומאה?!V'YE'ASEH B'TUM'AH?!- shall he now offer [Pesach Sheni] when he is Tamei?!

12)[line 20]ואפילו בטומאהVA'AFILU B'TUN'AH- This assertion of Rebbi Yehudah is one based upon logic, as he goes on to explain, and is not derived from any extraneous wording or implication of the verse. This is apparent from that which the verse is altogether left out of Rebbi Yehuda's explanation in Pesachim (95b).


13)[line 1]ותיפוק לי (ליה)V'TEIPUK (LI) [LEI]- [Why was Rebbi Elazar unsure of whether Rebbi Meir considers all Kohanim to be equal partners in the bull of the Kohen Gadol ("b'Kevi'usa Mischapri) or not (b'Kufya Mischapri;" 50b)?] let him prove [that they are b'Kufya Mischapri] from the following

14)[line 1]ד"אשר לו" אמר רחמנאD"ASHER LO" AMAR RACHMANA- The words "Asher Lo" are written three times regarding the bull offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim (Vayikra 16:6;11)

15)[line 7]שובSHUV- again

16)[line 7]שנהSHANAH- repeated

17)[line 9]בי גזא דאהרןBEI GAZA AHARON- the treasury of Aharon; i.e., the Par of the Kohen Gadol

18)[line 13]היכלHEICHAL- (TY #67) the Sanctuary

19)[line 14]שתי הפרוכתSHTEI HA'PAROCHOS- (TY #73) the two curtains

20)[line 20]אמה טרקסיןAMAH TERAKSIN- a wall, one Amah thick, that served as the partition between the Kodesh and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim in the first Beis ha'Mikdash.

21)[line 22]בקדושתיהBI'KEDUSHASEI- regarding the [level of] sanctity [of that Amah]

22a)[line 22]כלפניםKELI'FNIM- equal to that of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

b)[line 23]כלחוץKEL'CHUTZ- equal to that of the Heichal

23)[line 24]המזבחHA'MIZBE'ACH- (TY #47) The Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, located in the Azarah, upon which all Korbanos are offered

24)[line 24]מנורהMENORAH- (TY #70) The golden seven-branched candelabra located in the Heichal

25)[line 25]שלחןSHULCHAN- (TY #69) the table upon which two stacks of Lechem ha'Panim stood (see Background to 38:16)

26a)[line 27]פיתחא בצפון קאיPISCHA B'TZAFON KA'I- the opening [of the single curtain] was to the north

b)[line 28]פיתחא בדרום קאיPISCHA B'DAROM KA'I- the opening [of the outer curtain] was to the south [whereas the opening of the inner curtain was to the north]

27)[line 30]ניעולNEI'OL- let him (lit. go up) approach

28a)[line 32]שולחנותSHULCHANOS- the [ten additional] tables [made by Shlomo ha'Melech that surrounded the main one]

b)[line 32]צפון ודרום מונחיןTZAFON V'DAROM MUNACHIN- stood [in two rows of five each, to the east and west of the Shulchan] along a north-south axis (as opposed to standing to the north and south of the Shulchan, along an east-west axis)

29)[last line]אורח ארעאORACH AR'A- Derech Eretz; proper conduct