[10a - 43 lines; 10b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1]בברייתו של עולםBI'BERIYASO SHEL OLAM- is referring to [when HaSh-m gathered the lower waters and stored them in the heavens while involved in] the creation the world

2)[line 3]משקהMASHKEH- waters

3)[line 6]שותהSHOSEH- lit. drinks; receives

4)[line 7]מתמציתTAMTZIS- what remains [in the clouds]

5)[line 9](שמגבל) [שמגבלן] את הגבינה(MEGABEL) [MEGABEN] ES HA'GEVINAH- makes cheese

6)[line 10]הפסולתPESOLES- the unwanted leftovers; in this case, the whey

7a)[line 11]"חשכת מים עבי שחקים""CHESHCHAS MAYIM AVEI SHECHAKIM"- "... dark waters in the clouds of the skies" (Tehilim 18:12).

b)[line 11]"חשרת מים עבי שחקים""CHASHRAS MAYIM AVEI SHECHAKIM"- "... dark waters massed in the clouds of the skies" (Shmuel II 22:12) - Chapter 22 of Shmuel II and Chapter 18 of Tehilim both record the Shirah sung by David ha'Melech, with slight variations.

8a)[line 12]שקול 'כף' ושדי א'ריש'SHKOL 'CHAF' V'SHADI A'REISH'- take the "Chaf" [from "Chashras"] and throw it upon the "Reish" [in "Cheshchas"]

b)[line 12]וקרי ביה חכשרתV'KARI BEI CHACHSHARAS- and read it, "the readying [of the water in the clouds of the skies"]

9)[line 13]במערבאMA'ARAVA- Eretz Yisrael

10a)[line 13]נהור ענני זעירין מוהיNEHOR ANANEI ZE'IRIN MOHI- [when] the clouds are light, [they contain] small amounts of water

b)[line 14]חשוך ענני סגיין מוהיCHASHOCH ANANEI SAGYAN MOHI- [when] the clouds are dark, [they contain] large amounts of water

11)[line 14]במאמר הם תלויםB'MAMAR HEM TELUYIN- are hanging by the word [of HaSh-m, with no visible means of support]

12)[line 16]במעשה ידיו של הקב''ה הואMA'ASEI YADAV SHEL HA'KADOSH BARUCH HU- the handiwork of HaSh-m [such as trees, etc. which bring forth edible produce]

13)[line 17]מתמצית בית כור שותה תרקבMI'TAMTZIS BEIS KOR, SHOSAH TARKAV- from the water remaining in the utensil used to water a Beis Kor, one can water a Tarkav. A Beis Kor is the area of land necessary to plant a Kor, and a Tarkav refers to the area of land necessary to plant a Tarkav. This is a ratio of 60:1, as follows:

1.1 KOR = 30 SE'AH

2.1 SE'AH = 6 KAV

3.1 TARKAV = 3 KAV

4.The word "Tarkav" is a conjunction of the words Trei (two) and Kav, for a total of three Kavim.

14)[line 18]ד' מאות פרסהARBA ME'OS PARSAH- four hundred Parsa'os (Persian miles). This is equal to approximately 1536 kilometers (960 miles) or 1843.2 kilometers (1152 miles), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

15)[line 19]וכושKUSH- (a) Ethiopia (JOSEPHUS) or Arabia (TARGUM YONASAN to Bereishis 10:6, Divrei ha'Yamim I 1:8-9). In this context, Arabia refers to an area in Africa located upon the upper Nile (as described by HERODOTUS, cited by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan in Bereishis 10:6) or the entire Nile area; (b) an area to the east of Eretz Yisrael (YOVLOS, cited by Rabbi Kaplan ibid.). This may be near India (see Megilah 11a; see also, however, Background to Yoma 34:25:b). The Hindu-Kush mountain range to the immediate northwest of India is said to have been populated by Ethiopian migrants (M. Rosen).

16)[line 21]ככיסוי קדרהKISUY KEDEIRAH- the cover of a pot

17)[line 22]"שוכנת על מים רבים...""SHOCHANT AL MAYIM RABIM..."- "[Bavel,] who dwells upon an abundance of water, containing many storehouses; [your end has come, the final measure of your termination]" (Yirmeyahu 51:13).

18a)[line 23]עתירה בבלASIRAH BAVEL- Bavel is wealthy

b)[line 24]דחצדא בלא מיטראD'CHATZDA B'LO MITRA- for she harvests without [the need for] rain

19)[line 24]נקיטינןNEKITINAN- we have a tradition

20)[line 24]טובעני ולא יובשניTOV'ANI V'LO YOVSHANI- (a) [that Bavel is] swampy and not dry (RASHI); (b) it is better to live in a moist climate than in an arid one (TOSFOS DH Tov'ani, ARUCH)

21)[line 25]שואלין את הגשמיםSHO'ALIN ES HA'GESHAMIM- we recite "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" [in Barech Aleinu, the ninth Berachah of Shemoneh Esreh]

22)[line 26]החגHE'CHAG- the festival [of Sukos]

23)[line 26]אחרון שבישראלACHARON SHEB'YISRAEL- the last member of Klal Yisrael [who had made the pilgrimage to the Beis ha'Mikdash on Sukos (see Background to 4:50) to his home]

24)[line 26]לנהר פרתNEHAR PRAS- the Euphrates River (which is the farthest body of water affected by the rainfall of Eretz Yisrael)

25)[line 27]ובגולה עד ששים בתקופהBA'GOLAH AD SHISHIM B'TEKUFAH- outside of Eretz Yisrael, beginning on the sixtieth day after the autumnal equinox (see Insights)

26)[line 29]מדכרינןMADKERINAN- we make mention

27a)[line 29]מכי מעיילי ציביMI'CHI M'AILEI TZIVEI- from when firewood is brought [in preparation for winter]

b)[line 29]לבי טבות רישבאL'VEI TAVOS RISHBA- to the house of Tavos the (a) bird trapper (RASHI); (b) head of the family (a contraction of RoSH Beis Av) (ARUCH) [who knew when winter was set to begin]

28a)[line 32]עילאי בעו מיאILA'EI BA'U MAYA- those who live in high areas require water. This serves as a device to remember that Rav, who came from Eretz Yisrael, ruled that one should begin to recite "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" on the sixtieth day after the autumnal equinox.

b)[line 32]תתאי לא בעו מיאTATAEI LO BA'U MAYA- those who live in low areas do not require [as much] water. This serves as a device to remember that Shmuel, who came from low-lying Bavel, ruled that one should not begin to recite "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" until the sixty-first day after the autumnal equinox.

29)[line 34]היחידיםHA'YECHIDIM- the especially righteous

30)[line 35]משחשיכהMISHE'CHASHECHA- from when night falls [on the previous day until daybreak]

31)[line 35]ומותריןMUTARIN- they are permitted [for the whole of the fast]

32)[line 35]ובסיכהSICHAH- anointing [with oil or cream]

33)[line 35]ובנעילת הסנדלNE'ILAS HA'SANDAL- wearing [leather] shoes

34)[line 36]ובתשמיש המטהTASHMISH HA'MITAH- marital relations

35)[line 39]שני וחמישי ושניSHENI VA'CHAMISHI V'SHENI- Monday, [the following] Thursday, and [the following] Monday

36)[line 40]שלא להפקיע את השעריםSHE'LO L'HAFKI'A ES HA'SHE'ARIM- so as not to raise the market value of produce. This may occur when a fast is decreed on a Thursday, since (a) people will purchase enough food for their Shabbos meals as well as for the large meal they plan to eat following their fast. This abnormally large purchase may cause the merchants to fear the onset of a famine, causing them to raise their prices (RASHI); (b) Those farmers who supply the cities with foodstuffs on the market days of Monday and Thursday will not have heard about the fast, and will therefore bring only enough produce for Shabbos. This will not suffice for the meal following the fast, causing the price of food for Shabbos to rise (RABEINU GERSHOM); (c) Merchants will assume that the fast is intended to forestall a calamity. Fearing that it may arrive, they will hoard their grain, causing the price of food for Shabbos to rise. When the fast is declared on Monday, however, they will have calmed before the end of the week (BA'AL HA'TZEROROS).

37)[last line]ומפסיקין בראשי חדשיםMAFSIKIN B'ROSHEI CHODASHIM- they do not [fast if one of the fasts coincides] with Rosh Chodesh


38)[line 1]במגילת תעניתMEGILAS TA'ANIS

(a)Megilas Ta'anis is a document written in the times of the Tana'im, at the end of the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. It lists those dates set aside as holidays due to the miracles that occurred upon them. Depending on the event, either fasting was prohibited, delivering a eulogy was prohibited, or both were. These days were recorded in the Megilah so that they would not be forgotten.

(b)Following the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, the holidays of Megilas Ta'anis are no longer observed. The exceptions to this rule are the holidays of Chanukah and Purim (Rosh Hashanah 19b). The Gemara (Shabbos 13b) explains that since we require Divine help so frequently while under the rule of the nations, it is impossible to celebrate every occurrence of Divine salvation.

39)[line 5]פרנסPARNAS- a leader

40)[line 7]במסכת דכלהMASECHES D'CHALAH- (a) those tractates [known by all, as they were studied in the months of Adar and Elul when all students assembled in the Yeshivos of Bavel to learn together; these periods were called "Yarchei] Kalah" (RABEINU CHANANEL); (b) according to the Girsa B'MASECHES KALAH - the tractate "Kalah" [which is not learned regularly] (RABEINU GERSHOM)

41)[line 8]תלמיד עושהTALMID, OSEH- (a) [nor may anyone who wishes to] conduct himself as a Talmid [Chacham do so]. This includes, among other things, wearing certain garments and sleeping in a certain type of bed (RASHI); (b) [anyone may, however,] conduct himself as a Talmid [Chacham] (TOSFOS DH Eizehu); (c) [unless one is] a Talmid [Chacham, in which case he] may conduct [himself as a Yachid even if he has not yet reached that level] (RABEINU CHANANEL)

42a)[line 17]על הצרהAL HA'TZARAH- so as to eliminate a [certain] source of distress

b)[line 17]ועברהV'AVRA- and it passes

43)[line 18]ומשליםMASHLIM- finish [fasting]

44)[line 19]שאין מתעניןSHE'EIN MIS'ANIN- they do not [have a custom to] fast [on a certain date]

45)[line 22]יתראהYISRA'EH- appear [while eating]

46)[line 23]ינהיג עידונין בעצמוYANHIG IDUNIN B'ATZMO- pamper oneself [by eating a large amount even in private]

47)[line 23]"ויאמר יעקב לבניו למה תתראו""VA'YOMER YAKOV L'VANAV, 'LAMAH TISRA'U?'"- "... and Yaakov said to his sons, 'Why should you show yourselves?'" (Bereishis 42:1).

48)[line 25]תראוTAR'U- show

49)[line 25]שבעיןSEVE'IN- satiated

50)[line 26]יתקנאוYISKAN'U- become envious

51)[line 27]"אל תרגזו בדרך""AL TIRGEZU BA'DARECH"- "[And Yosef sent his brothers, and they went; and he said to them,] 'Do not argue along the way'" (Bereishis 45:24). (See Insights for an explanation for why this Gemara appears here.)

52)[line 29]תרגזו עליכם הדרךTIRGEZU ALEICHEM HA'DERECH- you will lose your way

53)[line 32]"ויהי המה הלכים הלוך ודבר והנה רכב אש וסוסי אש ויפרדו בין שניהם [ויעל אליהו בסערה השמים]""VA'YEHI HEMAH HOLCHIM HALOCH V'DIBER V'HINEH RECHEV ESH V'SUSEI ESH V'YAFRIDU BEIN SHENEIHEM [VA'YA'AL ELIYAHU BA'SE'ARAH HA'SHAMAYIM]" - "And it was, as they were walking along and talking, that a fiery chariot and fiery horses appeared and separated the two. [And Eliyahu ascended (alive) in a stormy wind to Heaven]" (Melachim II 2:11) (ELIYAHU ASCENDS TO HEAVEN)

(a)The tenure of Eliyahu ha'Navi in this world was drawing to a close. In the final miracle he performed, he split the Jordan River and crossed it on dry land, together with his disciple, Elisha.

(b)While crossing, Eliyahu asked what favor he could perform for Elisha before he leaves this world. Elisha requested a spirit of prophecy twice that of his Rebbi. Eliyahu replied that this request was a difficult one for him to fulfill (for how can one grant another that which he himself does not possess?). He notified Elisha that if he would be able to observe the proceedings when Eliyahu would be taken to Shamayim, then he would know that his request had been granted. Eliyahu then cried, "Father, father — chariot of Yisrael and its riders!"

54a)[line 35]למיגרסL'MIGRAS- to review [that which one has already learned]

b)[line 35]לעיוניL'IYUNEI- to delve deeply [into the reasoning of a particular Torah subject]

55)[line 36]אל תפסיעו פסיעה גסהAL TAFSI'U PESI'AH GASAH- do not take large steps

56)[line 37]והכניסו חמה לעירHACHNISU CHAMAH LA'IR- enter the city [in which you plan in sleeping overnight before] the sun [sets]

57)[line 39]ממאור עיניוME'OR EINAV- one's eyesight

58)[line 41]יצא אדם בכי טובYETZEI ADAM B'CHI TOV- one should leave [on a journey] when [it is light, regarding which HaSh-m said] "Ki Tov" [-- "that it was good" (Bereishis 1:4)]

59)[line 42]"הבקר אור והאנשים שלחו המה וחמריהם""HA'BOKER OHR; VEHA'ANASHIM SHULECHU, HEMAH VA'CHAMOREHEM" - "The morning became light, and the men were sent [on their way, along with their donkeys]" (Bereishis 44:3) (YOSEF'S GOBLET)

(a)At first light, Yosef sent off his brothers with their sacks of corn, and with their returned money placed in their sacks. Unbeknown to them, however, he has also planted his goblet in Binyamin's sack, in anticipation of his final confrontation with his brothers before revealing his identity to them.

(b)He then sent his son Menasheh after them to stop them and accuse them of stealing his goblet.

60)[line 44]משני רעבוןSHNEI RA'AVON- [the little that he consumes during] years of famine

61a)[line 45]הכא תרגימו משום מעיינאHACHA TARGIMU MISHUM MA'AYANA- here [in Bavel] we explain [that the reason is] so as [to prevent disorders of] the digestive system

b)[line 45]במערבא אמרי משום מזוניB'MA'ARAVA AMRI MI'SHUM MEZONEI- in Eretz Yisrael they explain [that the reason is] so as [to ensure that one does not run out of] food