12th CYCLE DEDICATIONS
 
SUKAH 11 - Dedicated by Dr. and Mrs. Moshe & Rivky Snow of Queens, N.Y., in memory of Dr. Snow's mother, Esther Miriam bas Harav Chaim Zev; his father, Harav Raphael Yisroel ben Moshe; and Mrs. Snow's uncle, Harav Baruch Mayer ben Harav Gedaliah Aharon (Rabinowitz). The Yahrzeit of Rabbis Snow and Rabinowitz is 8 Elul.

[11a - 47 lines; 11b - 53 lines]

1)[line 4]כילת חתניםKILAS CHASANIM- a tent-like canopy created by draping a sheet over a bar that runs from a post rising from the middle of the head of a bed to another rising from the middle of the foot of the bed. (It differs slightly in design from Naklitei ha'Mitah [see Background to 10:10])

2a)[line 12]ליהוי כקינופותLEIHAVEI K'KINOFOS- let [Naklitei ha'Mitah] have the status of Kinofos [the airspace of which is not considered to be in the Sukah even if they are not ten Tefachim tall]

b)[line 12]לגבי קינופות לא קביעיL'GABEI KINOFOS LO KEVI'I- they are not permanent relative to Kinofos [since Kinofos have a flat roof more than an Amah wide]

3)[line 20]לגבה עשויהL'GABAH ASUYAH- it is intended for [one to lie] upon it

4)[line 24]הדלה עליהHIDLAH ALEHA- if one lifted [and stretched] over a Sukah

5a)[line 24]הגפןHA'GEFEN- a grapevine

b)[line 24]הדלעתHA'DELA'AS- a gourd plant (which grows in long tendrils)

c)[line 25]הקיסוסHA'KISOS- a thick ivy with tree-like roots

6)[line 26]קצצןKETZATZAN- that he cut them

7)[line 27]מקבל טומאהMEKABEL TUM'AH (TUM'AH)

(a)All objects belong to one of the following three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)Any object other than a person, vessel, food, or drink cannot receive Tum'ah.

8)[line 31]צריך לנענעTZARICH L'NA'ANE'A (TA'ASEH V'LO MIN HE'ASUY)

(a)Many Mitzvos in the Torah require a positive action. When describing certain of these Mitzvos, the Torah uses the term "Ta'aseh" -- "you should make". Examples of such Mitzvos are Tzitzis ("Gedilim Ta'aseh Lach ..." [Devarim 22:12]) and Sukah (Chag ha'Sukos Ta'aseh Lecha ... [Devarim 16:13]).

(b)Chazal understand from this terminology that one must actively create a situation resulting in Tzitzis on his garment or Sechach atop his Sukah. If his action is performed upon something else resulting in Tzitzis or a kosher Sukah as a side effect, then the Tzitzis or Sukah is invalid. This is known as "Ta'aseh" -- v'Lo Min he'Asuy.

(c)An example of the application of this Halachah is that one may not dig a niche in the side of a haystack in order to form a Sukah, even if it that niche is large enough to meet the specifications of a minimally sized Sukah. Although all of the necessary materials are in place, the Sechach was created by default. One therefore must lift up the upper section of the haystack and then replace it, thereby directly placing Sechach upon his Sukah.

(d)There is a Machlokes between Acharonim regarding whether Ta'aseh v'Lo Min he'Asuy applies to Sechach only when the invalidation was inherent to the Sechach (such as in the case described above), or even if the reason why the Sukah was invalid until this point was due to reasons other than the validity of the Sechach. See Insights for further elucidation of this topic.

(e)Rav Yosef claimed that Rav required that Sechach placed upon a Sukah while still growing from the ground must be lifted and then replaced ("l'Na'ane'a") for the reason of Ta'aseh v'Lo Min he'Asuy.

9)[line 32]אהדרינהו רב יוסף לאפיהAHADRINHU RAV YOSEF L'APEI- Rav Yosef turned away [from Rav Huna angrily]

10)[line 37]רמא תכלתא לפרזומא דאינשי ביתיהRAMA TECHELTA L'PARZUMA D'INSHEI BEISEI- attached Tzitzis to the Talis of the members of his household (including his wife). Rav Amram Chasida was of the opinion that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis is required at night as well, in which case it is not a time-bound Mitzvah. Women are therefore obligated in it as well (see Background to Eruvin 96:7).

11a)[line 38]תלאןTELA'AN- he hung them [in holes in the corners of the garment]

b)[line 38]לא פסק ראשי חוטין שלהןLO PASAK ROSHEI CHUTIN SHE'LAHEN- without [first] cutting their ends (i.e., he folded one long string into quarters, slipped it through the hole in the corner of the garment, and tied the Tzitzis before snipping the ends into four separate strands)

12a)[line 44]הטיל לשני קרנות בבת אחתHITIL L'SHNEI KERANOS B'VAS ACHAS- he [folded one long string into quarters and] slipped it through [the holes in] two corners of the garment [and tied them into Tzitzis]

b)[line 44]ואחר כך פסק ראשי חוטין שלהןV'ACHAR KACH PASAK ROSHEI CHUTIN SHE'LAHEN- and [only] afterward severed the strings [intended for each respective corner] from each other

11b----------------------------------------11b

13)[line 1]כנף בשעת פתילKANAF B'SHE'AS PESIL- that the strings of the Tzitzis be attached to only one corner at a time. (This assumption is based upon the wording of the following verse: "... v'Nasnu Al Tzitzis ha'Kanaf Pesil Techeles" [Bamidbar 15:38].)

14)[line 18]שלפינהו שלופיSHALFINHU SHELUFEI- he a) completely severed [the branches from the plant, such that they are lying away from the main "trunk"] (RASHI); b) cut through [the branches such that they no longer receive any nourishment from the plant, although they still hang in place due to that which they are not fully severed] (TOSFOS); c) uprooted the plant [and left it in place] (RASHASH)

15)[line 21]עבר וליקטןAVAR V'LIKTAN- The Mishnah (32b) states that a Hadas that has more berries than leaves is not valid for the Mitzvah of Arba Minim (see next entry). If one removes the berries, then it is then kosher, although one may not do so on Yom Tov. The Machlokes quoted in our Gemara concerns one who transgressed and picked off the berries of such a Hadas on Yom Tov.

16)[line 23]לולב צריך אגדLULAV TZARICH EGED (LULAV TZARICH EGED / LULAV EIN TZARICH EGED)

(a)Every adult Jewish male must hold four types of branches or fruits on the first day of Sukos. These four species consist of Pri Etz Hadar (an Esrog; a citron, a fruit closely related to the lemon), Kapos Temarim (a Lulav; a branch from a palm tree cut prior to the opening and spreading of its leaves), Anaf Etz Avos (Hadasim; myrtle branches) and Arvei Nachal (Aravos; willow branches) (Vayikra 23:40). It is customary to hold one Esrog, one Lulav, three Hadasim, and two Aravos. The Esrog is held in the left hand, whereas the other three species are held together in the right.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah maintains that the three Minim held in the left hand must be tied together in a bundle (Eged). This is termed "Lulav Tzarich Eged", since the Lulav is the most prominent of those three species. The Chachamim are of the opinion that one is able to fulfill the Mitzvah of Arba Minim whether or not he has tied these Minim together.

17)[line 40]אגודת אזובAGUDAS EZOV

(a)The first Korban Pesach (see Background to Pesachim 41:20) in history was offered by Klal Yisrael in Mitzrayim, just before they left. There were a number of differences between this "Pesach Mitzrayim" and a regular Korban Pesach.

(b)One of these differences was that the blood of the Pesach Mitzrayim was applied to the doorposts and lintel of the front door of every Jew in Mitzrayim. Since the Mal'ach ha'Maves (angel of death) was allowed to roam the streets of Mitzrayim that night in order to kill the firstborn sons of the Egyptians, Hash-m commanded Klal Yisrael to do so as a sign that these were Jewish houses, and that the Mal'ach ha'Maves should not enter. The blood was applied with an Agudas Ezov - a bundle of hyssop branches tied together (Shemos 12:21-23).

18)[line 42]לקיחה מלקחה לא ילפינןLEKICHAH MI'LEKICHAH LO YALFINAN- do not [have a tradition] to expound the Gezeirah Shavah of Lekichah Lekichah

19)[line 45]"זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ ..." התנאה לפניו במצותZEH KELI V'ANVEHU ... (HIDUR MITZVAH)

(a)In the song sung by Klal Yisrael following the splitting of the Yam Suf, the phrase "Zeh Keli v'Anvehu" -- "This is my G-d and I shall glorify him" -- appears. Chazal derive from this verse that one should beautify Mitzvos that he performs. This is known as Hidur Mitzvah. Applications of this Halachah include the decorations hung in a Sukah, the beauty of the calligraphy of a Sefer Torah, and the beautification of the garment upon which Tzitzis are attached.

(b)The Gemara (Bava Kama 9a-b) determines that one must spend up to an additional third on a Mitzvah item if is more beautiful than the cheaper option. The Gemara is unsure if this means an additional 33% or an additional 50%. Anything beyond this amount is "Shel ha'Kadosh Hu". This means a) that Hash-m will pay him back (RASHI); b) that he will receive reward in both this world and the next (TOSFOS); c) that he should only spend more than a third if he is wealthy (RA'AVAD quoted in the SHITAH).

20)[line 46]"וְאֵד יַעֲלֶה מִן-הָאָרֶץ, [וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת-כָּל-פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה.]""V'ED YA'ALEH MIN HA'ARETZ, [V'HISHKAH ES KOL PNEI HA'ADAMAH.]"- "And a mist arose from the ground, and watered the entire surface of the earth" (Bereishis 2:6). Resh Lakish proves from this verse that a cloud "grows" from the earth.

21)[line 48]ענני כבוד היוANANEI KAVOD HAYU- [that the Sukos which Hash-m provided for Klal Yisrael in the desert (Vayikra 23:43)] were [comprised of] Clouds of [Hash-m's] Glory

22)[line 52]חגיגהCHAGIGAH (KORBAN CHAGIGAH)

(a)Every adult Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavu'os, and Sukos, and offer an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14). A Korban Chagigah is offered as a Korban Shelamim (see Background to Yoma 62:32).

(b)If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the subsequent days (where applicable; see Insights to Chagigah 9:1). The Gemara (Chagigah 7a) records a disagreement regarding whether or not one is required (or, for that matter, permitted) to bring more than one Korban Chagigah if he comes to the Azarah on more than one day of a festival.

23)[line 52]מקיש סוכה לחגיגהMAKISH SUKAH L'CHAGIGAH- Rebbi Yochanan interprets the word "Chag" in the Pasuk as referring to the Korban Chagigah.

24)[last line]וגידולו מן הארץV'GIDULO MIN HA'ARETZ- Rebbi Yochanan understands that an animal is considered to "grow" from the ground since it is nourished by that which is produced by the earth. This is as opposed to fish, which are not considered to grow from the ground.

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