[123a - 45 lines; 123b - 38 lines]

1)[line 2]מדוכהMEDOCHAH- a mortar

2)[line 3]שוםSHUM- garlic

3)[line 6]העליHA'ELI- a pestle

4)[line 10]סיכיSIKEI- (a) tools used by painters (RASHI); (b) the upright supports of the loom which rest on the ground (RASHI, citing RABEINU HA'LEVI); (c) pegs that are used to unravel silk (RABEINU CHANANEL)

5)[line 11]זייריZAIREI- (a) tools used by painters (RASHI); (b) laze rods (thin wooden sticks that keep the Shesi (warp) threads distinct) (RASHI, citing RABEINU HA'LEVI); (c) flat boards or beams that are used to press clothes that have been cleaned (RABEINU CHANANEL)

6)[line 11]מזוריMEZOREI- (a) tools used by painters (RASHI); (b) the two round, heavy beams of the loom, one which holds the unwoven Shesi (warp) threads and one which holds the finished cloth (RASHI, citing RABEINU HA'LEVI); (c) wooden utensils used by clothes-washers to beat clothes (that are immersed in water) against a rock in order to clean them (RABEINU CHANANEL)

7)[line 11]מייחד להו מקוםMEYACHED LEHU MAKOM- he designates a place for them, i.e. he sets them aside so that they should not be used except for their specific purpose

8)[line 13]זָהָבִיםZAHAVIM- goldsmiths

9)[line 14]בַּשָּׂמִיםBASAMIM- spice dealers

10)[line 18]פגהPAGAH- an unripe fig

11)[line 18]חררהCHARARAH- a flat cake baked on coals

12)[line 23]טלטול מן הצדTILTUL MIN HA'TZAD- moving something in an indirect manner - see Insights to Shabbos 44:1

13)[line 28](חררה) חורה(CHARARAH) CHORAH- its hole

14)[line 28]עוקצהUKTZAH- its point

15)[line 41]גולמיGOLMEI- unfinished needles

16)[line 43]גרוטאותGRUTA'OS- broken pieces of metal

17)[line 43]אסובי ינוקאASUVEI YENUKA- (a) straightening or smoothing out the limbs of a newborn baby, including relocating dislocated joints (RASHI); (b) extracting a dislocated bone from the throat of a newborn, which may induce vomiting (RABEINU CHANANEL). See Insights.


18)[line 1]אפיקטויזיןAPIKTVIZIN- a potion taken to induce vomiting [in order to eat more food]. This word is a combination of the words APIK (exuding) TVEI (abundance) ZIN (food).

19)[line 4]פקידPAKID- [the thorn] is only located there (lit. deposited there) temporarily. There is no connection between thorn and skin that would render the extraction "Tikun" (repair) of the body

20)[line 5]קנה של זיתיםKANEH SHEL ZEISIM- a long reed or rod used to turn over olives that are packed in a vat or pit to soften. The amount of oil that adheres to the reed determines whether the olives are ready to be pressed.

21)[line 5]קשרKESHER- a knot in the reed where oil is retained

22)[line 8]פשוטי כלי עץPESHUTEI KLEI ETZ - Wooden Utensils that do Not Have a Receptacle

(a)The Torah teaches (Vayikra 11:32) that vessels made of certain types of material become Tamei when they come into contact with a Mes or a Sheretz.

(b)Vessels made of wood, fabric (wool, linen, canvas, etc.), leather, sack (made of goat hair), and bone do not become Tamei through contact with a Mes or Sheretz unless they have a receptacle (that is, the vessel must be made in such a way that it can be filled with another object or liquid). This Halachah is derived from a Hekesh which compares the above mentioned materials to a sack, which always has a receptacle to hold things (Gemara Chagigah 26b). Therefore, wooden utensils that do not have a receptacle ("Peshutei Klei Etz") cannot become Tamei with Tum'as Mes or Tum'as Sheretz.

23)[line 12]המסר הגדולMASAR HA'GADOL- a large saw (used for cutting beams)

24)[line 13]יתד של מחרישהYASED SHEL MACHAREISHAH- the spike of a plow (used for making furrows)

25)[line 14]אוכלא דקצריUCHLA D'KATZREI- (a) a copper utensil shaped like a sieve that is used by clothes-washers to sprinkle water onto garments (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa UVLA D'KATZREI - the large rock used by clothes-washers against which they beat clothes (that are immersed in water) to clean them (RABEINU CHANANEL)

26)[line 15]חרבא דאושכפיCHARBA D'USHKEFEI- the knife of leather-workers

27)[line 15]סכינא דאשכבתאSAKINA D'ASHKAVTA- (a) a butcher's knife (RASHI); (b) a Shochet's knife (RABEINU CHANANEL)

28)[line 16]חצינא דנגריCHATZINA D'NAGAREI- (O.F. doledoire) carpenter's adze, a type of ax

29)[line 18]מקצועMAKTZU'A- tool for cutting fig or date cakes

30)[line 18]זוהמא ליסטרןZUHAMA LISTERAN- a utensil shaped on one end like a large spoon and on the other like a fork, used in cooking, mostly for skimming off the froth from the top of a stew

31)[line 32]קצבKATZAV- carved or chopped [meat]

32)[line 33]"בימים ההמה ראיתי ביהודה דֹרְכִים גתות בשבת, ומביאים הערימות ועמסים על החמרים ואף יין ענבים ותאנים וכל משא, ומביאים ירושלם ביום השבת; ואעיר ביום מכרם ציד""BA'YAMIM HA'HEMAH RA'ISI BI'YEHUDAH DORECHIM GITOS BA'SHABBOS, U'MEVI'IM HA'AREIMOS V'OMESIM AL HA'CHAMORIM, V'AF YAYIN ANAVIM U'SE'ENIM V'CHOL MASA, U'MEVI'IM YERUSHALAYIM B'YOM HA'SHABBOS; VA'A'ID B'YOM MICHRAM TZAYID" - "In those days I observed in Yehudah people treading on winepresses on the Shabbos, and people bringing sheaves and loading them on donkeys as well as wine, grapes, figs and every burden, and brining them to Yerushalayim on the Shabbos day; and I warned them on the day when they sold their provisions" (Nechemyah 13:15) (NECHEMYAH STRENGTHENS SHABBOS OBSERVANCE)

(a)Nechemyah returned to Yerushalayim from his visit to Bavel, where he obtained permission from King Daryavesh to extend his absence from the royal court in order to fulfill his spiritual calling to his people. Among the issues he addressed was the laxity with which the returnees approached Shabbos. In addition to the list of transgressions mentioned in the verse above, he found merchants from Tyre sitting in Yerushalayim on Shabbos selling fish to the people of Yerushalayim and Yehudah.

(b)He immediately set to strengthen the observance of Shabbos. He assembled the influential residents of Yerushalayim and reminded them how the desecration of Shabbos had brought about HaSh-m's wrath with terrible consequences and would do so again unless they stopped desecrating it. Then he ordered the gates of the city closed from before sunset of Erev Shabbos until Motza'ei Shabbos, and he placed guards to ensure that nobody entered on Shabbos to do business.

(c)When, on two consecutive occasions, he discovered peddlers and merchants with all sorts of merchandise waiting outside the gates the whole of Shabbos in order to enter and sell their wares the moment Shabbos was over, he warned them to stop this evil practice.

(d)This was one of the many achievements that Nechemyah accomplished. Regarding each one he prayed that HaSh-m should remember him for the good.

33)[line 35]גלוסטראGELOSTERA- a wide fastening device attached to the top of a door-peg (that is placed into a hole in the doorstep to lock the door). The Gelostera can be used as a pestle.

34)[line 36]קניןKANIN (LECHEM HA'PANIM)

(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Shulchan ha'Zahav (Golden Table) of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. The loaves are separated by wooden rods (Kanin) to allow air to circulate so that the bread will not spoil. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Shulchan every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz (the amount that will fit under the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm) of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.

(b)Each loaf of the Lechem ha'Panim was ten Tefachim long, and its length was laid along the width of the Shulchan. The Tana'im argue (Menachos 96a) as to whether the measurements of the Shulchan (two Amos long by one Amah wide by one and one half Amos high - Shemos 25:23) were measured with five-Tefach Amos or six-Tefach Amos. As such, the extra length of the loaves was either four Tefachim or five Tefachim, where four Tefachim necessitated folding two Tefachim on each side of each loaf, and five Tefachim necessitated folding two and one half Tefachim on each side of each loaf (see Graphics to Menachos 94b for pictures and discussion of the Lechem ha'Panim).