The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[49a - 21 lines; 49b - 42 lines]
1)[line 1]כבש... קרן... יסוד... הסובבKEVESH... KEREN... YESOD... SOVEV (MIZBE'ACH HA'CHITZON)
(a)The outer Mizbe'ach in the Beis ha'Mikdash, also known as the Mizbach ha'Olah (TY #47), consists of three square concrete and stone platforms placed one atop the other. The base (Yesod) measures 32 Amos square by one Amah high. (The Yesod did not full extend around the entire Mizbe'ach; see (b) below.) The middle platform measures 30 Amos square by 5 Amos high. The upper platform upon which the sacrifices were burned (termed the "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah" by the Rambam), was 28 Amos square by 3 Amos high. A Keren (lit. horn) - a block measuring one cubic Amah - was placed upon each corner of the upper platform (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8). The Amos with which the Mizbe'ach is measured consist of 5Tefachim (Menachos 97a).
(b)The Yesod protruded one Amah along the entire northern and western sides. It protruded for the length of only one Amah to the south of the southwest corner and one Amah to the east of the northeast corner, however. As such, there was no Yesod on the southeastern corner. The blood of many Korbanos was dashed upon the flank of the Mizbe'ach above the Yesod, from which point it ran down the side to the Yesod (Midos 36a, Mishnah 2; Zevachim 37a, based upon Vayikra 5:9). What remained of this blood was poured directly onto the Yesod (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra 4:7; etc.).
(c)The one-Amah width where middle platform jutted out beyond the upper platform is called the "Sovev" since it encircles the Mizbe'ach. Kohanim used the Sovev as a walkway from which to perform various parts of the service.
(d)The Keranos were hollow. (RAMBAM ibid. 2:8)
(e)A Kevesh (ramp) leads up to the top of the Mizbe'ach on its southern side. The Kevesh is 32 Amos long and 16 Amos wide, and is separated from the south side of the Mizbe'ach by a hairsbreadth (Pesachim 77a, Zevachim 62b). It is indented on its underside where it meets the Mizbe'ach such that it fits over the Sovev and the Yesod. The question of Rav Papa is whether to reckon the last four Amos of the Kevesh from the bottom edge - not including the two Amos that cover the Yesod and the Amah - or from the top edge that meets the Mizbe'ach.
2)[line 2]ריבועRIBU'A- [a] squared [form]
3)[line 4]שיתיןSHISIN- a hollow located in the stone foundation under the Mizbe'ach
4)[line 5]"[מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים, בת נדיב;] חמוקי ירכיך כמו חלאים, מעשה ידי אמן""[MAH YAFU FE'AMAYICH BA'NE'ALIM, BAS NADIV;] CHAMUKEI YERECHAYICH KEMO CHALA'IM, MA'ASEH YEDEI OMAN"- "[How lovely are your footsteps in sandals, O daughter of nobility;] the roundness of your flanks are like jewels, the work of a master's hand" (Shir ha'Shirim 7:2). The Gemara interprets this verse to mean, "The rounded pipes for your libations' abyss-like trenches, handiwork of the Master Craftsman."
5)[line 7]שמחוללין ויורדין עד התהוםSHE'MECHULALIN V'YORDIN AD HA'TEHOM- they are hollow all the way down to the depths of the earth
6)[line 10]ברא שיתBARA SHIS- He created the Shisin
7)[line 11]"אשירה נא לידידי...""ASHIRAH NA L'YEDIDI..."- "I will now sing on behalf of my Beloved, my Beloved's song concerning His vineyard: My Beloved had a vineyard in a fertile corner. He fenced it around and cleared it of stones; He planted it with choice shoots and built a tower inside it; He even hewed a wine pit in it. He hoped it would produce grapes but it only produced berries" (Yeshayah 5:1-2). The Navi is describing HaSh-m's disappointment with Bnei Yisrael, and goes on to talk about the subsequent punishment (the destruction of His vineyard).
8)[line 17]לולLUL- a shaft
9)[line 18]פרחי כהונהPIRCHEI KEHUNAH- young Kohanim
10)[line 19]מלקטיןMELAKTIN- and he gathered up
11)[line 19]קרושKARUSH- congealed
12)[line 20]עיגולי דבילהIGULEI DEVEILAH- rounded cakes of pressed figs
13)[last line]בקדושהB'KEDUSHAH- in a state of sanctity; i.e., in a holy place in the Beis ha'Mikdash
14)[last line]"בקדש הסך, נסך שכר לה'""BA'KODESH HA'SECH, NESECH SHECHAR LA'SH-M"- "... pour it on the Mizbe'ach, an intoxicating [wine] libation to HaSh-m" (Bamidbar 28:7).
15)[line 2]מאי משמע?MAI MASHMA?- how does this verse imply that the wine remaining in the Shisin must be burned?
16)[line 2]אתיאASYA (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b)A sage may use the method of Gezeirah Shavah only if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, in the event that he did not learn this directly from his teachers.
(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is not limited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:
1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.
2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).
3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.
(a)Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time within which it may be eaten must be burned (Vayikra 19:6).
(b)One who intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Nosar is liable for Kares (ibid. 19:8); if he eats it unintentionally then he must offer a Korban Chatas.
18)[line 5]בתחילהB'TECHILAH- Nesachim only have Me'ilah prior to Nisuch but not after
19)[line 5]מועלין בהןMO'ALIN BA'HEN (ME'ILAH)
(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3; see Insights). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim - Sanhedrin 83a) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Shogeg (unintentionally), the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Asham Me'ilos (as described in Vayikra 5:15-16) and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a; see Rashi to Me'ilah 8a DH Chatas ha'Of).
(d)The Lav of Me'ilah applies to the entire body of an animal that is Kodshei Kodashim from the time that it is sanctified. After its blood is applied to or cast on the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), the Lav of Me'ilah only pertains to the Eimurim of the animal (i.e. to the parts of the animal that are offered on the Mizbe'ach). Since the Kohanim may eat the rest of the animal, it is no longer called Kodshei HaSh-m (Vayikra 5:15).
(e)Kodshim Kalim are the property of their owner while they are alive and as such, the Lav of Me'ilah does not apply to them at that point since they are not "Kodshei HaSh-m." After Zerikas ha'Dam, the Lav of Me'ilah applies to the Eimurim (just as in Kodshei Kodashim), since they become Kodshei HaSh-m. (See chart #1 to Me'ilah 2a.)
(f)After Zerikas ha'Dam, the blood of any Korban may be used for any purpose, even fertilizer, as stated in Avodah Zarah 44a. Rav Ze'ira extrapolated that if blood was let from an animal of Kodshim while it is still alive, the Lav of Me'ilah does apply to this blood.
20)[line 7]נחתוNACHTU- the wine went down to the depths
21)[line 8]בדאיקלט(BED'IKLAT) [D'I KALAT]- if he collected the wine as it was falling
22)[line 9]אין לך דבר שנעשה מצותו ומועלין בוEIN LECHA DAVAR SHE'NA'ASEIS MITZVASO U'MO'ALIN BO
Generally, after the completion of a Mitzvah that is performed with a particular object, it becomes permitted to derive benefit from the object (if it was previously forbidden).
23)[line 11]פוקקיןPOKEKIN- the Shitin were plugged up
24a)[line 13]כי שבע איניש חמראKI SAVA INISH CHAMRA- they were satiated with wine
b)[line 13]מגרוניה שבעMI'GERONEI SAVA- he becomes satiated by swallowing large gulps that fill his throat
25)[line 13]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- a young Talmid Chacham
26)[line 14]נפישאNEFISHA- to drink a lot of wine
27)[line 14]ליגמע גמועיLIGMA GEMU'EI- he should swallow large gulps of wine
28)[line 15]מאי דכתיב, "מה יפו פעמיך..."?MAI DI'CHSIV, "MAH YAFU FE'AMAYICH..."?- (the Gemara mentions this Derashah here because it is based on the beginning of the verse that was discussed on Amud Alef, "Chamukei Yerechayich...," and because it is related to Aliyah l'Regel, a Mitzvah that applies to Sukos.)
29)[line 19] למה נמשלו דברי תורה כירך? LAMAH NIMSHELU DIVREI TORAH K'YARECH -why are the words of the Torah compared to the thigh?
30)[line 22]"... והצנע לכת""... V'HATZNE'A LECHES"- "... and to walk humbly with G-d" (Michah 6:8).
31)[line 23]הוצאת המת והכנסת כלה לחופהHOTZA'AS HA'MES V'HACHNASAS KALAH L'CHUPAH- ["to walk humbly with your God" refers to] attending to funerals and dowering a bride for her wedding.
32)[line 26]זבחZEVACH- charity and justice is more acceptable to the G-d than giving Korbanos
33)[line 27]"זרעו לכם לצדקה, וקצרו לפי חסד""ZIR'U LACHEM LI'TZEDAKAH, V'KETZRU L'FI CHESED"- "Sow for yourselves according to your charity, but reap according to your Chesed" (Hoshea 10:12).
34)[line 29]משתלמתMISHTALEMES- is rewarded
35)[line 29]לפי חסד שבהL'FI CHESED SHE'BAH- the merit of Tzedakah is not the amount given, but the Chesed involved in troubling oneself to give properly
36)[line 32]למתיםL'MESIM- Chesed is greater than Tzedakah in that it is done to the living and to the dead
37)[line 34]כל הבא לקפוץ קופץKOL HA'BA LIKPOTZ KOFETZ- whoever wants to hasten and do the Mitzvah of Tzedakah and Chesed can do so
38)[line 34]"מה יקר חסדך א-לקים""MAH YAKAR CHASDECHA EL-KIM"- "How excellent is your love, G-d" (Tehillim 36:8).
39)[line 36]שיש עליו חןSHE'YESH ALAV CHEN- every man who is endowed with loving-kindness is without doubt a God-fearing person
40)[line 36]בידוע...B'YADU'A...- is surely...
41)[line 39]תורה לשמהTORAH LI'SHMAH- Torah which is learned for its own sake
42)[line 40]ללמדהL'LAMDAH- Torah which is studied in order to teach
43)[last line]אין שיעור למיםEIN SHI'UR L'MAYIM- no fixed amount was prescribed for the water for libations
44)[last line]כלי שרת מקדשין שלא מדעתKELEI SHARES MEKADSHIN SHE'LO MI'DA'AS- A Kli Shares makes holy anything that enters it (Shemos 30:29). TOSFOS Pesachim 63b DH Midi points out that this applies only when the utensil is in the Azarah.