CONDUCT DURING FAMINE
(R. Yehudah citing Rav): Anyone who deprives himself of food in years of famine is saved from unusual forms of death, as alluded to in a Pasuk.
(Resh Lakish): It is forbidden to engage in marital relations during years of famine, as we see that Yosef only had children before the famine.
(Beraisa): Childless people may engage in marital relations during famine.
(Beraisa): If the community is in distress, and someone separates himself from them, his two escorting Malachim place their hands on his head and say that he will not live to see the salvation of the community.
(Beraisa): When the community is in distress, a person should not say that he will go home, eat and enjoy his security.
Concerning such people, who say "eat and drink for tomorrow we die," the Pasuk says that their sin is only cleansed through death.
Such happens to people who at least acknowledge that they will die; but with wicked people who do not even admit to that, the Pasuk says that even Tzadikim will die.
Rather, a person should afflict himself in sympathy with the troubles of the community.
We find this with Moshe, who sat on a stone rather than on a chair, to show empathy with the plight of the Bnei Yisrael.
Anyone who afflicts himself along with the community merits seeing the salvation of the community.
A person need not be concerned about someone to testify about his doing so, as the Pasuk says that even his walls and ceiling-beams will testify.
(D'bei R. Shila): His two escorting Malachim testify for him.
(R. Chidka): His Neshamah testifies for him.
(Others say): His limbs testify for him.
REWARD AND PUNISHMENT
The Pasuk of "the G-d of integrity" means that just as Hash-m exacts retribution from Resha'im in the next world even for minor sins, He exacts retribution from Tzadikim in this world for minor sins.
"Without injustice" means that just as He rewards Tzadikim in the next world even for minor mitzvos, He also rewards Resha'im in this world for minor mitzvos.
"He is righteous and just" means that when a person dies, a complete account of his deeds is listed to him, and he admits to them, signs to them, and accepts the justice of the verdict.
THE VALUE OF FASTING
(Shmuel): Anyone who fasts is called a sinner.
He holds like the Tana of the following Beraisa:
(R. Elazar ha'Kafar citing Rebbi): The Pasuk refers to the Nazir as having sinned, because he deprived himself from wine.
If he is called a sinner just for abstaining from wine, how much more so someone who abstains from all food.
(R. Elazar): The Pasuk calls him "holy."
If he is called holy just for abstaining from wine, how much more so someone who abstains from all food.
Question: How does Shmuel account for the Pasuk calling him holy?
Answer: That refers to his hair being forbidden for benefit.
Question: How does R. Elazar account for the Pasuk saying that he has sinned?
Answer: That refers to a Nazir who became Tamei.
Question: Surely R. Elazar said that a person should treat his insides as holy and not deprive them of anything!?
Answer: That was referring to a person who finds fasting overly difficult.
(Resh Lakish): Such a person is considered a Chasid.
(R. Sheshes): A Talmid Chacham who fasts might as well be doing so because a dog ate his food.
(R. Yirmiyah bar Aba): The extra restrictions of community fasts only apply in Bavel to Tish'ah b'Av.
(Citing Resh Lakish): A Talmid Chacham may not fast, as it detracts from his studies.
(R. Ze'ira citing R. Huna): If an individual accepts a fast, even if he ate and drank all night, he says Aneinu the next day.
If he slept through the next night without eating, he does not say Aneinu on the next day.
Question (R. Yosef): Does R. Huna hold that a spontaneous fast is invalid, or does he hold that a spontaneous fast is valid, but Aneinu is not said for it?
Answer (Abaye): He holds that a spontaneous fast is valid and one does recite Aneinu for it; the difference here is that the fast was not declared in advance.
Mar Ukva was unable to answer the following questions in Ginzak:
Is a spontaneous fast valid?
Is a jug that has been used to store wine of non-Jews forbidden for usage?
Which garments did Moshe wear while performing the initiation of the Mishkan?
At the Beis ha'Midrash, he was answered:
A spontaneous fast is valid, and one says Aneinu.
The jug is permitted for use after twelve months.
Moshe wore a white linen robe.
(R. Kahana): He wore a white linen robe without a hem (to remove suspicion of theft).