[4a - 47 lines; 4b - 36 lines]

1)[line 1]עורפילאURPILA- drizzle

2)[line 1]לפרצידא דתותי קלאPARTZIDA D'SUSEI KALA- a seed under the hard crust of the earth

3)[line 2]עורו פיליURU, PILEI!- (a) disappear, cracks [in the dry surface of the earth]!; (b) awaken, [seeds lying in] cracks [in the earth]!

4)[line 3]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- a sharp, young Torah scholar

5)[line 4]דכיון דנבט נבטKEIVAN D'NAVAT, NAVAT- once it has sprouted, it grows quickly. [So, too, a young Torah scholar whose erudition becomes known to the public quickly rises to greatness.]

6)[line 5]דרתחRASACH- becomes angry

7)[line 5]אורייתאORAISA- [his] Torah [learning]

8)[line 6]"הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפצץ סלע""HA'LO CHOH DEVARI K'ESH, NE'UM HASH-M; UCH'FATISH YEFOTZETZ SALA."- (a) "Behold my word is as fire, says HaSh-m; and as a hammer that shatters stone" (RASHI to Shabbos 88b DH Mah Patish); (b) "Behold my word is as fire, says HaSh-m; and as a hammer is shattered by stone" (RABEINU TAM, cited by TOSFOS to Sukah 52b) (Yirmeyahu 23:29)

9)[line 7]קשה כברזלKASHEH K'VARZEL- as hard [and unforgiving] as iron [in opposition to those who show disrespect to the Torah])

10a)[line 9]אתון מהתם מתניתו להATUN ME'HASAM MASNISU LAH- [whereas] you derive this lesson from that [source]

b)[line 10]אנן מהכא מתנינן להANAN ME'HACHAH MASNINAN LAH- we derive it from this [one]

11)[line 11]בוניהBONEHA- its builders. This refers to Torah scholars, for the world cannot exist the learning of Torah (Yirmeyahu 33:35).

12)[line 12]למילף נפשיה בניחותאL'MEILAF NAFSHEI B'NICHUSA- to accustom himself to be calm

13)[line 13]והסרV'HASER- and remove

14)[line 15]שאלו שלא כהוגןSHA'ALU SHE'LO CH'HOGEN- made inappropriate requests [of HaSh-m]

15)[line 17]ושאול בן קישSHA'UL BEN KISH- Shaul ha'Melech, first king of Yisrael

16)[line 17]ויפתח הגלעדיYIFTACH HA'GIL'ADI

Yiftach ben Gil'ad of the tribe of Menasheh was the ninth judge of Klal Yisrael (Shoftim 11:1-12:7). He ruled for six years (2786-2792). He defeated the Amonim, who had ruled Eretz Yisrael for the eighteen years prior to his appointment as Shofet. Before entering the battle, he vowed to offer to HaSh-m the first thing that left his house upon his victorious return. His intention was to offer an animal as a Korban, but to his chagrin, his only daughter was the first to greet him when he returned. At her request, rather than seek out Pinchas the Kohen Gadol who could have annulled his vow, he sequestered his daughter away from all human contact for the rest of her life (ibid. 11:39, and Bereishis Rabah 60:3; some commentaries say that she simply remained unmarried all her life).

17)[line 19]"והיה הנערה אשר אומר אליה הטי נא כדך""V'HAYAH HA'NA'ARAH ASHER OMAR ELEHA HATI NA CHADECH"- "And it will be that the girl to whom I say, 'Please tilt your pitcher so that I can drink,' and she will say, 'Drink! And I will also draw for your camels!' - she is whom You have designated for your servant Yitzchak." (Bereishis 24:14) - This verse describes the process through which Eliezer chose a wife for Yitzchak when Avraham Avinu sent him on that mission.

18a)[line 20]חיגרתCHIGERES- a girl who was lame [in a non-obvious manner, in which case he may have betrothed her to Yitzchak before realizing]

b)[line 20]סומאSUMA- a girl who was blind [in a non-obvious manner, in which case he may have betrothed her to Yitzchak before realizing]

19)[line 22]"ויאמר איש ישראל הראיתם האיש העלה הזה כי לחרף את ישראל עלה והיה האיש אשר יכנו יעשרנו המלך עשר גדול ואת בתו יתן לו ואת בית אביו יעשה חפשי בישראל""VA'YOMER ISH YISRAEL: HA'RE'ISEM HA'ISH HA'OLEH HA'ZEH KI L'CHAREF ES YISRAEL OLEH, V'HAYAH HA'ISH ASHER YAKENU YA'ASHRENU HA'MELECH OSHER GADOL, V'ES BITO YITEN LO V'ES BEIS AVIV YA'ASEH CHOFSHI B'YISRAEL" - "The men of Yisrael were saying: Have you seen this man who goes forth? He goes forth to disgrace Israel. The king will enrich whoever kills him with great wealth and give his daughter to him in marriage and he will free his father's family from royal service in Israel." (Shmuel I 17:25) (THE FALL OF GOLYAS)

(a)The army of Shaul ha'Melech was engaged in battle with the Pelishtim. The Pelishti champion, Golyas (Goliath), a giant of a man, challenged any individual from the Jewish camp to single combat. The loser of the duel would forfeit the war.

(b)David had been sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Shaul's army. He arrived just in time to hear the challenge of Golyas. Perturbed at the insults hurled by Golyas toward HaSh-m, he volunteered for the challenge. Although victory was physically unlikely, David merited Heavenly assistance and killed Golyas with a stone from his slingshot.

20)[line 25]"והיה היוצא אשר יצא מדלתי ביתי לקראתי בשובי בשלום מבני עמון והיה לה' והעליתיהו עולה""V'HAYAH HA'YOTZEI ASHER YETZEI MI'DALSEI VEISI LI'KRASI B'SHUVI B'SHALOM MI'BNEI AMON V'HAYAH LA'HASH-M V'HA'ALISIHU OLAH" - "And that which shall [first] come out of my house to greet me when I return home safely from [doing battle with] the nation of Amon will be [consecrated] to HaSh-m and I will offer it [to Him] as an Olah offering." (Shoftim 11:31) (YIFTACH'S NEDER)

See above, entry #16.

21)[line 26]דבר טמאDAVAR TAMEI- a non-kosher animal

22)[line 28]"הצרי אין בגלעד אם רופא אין שם""HA'TZARI EIN B'GIL'AD; IM ROFEI EIN SHAM"- "Is there no balm in Gil'ad; is there no healer there? Why, therefore, has the daughter of my people not recovered her health?" (Yirmeyahu 8:22) - Our Gemara interprets this verse as a reference to the fact that neither Yiftach nor Pinchas deigned to go to the other to nullify Yiftach's vow, leading to tragedy (see above, entry #16).

23)[line 30]ולא עלתה על לביLO ALSAH AL LIBI- did not occur to Me

24)[line 33]ויעלהו עולהVA'YA'ALEHU OLAH- and he offered him as a completely-burnt sacrifice [to HaSh-m, thinking that He would appreciate it]

25)[line 34]יצחק בן אברהםYITZCHAK BEN AVRAHAM- [the command given to slaughter] Yitzchak, son of Avraham [which, though HaSh-m delivered it, was meant as a test and was never intended to come to fruition]

26)[line 35]כנסת ישראלKENESES YISRAEL- the Jewish nation

27)[line 37]"ונדעה נרדפה לדעת את ה'""V'NED'AH NIRDEFAH LA'DA'AS ES HASH-M"- "And let us know, let us strive to know HaSh-m like the dawn which will certainly break; He will come to us like rain, [as the late rain that saturates the earth]" (Hoshe'a 6:3)

28)[line 40]ופעמים אינו מתבקשPE'AMIM EINO MISBAKESH- is sometimes not desired [in the summer months]

29)[line 42]"שימני כחותם על לבך...""SIMENI CHA'CHOSAM AL LIBECHA"- "Place me like a seal upon Your heart; as a seal upon Your forearm..." (Shir ha'Shirim 8:6)

30)[line 43]שפעמים נראהPE'AMIM EINO NIR'EH- is sometimes not seen [when one is clothed]

31)[line 44]"הן על כפים חקותיך...""HEN AL KAPAYIM CHAKOSICH"- "Behold, I have engraved you upon (a) My palms; (b) My heavenly throne..." (Yeshayah 49:16)

32)[line 45]סברוהSAVRUHA- [the students of the Yeshivah] thought [that our Mishnah implied]

33)[line 46]משעת הנחתוMI'SHE'AS HANACHASO- [that "Morid ha'Geshem" is recited] from when [the Lulav] is put down [for the last time, which is the end of Sukos and the beginning of the period when rain is beneficial]

34)[last line]ואיכא דאמריV'IKA D'AMRI...- some say [that it is not that our Mishnah implies that "She'elah" and "Hazkarah" are one and the same, but that it was merely suggested in the Beis ha'Midrash]


35a)[line 7]כאן לשאולKAN LI'SH'OL- here (the next Mishnah, which quotes Rebbi Yehudah as saying that one should recite it through the end of Pesach) refers to the recitation of "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah"

b)[line 7]כאן להזכירKAN L'HAZKIR- here (our Mishnah, which quotes Rebbi Yehudah as saying that one should recite it through Shacharis of the first day of Pesach) refers to the recitation of "Morid ha'Geshem"

36)[line 8]מישאל שאיל ואזילMISH'AL SHA'IL V'AZIL- one continues to ask [for rain throughout Pesach]

37)[line 10]"כחומץ לשינים וכעשן לעינים...""KA'CHOMETZ LA'SHINAYIM VECHE'ASHAN LA'EINAYIM..."- "As vinegar to the teeth and smoke to the eyes..." (Mishlei 10:26)

38)[line 15]שאלה ביו''ט מי איכא?SHE'ELAH B'YOM TOV MI IKA?- is there a mention of "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" in [the Shemoneh Esreh of] Yom Tov?

39)[line 16]שואל מתורגמןSHO'EL METURGEMAN- the one who recites [Birkas ha'Shanim, including] "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" is he who (a) repeats the lesson of the Rav in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) translates the lesson of the Rav from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI to Yoma 20b); (c) is appointed by Beis Din to plead communal needs during prayer (RABEINU CHANANEL)

40)[line 16]דבר שאינו צריך לצבורDAVAR SHE'EINO TZARICH L'TZIBUR- that which the community has no need for (namely, rain on or following Pesach, since all crops are fully grown by then)

41)[line 17]מחוורתאMECHAVARTA- it is clear (that is, a more reasonable resolution is...)

42)[line 18]זמן שחיטת הפסחZMAN SHECHITAS HA'PESACH (KORBAN PESACH)

(a)In the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as the Torah commands, "And the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening" (Shemos 12:6). A Korban Pesach must be an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year. The Korban may be slaughtered in any part of the Azarah (see Zevachim 56b).

(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).

(c)According to Rabah, Rebbi Yehudah rules that one recites "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" through (a) Shacharis of the fourteenth of Nisan (RASHI); (b) Minchah of the fourteenth of Nisan (RABEINU CHANANEL and RASHI, second explanation according to the BACH); see Insights.

43)[line 20]הזכרה נמי ריצוי שאלה היאHAZKARAH NAMI RITZUY SHE'ELAH HI- mentioning "Morid ha'Geshem" also curries favor for the request [for rain that] to follow

44)[line 21]הלכה כרבי יהודהHALACHAH K'REBBI YEHUDAH- the Halachah follows Rebbi Yehudah [who rules in our Mishnah that we stop reciting "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" after Shacharis of the first day of Pesach]

45)[line 23]ואמר רבי אלעזר הלכה כרבן גמליאלV'AMAR REBBI ELAZAR HALACHAH K'RABAN GAMLIEL!- In asking this question, the Gemara makes two assumptions: 1. the Halachos ruled upon by Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Elazar must be in agreement with each other (presumably because Rebbi Elazar was a student of Rebbi Yochanan; see Insights), and 2. we cease the recitation of "Morid ha'Geshem" and "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" at the same time. TOSFOS DH v'Amar explains that this second assumption is based upon the Gemara earlier, when it posed a contradiction between our Mishnah and the next.

46)[line 24]גברא אגברא קא רמית?!GAVRA A'GAVRA KA'RAMIS?!- are you posing a contradiction from [the statement of] one Amora to that of another?!

47)[line 25]להפסקהHAFSAKAH- when we cease [mentioning "Mashiv ha'Ru'ach u'Morid ha'Geshem" and "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah"]

48a)[line 26]הא לןHA LAN- that [which "Mashiv ha'Ru'ach u'Morid ha'Geshem" and "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" are not recited until the seventh of Cheshvan] is for us [who live in Bavel]

b)[line 26]הא להוHA L'HU- that [which "Mashiv ha'Ru'ach u'Morid ha'Geshem" and "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" are recited beginning on Sukos] is for them [who live in Eretz Yisrael]

49)[line 27]פירי בדבראPEIRI B'DABRA- produce [drying] in the fields

50)[line 27]עולי רגליםOLEI REGALIM (ALIYAH L'REGEL)

(a)Every Jewish male is commanded to visit the Beis ha'Mikdash three times a year, on the festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Shemos 23:17).

(b)Our Gemara asks that in Eretz Yisrael it is logical to delay the recitation of those parts of the prayer that indicate our desire for rain until the seventh of Cheshvan. This is in order to give all those who came to Yerushalayim for the festival of Sukos a chance to return home without having to travel over muddy roads.

51)[line 28]השתא דאתית להכיHASHTA D'ASIS L'HACHI- now that you have come to this [explanation]

52a)[line 30]ואנן דאית לן תרי יומיANAN D'IS LEI TREI YOMEI- we [in Bavel] who have two days [of Yom Tov due to our uncertainty regarding which of the two is actually Yom Tov according to the declaration of the month in Eretz Yisrael]

b)[line 30]היכי עבדינןHEICHI AVDINAN?- how should we act [with regard to reciting "Morid ha'Geshem" beginning with Musaf of the first day of Sukos]?

53)[line 31]פוקו ואמרו ליה לאבאPUKU V'AMRU LEI L'ABA- go out and say to Rav. Shmuel referred to Rav as "Aba" (a) out of respect for his authority (RASHI); (b) as that was his name (ARUCH, Erech Abaye, cited by TOSFOS Chulin 38a DH Itztrich).

54)[line 32]אחר שעשיתו קודשACHAR SHE'ASISO KODESH- one you have designated the first day of Yom Tov as one upon which "Morid ha'Geshem" is recited