[48a - 32 lines; 48b - 42 lines]
1)[line 1]פז"ר קש"בPaZaR KaSHeV- These words are a mnemonic device, used to remember the ways in which Shemini Atzeres is a festival distinct from Sukos. The Gemara enumerates the following six things:
1.Payis - see below, entry #2.
2.Zman - Shemini Atzeres requires its own Shehechiyanu blessing.
3.Regel - see below, entry #3.
4.Korban - The Korban Musaf of Shemini Atzeres does not follow the pattern of the 7 days of Sukos.
5.Shir - The Leviyim recite an entire Perek as the Shir Shel Yom, and not a half-Perek as they (sometimes) do on Sukos.
6.Berachah - see below, entry #4.
2)[line 1]פייסPAYIS- lots. On Shemini Atzeres, lots were cast to determine which Kohanim would offer each of the ten animals (one bull, one ram, one he-goat, and seven sheep) comprising that day's Korban Musaf. On Sukos, however, a rotation system among the Mishmaros determined who would offer each of the total of seventy bulls, fourteen rams, seven he-goats and ninety-eight sheep that comprised the Korbanos Musaf over the course of Sukos (Sukah 5:6).
3)[line 2]רגל בפני עצמוREGEL BI'FNEI ATZMO- it is a festival in its own right. [Therefore, a) we do not sit in the Sukah (RASHI); b) it is not referred to as one of the days of Sukos (RASHI to Yoma 3a); c) one must stay in Yerushalayim overnight (Linah) following the festival (RABEINU TAM).]
4)[line 3]ברכה בפני עצמוBERACHAH BI'FNEI ATZMO- it has its own blessing. [This refers to a) that which it is referred to as Shemini Atzeres and not Sukos during Shemoneh Esrei, Kidush, and Birkas ha'Mazon (RASHI); b) the blessing recited for the king on Shemini Atzeres (Rashi, quoting Tosefta Sukah 4:10).]
5)[line 4]ההללHA'HALEL- the [recitation of the unabridged] Halel
6)[line 4]שמחהSIMCHAH (SIMCHAS YOM TOV)
(a)There is a Mitzvah to be happy on the three holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos (Devarim 27:7). This is practically understood as a commandment to partake of meat from sacrifices every day of the holiday. If no meat from a sacrifice is readily available, one offers a Korban known as Shalmei Simchah for the express purpose of fulfilling this Mitzvah. Both men and women are obligated in this Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Chagigah 1:1).
(b)The Mitzvah of Simchah applies in a more general sense as well. The purchase of food or clothing which one enjoys is a fulfillment of this Mitzvah. Included in the Mitzvah is bringing the happiness on Yom Tov to other people, especially the poor and downtrodden. If one gorges himself while ignoring others, this is considered Simchas Kereiso (lit. happiness of the stomach; i.e. purely physical gratification) rather than Simchah Shel Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 6:17-18).
7)[line 7]מנה"מMINA HANEI MILEI?- how do we know [that one is obligated in Simchah on Shemini Atzeres, since the verse that specifies that one must be happy modifies an earlier clause stating that on must dwell in a Sukah for seven days]?
8)[line 8]"... וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ שָׂמֵחַ""... V'HAYISA ACH SAME'ACH"- "... and you shall be only happy" (Devarim 16:15) - This verse is seemingly extraneous, as the previous verse has already instructed us to be happy on Sukos.
9a)[line 8]לילי יום טוב האחרוןLAILA YOM TOV HA'ACHARON- [that a Korban Shalmei Simchah must be slaughtered on Hoshana Rabah to be eaten on] the night of Shemini Atzeres
b)[line 9]יו"ט הראשוןYOM TOV HA'RISHON- [that a Korban Shalmei Simchah must be slaughtered on Erev Sukos to be eaten on] the first night of Sukos
10)[line 10]חלקCHALAK- divides (that is, it excludes something, as every instance of the word "Ach" or "Rak" in the Torah is written as an exclusion)
11)[line 15]גמר מלאכולGAMAR MI'LE'ECHOL- if he finished eating [his daytime meal on Hoshana Rabah]
12)[line 15]יתירYATIR- [begin to] disassemble
13)[line 16]מורידMORID- [he should] bring [to the house]
14)[line 16]מן המנחה ולמעלהMIN HA'MINCHAH UL'MAILAH- between Minchah Ketanah and sunset. (Minchah Ketanah begins nine and a half Sha'os Zemaniyos into the day; a Sha'ah Zemanis is exactly one twelfth of the time between sunrise and sunset.)
15)[line 18]כי אשתמשKI ISHTAMESH- when he [ate in the Sukah, which required the] use of utensils
16)[line 19]אין לו מקום להוריד כליוEIN LO MAKOM L'HORID KEILAV- if he has nowhere [other than his Sukah] to place his utensils [and eat]
17)[line 21]פוחת בה ארבעהPOCHES BAH ARBA'AH- he [should] remove a four-Tefach-wide strip of Sechach [thereby invalidating his Sukah, so as not to transgress the prohibition against adding to a Mitzvah ("Bal Tosif"; see Background to Eruvin 96:1)]
18)[line 22]מדליק בה את הנרMADLIK BAH ES HA'NER- he [should] light a torch in the Sukah [since Rava said (Daf 29a) that a torch must be placed outside of a minimum seven-by-seven Tefach Sukah, as it either will leave him no room to maneuver (RASHI, BA'AL HA'ME'OR) or may burn it down (TOSFOS to 29a DH v'Amri, RAN)]
19a)[line 22]הא לןHA LAN- that [which one should place a torch in the Sukah] is [a good suggestion] for us [in Bavel, since we still need to sit in the Sukah on Shemini Atzeres (47a)]
b)[line 23]והא להוV'HA L'HU- and that [which one should remove some of the Sechach and invalidate the Sukah] is [a good suggestion] for them [in Eretz Yisrael, since they need not sit in the Sukah on Shemini Atzeres]
20)[line 23]הא תינח סוכה קטנהHA TEINACH SUKAH KETANAH- [the suggestion of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi] works very well for a minimum sized Sukah
21)[line 24]דמעייל בה מאני מיכלאDEME'AYIL BAH MANEI MEICHLA- [a way to make it clear that he is not adding to the Mitzvah of Sukah is] that he brings a) dirty plates (RASHI); b) pots, pans, kneading troughs, spits, etc. used in the preparation of the meal (TOSFOS to 29a DH Mana) to the Sukah
22)[line 25]בר ממטללתאBAR MI'METALALTA- outside of the Sukah
23)[line 26]מאני משתיאMANEI MISHTAYA- vessels [that had been used] for drinking (i.e., dirty cups)
24)[line 27]צלוחיתTZELOCHIS- a flask
25)[line 27]מחזקתMACHZEKES- that holds
26)[line 27]שלשה לוגיםSHELOSHAH LOGIN- approximately 1 or 1.8 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
27)[line 28]השילוחSHILO'ACH- a spring, also known as Gichon, located to the south of the Temple Mount
28)[line 28]שער המיםSHA'AR HA'MAYIM- The Water Gate, opposite the Mizbe'ach, was opened only on Sukos, as the procession carrying the water for the Nisuch ha'Mayim passed through it. The stream that passed through the Azarah, called the Amah, flowed out through this gate.
29a)[line 29]תקעוTAK'U- they blew a Teki'ah (a long blast) [on a Shofar]
b)[line 29]הריעוHARI'U- they blew a Teru'ah (a series of short blasts) [on a Shofar]
30)[line 29]כבשKEVESH- the ramp of the Mizbe'ach (see Background to 45:19:e)
31)[line 30]ספליםSEFALIM- silver bowls located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach
32)[line 31]סידSID- lime; plaster
33)[last line]שהיו מושחרין פניהםSHE'HAYU MUSHCHARIM PENEIHEM- they became externally darkened [and therefore appeared as silver]
34)[last line]מפני הייןMI'PNEI HA'YAYIN - due to the wine (NESACHIM)
(a)Nesachim are wine libations offered along with any Korban Olah or Shelamim, whether these Korbanos are offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). All Nesachim are offered along with a meal offering consisting of flour and oil known as a Minchas Nesachim (RAMBAM Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1).
(b)The Nesachim and Minchas Nesachim are not eaten. Rather, the wine is poured into the libation pipes on top of the Mizbe'ach near its SW corner (see RAMBAM Temidin u'Musafin 10:7), while the flour and oil are burned on the Mitzbe'ach.
(c)The amount of wine necessary for the libation, as well as the amount of flour and oil mixed together for the Minchas Nesachim, varies depending upon what kind of animal is being offered:
1.Bulls or cows - 1/2 Hin (6 Lugin) of wine and of oil, 3 Esronim of flour.
2.Rams (i.e. male sheep over 1 years old) - 1/3 Hin (4 Lugin) of wine and of oil, 2 Esronim of flour.
3.Other animals (i.e. male sheep under 1 year old, all female sheep and goats) - 1/4 Hin (3 Lugin) of wine and of oil, 1 Isaron of flour.
35)[last line]ומנוקבין כמין שני חוטמין דקיןU'MENUKAVIN K'MIN SHNEI CHOTMIN DAKIN- and there were two holes, a) each set in a protrusion resembling a nostril. The wine and water poured through these holes fell to the Mizbe'ach, from which they flowed to pipes leading into a hollow in the ground (RASHI); b) in the bottom of the bowl, similar to two nostrils, which led directly into pipes that extended into a hollow in the ground (TOSFOS DH k'Min, first explanation); c) in the bowl, each of which was protected by a projection similar to a nostril that prevented it from becoming clogged with debris (TOSFOS DH k'Min, second explanation)
36)[line 1]מעובהME'UVAH- was thick
37)[line 2]שניהםSHENEIHEM- both [the water of the Nisuch ha'Mayim and the wine of the Nesachim of the Korban Tamid, which were poured into the Sefalim together]
38)[line 2]כליןKALIN- finish [draining]
39)[line 3]עירהIRA- [if] he poured
40)[line 6]הגבה ידך!HAGBEI YADCHA!- raise your hands [so that we can clearly see what you are doing]!
41)[line 6]נסך אחד על גבי רגליוNASACH ECHAD AL GABEI RAGLAV - one individual poured it out over his feet (TZEDUKIM)
(a)The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Beitusim were students of Beitus. Both of these individuals rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
(b)The Kohen in this story was a Tzeduki who rejected the Nisuch ha'Mayim, since it is learned from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.
42)[line 7]ורגמוהוU'RGAMUHU- and they stoned him
43)[line 10]שאינה מקודשתSHE'EINAH MEKUDESHES- that was not sanctified
44)[line 11]נתגלתהNISGALSAH- [or if] it was uncovered [over the course of the night]
45)[line 11]כיורKIYOR- the large, twelve-faucet basin of water in the Azarah, from which the Kohanim washed their hands and feet (see Background to Yoma 43:39)
46)[line 12]פסולין לגבי מזבחPESULIN L'GABEI MIZBE'ACH- may not be poured upon the Mizbe'ach [since a snake may have drunk from them, releasing venom. In that case not all of the three Login necessary for the Nisuch ha'Mayim are water (see Insights)]
47)[line 13]מנא הנ"מMINA HANEI MILEI?- how do we know [that a) a Shofar should be sounded in conjunction with the Nisuch ha'Mayim (RASHI); b) the water used in the Nisuch ha'Mayim must be fresh spring water (from a "Ma'ayan") (TOSFOS DH Mina; see Insights)]?
48)[line 14]"וּשְׁאַבְתֶּם מַיִם בְּשָׂשׂוֹן מִמַּעַיְנֵי הַיְשׁוּעָה""U'SHE'AVTEM MAYIM B'SASON MI'MA'AYNEI HA'YESHU'AH" - "And you will draw water with happiness from the fountains of salvation" (Yeshayah 12:3) (THE INCREASE IN TORAH KNOWLEDGE AND DIVINE INSPIRATION IN THE TIME OF MASHI'ACH)
(a)When Mashi'ach arrives, all of the nations of the world will be punished for their misdeeds, while Klal Yisrael will finally understand that their suffering in exile served to atone for their sins. The Navi describes how their newfound freedom will open their hearts and allow them to comprehend the secrets of Torah that had been forgotten during the bitter Galus, as well as to absorb Divine Inspiration.
49)[line 14]הנהו תרי מיניHANAHU TREI MINEI- [there were] a cetain two heretics. This interchange between the two Minim is quoted in our Gemara since our Mishnah alluded to the fact that the Tzedukim did not believe in the practice of Nisuch ha'Mayim. Our Gemara therefore recounts some of the preposterous meanings that such individuals ascribed to verses from the Torah (MAHARSHA; see Insights for an alternate understanding of this Gemara).
50)[line 16]עדיפנאADIFNA- am better
51)[line 16]"... שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגו ...""... SASON V'SIMCHAH YASIGU..."- "... they will attain joy and happiness..." (Yeshayah 35:10). This verse, too, describes the happiness and joy that Klal Yisrael will experience upon their return from exile (see above, entry #49). Sason attempted to prove his superiority from that which his name was mentioned in this verse before that of Simchah.
52)[line 18]"... שִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשׂוֹן לַיְּהוּדִים...""... SIMCHAH V'SASON LA'YEHUDIM..." - "[And in every country and in every city, wherever the royal edict and his law reached,] there was happiness and joy for the Jews [feasting and a festival atmosphere; and many of the people of the land converted, for the dread of the Jews had fallen upon them" (Esther 8:17) (ESTHER: THE TABLES ARE TURNED)
(a)The wicked Haman, together with King Achashverosh, sent a royal edict proclaiming that throughout Persia and Media, the Jews were to be wiped out on the fourteenth of Adar. After Haman's downfall, Mordechai and Esther convinced the king to send another royal proclamation, this time granting the Jews the royal right to defend themselves.
(b)The Jews, who had just spent three days fasting, rejoiced and gave thanks to HaSh-m for their salvation. The Nochrim, on the other hand, were bewildered and frightened.
(c)Simchah attempted to prove his superiority from that which his name was mentioned in this verse before that of Sason.
53a)[line 19]שבקוךSHAVKUCH- you will be ousted [from your current status]
b)[line 19]ושויוך פרוונקאV'SHAVYUCH PARVANKA- and you will be designated as a guide
54)[line 20]"כִּי בְשִׂמְחָה תֵצֵאוּ...""KI V'SIMCHAH SETZE'U..."- "For in gladness you shall go out [from Galus]..." (Yeshayah 55:12) This verse, too, describes the happiness and joy that Klal Yisrael will experience upon their return from exile (see above, entry #49).
55)[line 21]ומלו בך מיאU'MALU BACH MAYA- and they will use you to fill water (i.e., as a water carrier)
56)[line 23]עתידיתוASIDISU- it is in your future
57)[line 24]לעלמא דאתיL'ALMA D'ASI- in the next world
58a)[line 26]משכיה דההוא גבראMASHCHEI DEHA'HU GAVRA- the skin of that person (i.e., you)
b)[line 27]משוינן ליה גודאMASHVINAN LEI GUDA- will be made into a leather canteen
59)[line 30]מקיפיןMAKIFIN- circle
60)[line 31]חוזרין על העקבCHOZRIN AL HA'AKEV- they return the way they came
61)[line 31]עולת העוף כשרבתה במזרחOLAS HA'OF KESHE'RABSAH BA'MIZRACH - a bird Olah-offering, when there are too many of them at the east[-ern side of the Mizbe'ach] (OLAS HA'OF)
(a)The offering of a bird as a Korban Olah consists of four procedures:
1.MELIKAH - Standing on the Sovev (see Background to Yoma 22:15) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen holds the bird in his right hand and pierces its neck from the back with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut through one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus).
2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach, squeezing its blood onto the Mizbe'ach above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half.
3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it on to the fire atop the Mizbe'ach.
4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen removes the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them on to the pile of ash at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire.
(b)Although Melikah is generally performed upon the Olas ha'Of on the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach, if that corner is so full of Kohanim doing so that there is no more space to stand there then a Kohen may move over to the southwestern corner and be Molek an Olas ha'Of there.
62)[line 35]בלוג היה מנסךB'LOG HAYAH MENASECH- one Log of water was poured during the Nisuch ha'Mayim ceremony. Since the Nesachim (see above, entry #35) of the Korban Tamid, which were poured along with the water, consisted of three Login of wine, the large hole was for the larger amount of wine and the smaller hole for the lesser amount of water.
63)[line 36]כי הדדי נינהו!KI HADADEI NINHU!- [the amounts of wine and water] are equal to each other!
64a)[line 36]חמרא סמיךCHAMRA SAMICH- wine is viscous
b)[line 37]מיא קלישMAYA KALISH- water is thin
65)[line 37]רחב וקצר אית ליהRACHAV V'KATZAR IS LEI- he describes the holes as "wide" and "narrow" [which imply a greater degree of difference than "thick" and "thin"]
66)[line 38]קשוואותKASVA'OS- bowls
67)[line 41]נפגמה קרן המזבחNIFGEMAH KEREN HA'MIZBE'ACH- a cubic Amah corner-post of the Mizbe'ach was damaged
68a)[line 41]בול של מלחBUL SHEL MELACH- a chunk of salt
b)[last line]וסתמוהוU'STAMUHU- and plugged the hole [with it]