1)

ERETZ YISRAEL

(a)

Eretz Yisrael was created first, and then all the world.

(b)

Hash-m waters Eretz Yisrael directly, and the rest of the world through an intermediary.

(c)

Eretz Yisrael drinks rainwater and the rest of the world takes a remnant.

(d)

Eretz Yisrael drinks first, and then the rest of the world.

1.

It is like a man kneading cheese; he takes the edible part, and discards the waste.

2)

THE SOURCE OF RAIN

(a)

Question: R. Eliezer said that the seawater is sweetened in the clouds - how does he know this?

(b)

Answer: He merges two words in two Pesukim about rain to read that it is "prepared" in the clouds.

(c)

Question: What does R. Yehoshua do with these Pesukim?

(d)

Answer: He learns from them that light clouds contain little water, whereas dark clouds contain much water.

(e)

The Beraisa about the Pasuk teaching us that the upper waters are suspended with the word of Hash-m and bear the fruit of rain follows R. Yehoshua.

(f)

R. Eliezer counters that that Pasuk refers to the fruit of Hash-m's labors.

(g)

(R. Yehoshua b. Levi): The entire world drinks from a remnant of the waters of Gan Eden.

1.

From the remnant of a container that waters a Beis Kor, one can water a Tarkav - one-sixtieth.

3)

RELATIVE MEASURES

(a)

(Beraisa): Mitzrayim measures 400 by 400 Parsah.

(b)

It is a sixtieth of Kush, which is a sixtieth of the world, which is a sixtieth of Gan, which is a sixtieth of Eden, which is a sixtieth of Gehinom.

(c)

Thus, the whole world is like a pot-cover for Gehinom.

(d)

Some say that Gehinom has no measurement.

(e)

Some say that Eden has no measurement.

(f)

(R. Oshiya): A Pasuk alludes to Bavel having abundant grain because it is situated on ample waters.

(g)

(Rav): Bavel is wealthy in that it need not rely on rainwater for its produce.

(h)

(Abaye): It is shady and moist, not dry.

4)

MISHNAH: ASKING FOR RAIN

(a)

(Tana Kama): We begin to ask for rain on the third of Cheshvan.

(b)

(Raban Gamliel): We begin on the seventh, fifteen days after Sukos, so that the last pilgrim can reach the Euphrates.

5)

ASKING FOR RAIN

(a)

(R. Elazar): The Halachah follows Raban Gamliel.

(b)

(Chananyah): In Bavel, they only begin to ask for rain sixty days into the season.

(c)

(R. Huna bar Chiya citing Shmuel): The Halachah follows Chananyah.

1.

Question: Surely Shmuel said that we ask for rain from when firewood is brought into the house of Tabus the bird-trapper?

2.

Answer: Perhaps they are both the same date.

(d)

Question: Is the sixtieth day counted with the preceding period, or is it part of the ensuing period (and we ask for rain on it)?

(e)

Answer: Rav said it is past of the ensuing period, Shmuel said it is part of the preceding period.

1.

The Siman for this is that Rav, who lives in the high ground of Eretz Yisrael, requires more water, and therefore begins asking for rain earlier; Shmuel lives in the lower ground of Bavel and needs less.

(f)

(R. Papa): The Halachah is that the sixtieth day is part of the ensuing period.

6)

MISHNAH: FASTING FOR RAIN

(a)

If no rain had fallen by the seventeenth of Cheshvan, select individuals would fast three fasts.

1.

With these fasts, they would eat and drink at nightfall.

2.

They were permitted to perform Melachah, wash, anoint themselves, wear leather shoes, and engage in marital relations.

(b)

If no rain had arrived by Rosh Chodesh Kislev, Beis Din would decree three fasts upon the community.

1.

With these fasts, they would eat and drink at nightfall.

2.

They were permitted to perform Melachah, wash, anoint themselves, wear leather shoes, and engage in marital relations.

7)

THE FAST OF THE INDIVIDUALS

(a)

Question: Who are the "select individuals"?

(b)

Answer (R. Huna): The Rabanan.

(c)

(R. Huna): The three fasts of these individuals are on Monday, Thursday and Monday.

1.

Question: We already know that fasts may not begin on Thursday, because of its effect on prices!?

2.

Answer: One might have thought that that only applies to community fasts, but not to individuals fasting.

3.

A Beraisa likewise states that the individuals would fast on Monday, Thursday, and Monday, breaking for Rosh Chodesh and the festive days listed in Megilas Ta'anis.

10b----------------------------------------10b

8)

CLASSIFYING PEOPLE

(a)

(Beraisa): A person should not say that he is only a Talmid and unworthy to be one of the individuals who fasts; all Talmidei Chachamim fall into this category.

1.

Who qualifies as one of these individuals - someone who is worthy of being appointed as head of the community.

2.

Who qualifies as a Talmid - someone who can reply to any question, even one from Maseches Kalah.

(b)

(Beraisa) (R. Meir): Not everyone can be one of these individuals or a Talmid.

1.

(R. Yosi): Anyone can be one of these individuals, and is remembered for the good; it is not good for him, but painful.

(c)

(Beraisa) (R. Shimon b. Elazar): Not everyone can be one of these individuals or a Talmid.

1.

(R. Shimon b. Gamliel): Anyone can be one of these individuals, and is remembered for the good; it is not good for him, but painful.

9)

CHANGES IN THE SITUATION REGARDING FASTING

(a)

(Beraisa): If someone was fasting on account of troubles and it passed, or an account of a sick person and they became healed, he should complete his fast.

1.

If someone travels to a place where they are fasting, he should join their fast.

2.

If he travels from a place where they are fasting to a place where they are not fasting, he should complete his fast.

3.

If (in case a1) he forgetfully ate and drank, he should not be seen to do so in public, and he should not indulge.

(b)

We find this with Yaakov, when he told his sons not to appear satisfied before Eisav and Yishmael.

10)

TRAVEL TIPS

(a)

Yosef told his brothers not to get too involved in a point of Halachah whilst journeying in case they would lose their way.

1.

Question: Surely R. Ela'i said that two Talmidei Chachamim who do not converse in Torah during their journey deserve to be burned?

2.

Answer: They must review their studies, but they must not become engrossed in analyzing them.

(b)

This Pasuk was elsewhere explained to mean that one should not take big strides, which take away one-five hundredth of a person's vision.

(c)

Yosef also told them to enter the city during daylight.

(d)

(R. Yehudah citing Rav): A person should always leave and enter a city during daylight.

(e)

(R. Yehudah citing R. Chiya): A traveler should not eat more than he would eat during years of famine.

1.

In Bavel, they gave the reason as being so as to avoid stomach sickness.

2.

In Eretz Yisrael, they gave the reason as being so as to save his food.

i.

A practical difference would be in the case of a person travelling in a ship, where there is only the latter concern.

ii.

An alternate difference would be in the case of a person travelling from village to village, where there is only the former concern.

iii.

R. Papa would eat some bread every Parsah; he held that the only concern was sickness, which he would not suffer from (being generously built).

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