1)[line 6]לישניה דאיתקילא ליהLISHNEI D'ITKILA LEI- it was his tongue that stumbled (and he did not intend to say "I will not eat")

2)[line 7]מבטא שבועהMIVTA SHEVU'AH- the use of the word "Mivta" is a Shevu'ah

3)[line 8]איסר שבועהISAR SHEVU'AH- the use of the word "Isar" is a Shevu'ah

4)[line 12]איסר מיתפיס בשבועהISAR MITPIS BI'SHEVU'AH - the word "Isar" connects to an oath. If one says, "Isar this loaf upon me," it is as if he first swore not to eat a different loaf and then said, "This loaf is like the first loaf" (NEDER: HATFASAH)

A Neder can be made by "connecting" an object that is permitted to another object that is prohibited, such as a Korban. This is referred to as a Neder performed through "Hatfasah." (See Insights to Nedarim 2:2.) Similarly, the Hatfasah of Nezirus occurs when one "connects" himself to another Nazir with words such as, "I am like him."

5)[line 12]איסור איסרISUR ISAR- the prohibition created by using the word "Isar"

6)[line 28]דאיסר הטילו הכתוב בין נדר לשבועהD'ISAR HITILU HA'KASUV BEIN NEDER L'SHEVU'AH- [the nature of the prohibition created with the word "Isar" depends on how the word is used,] because the Torah placed it between the laws of Neder and the laws of Shevu'ah. Accordingly, a declaration made with the word "Isar" can be associated with either a Neder or a Shevu'ah, depending on how the declaration is phrased.

7)[line 30]היכן הטילוHEICHAN HITILU- where did the Torah place it (the concept of Isar between Neder and Shevu'ah)?

8)[line 36]כיום שמת בו אביוKA'YOM SHE'MES BO AVIV- on the day that his father died. If one says, "It is upon me not to eat meat or drink wine like on the day my father died," he is prohibited from eating meat or drinking wine on that day. Shmuel maintains that the Neder takes effect only if he had previously made a Neder forbidding meat and wine to himself on the anniversary of his father's death.

9)[line 41]מדמתפיס בנדר נדרMID'MATPIS B'NEDER NEDER- since [the Beraisa mentions] Hatfasah to a Neder is a valid Neder, [it mentions also that Hatfasah to a Shevu'ah is a valid Shevu'ah]


10)[line 1]תריץ ואימא הכיTARITZ V'EIMA HACHI- answer the question and explain [the Beraisa] this way

11)[line 7]עד שידור בדבר הנדורAD SHE'YIDOR B'DAVAR HA'NADUR- [a vow is ineffective] until one vows by attaching his prohibition onto another objected prohibited by a vow. A Davar ha'Nadur is an object that has been prohibited through either a Neder or through Hekdesh (consecration, such as a Korban).

12)[line 16]אוכל ולא אוכל שקרOCHAL V'LO OCHAL SHEKER- [when one swears] "I will eat" or "I will not eat" (and then transgresses), this constitutes a Shevu'as Sheker, a false oath (and is forbidden by the verse, "v'Lo Sishav'u bi'Shmi la'Shaker")

13)[line 17]אכלתי ולא אכלתי שואACHALTI V'LO ACHALTI SHAV- [when one swears falsely] "I ate" or "I did not eat," this constitutes a Shevu'as Shav, an oath made in vain (and is forbidden by the verse, "Lo Tisa... la'Shav")

14)[line 19]קונמותKONAMOS - (NEDARIM: KINUYIM)

(a)The Torah empowers a person to create a prohibition, or obligation, upon himself through the means of his speech, as the verse states (Bamidbar 30:3), "If a man makes a "Neder" (vow) to Hash-m, or swears a "Shevu'ah" (oath) to create a prohibition upon himself, he may not violate his word. As he spoke, he shall do." By pronouncing a Shevu'ah (pl. Shevu'os) one can either prohibit an act that was formerly permitted, or make obligatory an act that was formerly voluntary. By pronouncing a Neder (pl. Nedarim), in contrast, one can only prohibit and not obligate, with the exception of Nidrei Hekdesh (vows to consecrate a sacrifice) which can also obligate a person (to bring the sacrifice he vowed). The description that follows deals exclusively with normal Nedarim ("Nidrei Isur") as opposed to Nidrei Hekdesh.

(b)A Neder differs from a Shevu'ah primarily in that when a person expresses a Neder, he must place a prohibition upon an object (e.g. "this loaf of bread is prohibited to me"). In contrast, when he expresses a Shevu'ah, he places a prohibition upon himself (e.g. "I am prohibited to eat this loaf of bread"), as the Gemara says in Nedarim 2b (see Insights to Nedarim 2:3). (It is not clear into which of these two categories Nezirus falls, see Insights to Nazir 4:1:(b):2.) There are several important consequences of this primary difference:

1.A Neder, which prohibits an object, can prohibit the object not only to oneself but to others as well, as long as the object belongs to the person who expressed the Neder.

2.A Shevu'ah can prohibit an action that is not related to any tangible object ("Davar she'Ein Bo Mamash") such as sleeping. In contrast, a Neder cannot take effect on an intangible object, because the prohibition must have an object upon which to take effect (Nedarim 16b; the Mishnah and Gemara there suggest many other practical consequences of this difference between Nedarim and Shevu'os.)

(c)A Neder can be made by "connecting" an object that is permitted to another object that is prohibited, such as a Korban. (Some Rishonim refer to this as "a Neder performed through Hatfasah." Some Rishonim maintain that this is an integral part of the expression of a Neder without which the Neder is not binding, see Insights to Nedarim 2:2). The Gemara explains that when making a Neder, one may only connect an object to a "Davar ha'Nadur," i.e. another object which has been prohibited either through a Neder or by becoming Hekdesh (consecrated). If one attempts to make a Neder by connecting an object to a "Davar ha'Asur," the Neder is not binding (Nedarim 14a). "Davar ha'Asur" in this context refers to an object which is not prohibited because of an Isur that a person placed upon it, but because of an Isur Torah that applied to it naturally (e.g. meat that was cooked with milk, or a non-Kosher animal). According to some Tana'im, if a Neder is pronounced by connecting an object to an object of Hekdesh, the object of the Neder, too, becomes Hekdesh to the extent that one who benefits from it must bring a Korban Me'ilah (Nedarim 35a, see Background to Yevamos 88:6).

(d)One who violates a Neder transgresses a Mitzvas Aseh (Bamidbar ibid., Devarim 23:24) and a Mitzvas Lo Sa'aseh (Bamidbar ibid.) and is punished with Malkus, 39 lashes (RAMBAM Hilchos Nedarim 1:4-5).

(e)A person can create a Neder or Shevu'ah with a Kinuy, an expression using a corrupted form of a word, such as "Konam" (pl. Konamos) instead of "Korban" or "Shevusa" instead of "Shevuah" (Nedarim 2a).

(f)The Amora'im argue as to whether these expressions are actual words in foreign languages that are loosely based on the Hebrew vocabulary, or whether they are expressions that the Chachamim instituted for the specific purpose of creating Nedarim (Nedarim 10a). In either case, it is preferable to use Kinuyim when making a Neder rather than the proper Hebrew term, so that one should not come to utter the Name of HaSh-m in vain (ibid.); if one uses the proper Hebrew term it is more likely that one will utter the Holy Name along with it by association.

15)[line 23]מידי איריא הא כדאיתא והא כדאיתאMIDI IRYA? HA KED'ISA V'HA KED'ISA- is this any proof? This [case] is unique unto itself, and the other is unique unto itself!

16)[line 29]נשים חייבות בקידוש היום דבר תורהNASHIM CHAYAVOS B'KIDUSH HA'YOM DEVAR TORAH- women are obligated in Kidush of the Day of Shabbos (recited at night, at the onset of Shabbos) by Torah law

17)[line 31]שישנוSHE'YESHNO- whoever has [the obligation of]

18)[line 32]ואיתנהוV'ISNEHU- and they (women) are included in the obligation of Shemirah (refraining from Melachah) on Shabbos

19)[line 36]כלפי לייאKELAPEI LAYA- towards which direction is it turning? (The opposite would be reasonable!)

20)[line 39]לא ינקה כללLO YENAKEH KLAL- [perhaps] HaSh-m will not cleanse [him of his transgression] at all. Rav Papa argues that perhaps the verse means that HaSh-m will not allow anything, even Malkus, to absolve the sinner from his transgression of making an oath in vain.