USING KELIM FOR UNUSUAL PURPOSES ON SHABBOS
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If there is garlic in a Meduchah (a bowl in which things are pounded), it may be moved; if not, not.
Answer (Rabah): That is like R. Nechemyah, who permits moving a Kli only for its intended purpose.
Question (Abaye - Mishnah - Beis Shamai): One may not take an Eli (a thick board used to crush wheat) to cut meat on it [on Yom Tov];
Beis Hillel permit.
Both agree that if one cut meat on it, it may not be moved [afterwards - even Beis Hillel permit only for the sake of Simchas Yom Tov].
Intended Answer: Rabah was going to answer that also this is like R. Nechemyah;
Answer: Rabah heard Rav Chinena say that all agree about dying (alternatively - weaving) tools (they may not be used for other purposes) - since people care about them, they fix a place for them - we can say the same about an Eli.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): The Mishnah permits a hammer used to beat gold (people are not so concerned for it, for banging it on the anvil fixes it).
(R. Shemen bar Aba): It permits a hammer used to grind spices.
All the more so, R. Shemen permits a hammer for gold - but R. Chiya forbids a hammer for spices, people are insistent that it not get repulsive.
TILTUL MIN HA'TZAD
(Mishnah): A spindle or Karkar...
(Beraisa): If an unripe fig was wrapped in straw, or if a cake was wrapped in coals:
If it is partially exposed, one may move it; if not, not;
R. Eliezer ben Tadai says, one may insert a spindle or Karkar into it [and take it], the wrapping falls off by itself.
(Rav Nachman): The Halachah follows R. Eliezer ben Tadai.
Question: This implies that Rav Nachman holds that Tiltul Min ha'Tzad Lo Shmei Tiltul (indirect movement [of Muktzeh] is not considered movement, it is permitted);
However, he permits to remove a radish that is partially in the ground only if it is right side up (for the top is wider, so he does not move dirt when taking it), not if it is upside down!
Answer: Rav Nachman retracted from that teaching [about the radish].
ARE THE LAWS OF TUM'AH AND SHABBOS INDEPENDENT?
(Mishnah): A hand needle [to remove a thorn].
Question (Rava brei d'Rabah): May one move a needle if its hole or point was removed?
Answer (Rav Yosef - Mishnah): A hand needle, to remove a thorn.
The hole is not needed to remove a thorn!
Question (Mishnah): If the hole or point of a needle is missing, it is Tahor.
Answer (Abaye): You cannot ask from Tum'ah to Shabbos!
Tum'ah depends on 'Kli Ma'aseh' (it still serves the use it was made for), Shabbos depends on being useful - it can remove a thorn!
Objection (Rava): He can ask - since it is not a Kli regarding Tum'ah [even if it will be designated for use], it is not a Kli regarding Shabbos!
Question (Beraisa): A needle may be moved on Shabbos whether or not it has a hole - only Tum'ah depends on having a hole.
Answer (Abaye, for Rava): The Beraisa discusses unfinished needles - sometimes one decides to use them as is [without a hole, therefore they may be moved];
However, if the hole or point of a finished needle was removed, one throws it amidst scrap metal (it is no longer a Kli).
(Rav Nachman): Asuvi Yenuka (to straighten limbs of a baby [that were disturbed through birth; R. Chananel - removing Orlah [excess flesh] of the throat from a baby using the fingers, this often indices vomiting] is forbidden;
(Rav Sheshes): It is permitted.
Support (Rav Nachman, for himself - Mishnah): One may not drink Afiktizin [to make himself vomit, to make room to eat more];
Rejection (Rav Sheshes): That is abnormal, but Asuvi Yenuka is normal (Rashi - like eating and drinking).
Support (Rav Sheshes, for himself - Mishnah): [One may take] a hand needle to remove a thorn.
Rejection (Rav Nachman): The thorn is merely deposited in the skin (it is not embedded), removing it is not Tikun (fixing something) - you cannot say this about the limbs (R. Chananel - Orlah), Asuvi Yenuka is Tikun!
(Mishnah): An olive stick (used to flip and check olives waiting to be pressed) is Mekabel Tum'ah only if it has a cap at the end;
In either case it may be moved on Shabbos.
(Gemara) Question: [Even if it has a cap,] it is a Pashut Kli Etz (wooden Kli that does not hold anything), it is not Mekabel Tum'ah!
Question: Why are Peshutei Klei Etz Tehorim?
Answer: Klei Etz that Mekabel Tum'ah are equated to Sak, i.e. they must hold something.
Answer (Beraisa): When one flips the olives, one turns it over to see if there is oil in the cap (it is like a receptacle).
WHICH KELIM MAY BE MOVED ON SHABBOS?
(Mishnah - R. Yosi): Any Kli may be moved, except for a big saw or the blade of a plow (people do not use them for anything else).
(Gemara - Rav Nachman): A launderer's sieve (used to sprinkle water on clothes or to enable clothes to absorb scent of incense) is like a plow blade.
(Abaye): A knife of shoemakers (for cutting or scraping leather) or of butchers (for chopping meat or slaughtering) and a carpenter's axe are like a plow blade.
(Beraisa): At first, they said that only three Kelim may be moved (Tosfos - except for Kelim that hold things - surely, cups, bowls and plates were permitted) - a knife to cut a ring of figs, a big spoon to remove froth from pots and a small table knife;
They permitted more, and permitted more, until they permitted all Kelim except for a big saw or a plow blade.
Question: What does it mean 'They permitted more, and permitted more'?
Answer #1 (Abaye): They permitted to use Kli she'Melachto l'Heter (it is used for something permitted on Shabbos), then permitted to move it when its place is needed, then permitted to use Kli she'Melachto l'Isur (for permitted uses) but not for the sake of its place;
Still, only Kelim that can be moved with one hand were permitted, not those that require two, until they permitted all Kelim (with exceptions), even those that require two hands.
Objection (Rava): It says that they permitted - this applies to its use and for its place!
Answer #2 (Rava): They permitted Kli she'Melachto l'Heter both for its use and place, then permitted to move it out of the sun to the shade [so it will not get ruined]; later, they permitted Kli she'Melachto l'Isur for its use or place, but not from the sun to the shade;
Still, only Kelim that can be moved by one person were permitted, not those that require two, until they permitted all Kelim, even those that require two people.
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If there is garlic in a Meduchah, it may be moved; if not, not.
Answer (Rava): That refers to moving it from the sun to the shade.
Question (Beraisa): Both [Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel] agree that if one cut meat on it (an Eli) it may not be moved.
Answer (Rava): Also that refers to moving it from the sun to the shade.
(R. Chanina): This Beraisa (that only three Kelim were permitted at first) was taught in the days of the Navi Nechemyah - "Ba'Yamim ha'Hemah Ra'isi bi'Yhudah Dorchim Gitos ba'Shabbos u'Mevi'im ha'Arimos" (people were Mechalel Shabbos, it was necessary to be extra stringent).