[93a - 40 lines; 93b - 47 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 93a DH v'Rebbi Shimon Metaher : ד"ה רבי שמעון מטהר

The words in parentheses were erased by Maharshal and the Bach #1 based upon the words of Tosfos DH v'Rebbi Shimon Metaher. However, the Rashba and Tosfos ha'Rosh are Gores all of these words in Rashi (HAGAHOS BEN ARYEH). Since it is evident that Rashi rewrote some of his glosses for this Maseches (see Rashi 112b DH Aval), it is possible that Rashi added these words in his second version, which Tosfos did not have. (M. KORNFELD)

[2] Rashi 93a DH Mip'nei sh'Yecholah la'Amod Al Shalosh : ד"ה מפני שיכולה לעמוד על שלש

"v'Stama k'Rebbi Yehudah d'Zeh Yachol v'Zeh Yachol Kari Mesayei'a" וסתמא כרבי יהודה דזה יכול וזה יכול קרי מסייע

(a) Rashi's words here are difficult to understand, because even Rebbi Shimon agrees to the concept of Mesayei'a in the case under discussion (one is able, and one is unable)! We do not find that Rebbi Shimon argues except when both are able to do the Melachah alone. Here, though, the Gemara is discussing when one is able to do the Melachah alone, and the other is not able to do the Melachah by himself and thus he is Mesayei'a and is Patur. (See Maharsha.)

(b) Therefore, it seems that these words in Rashi belong at the end of an earlier comment of Rashi (DH sh'Einah Yecholah). That Beraisa certainly follows the view of Rebbi Yehudah, who says that two who carry together are Patur only when either one is able to do the Melachah alone. (M. KORNFELD)


1)[line 1]עיגול של דבילהIGUL SHEL DEVEILAH- a large rounded cake of pressed figs

2)[line 8]"ואם נפש אחת ...""V'IM NEFESH ACHAS ..."- "And if anyone of the common people sin through ignorance, by doing something against any one of the commandments of the Lord concerning things which ought not to be done, and be guilty." (Vayikra 4:27) - This verse contains words which are unnecessary from the standpoint of the simple meaning. "Nefesh," "Achas," and "ba'Asosah" all refer to the sinner, and the Tana'im learn various laws from these words.

3)[line 15]יחיד שעשאה בהוראת בית דיןYACHID SHE'ASA'AH B'HORA'AS BEIS DIN (PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR)

(a)The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) is obligated to bring a Korban in the following instance. If they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares, instructed the Jewish people to act according to their ruling and the people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based upon this ruling. The sages bring twelve young bulls as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied upon the Beis Din ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring young bulls as Korbenos Olah and goats as Korbenos Chatas, one of each for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).

(b)The blood of these bulls (and the goats) is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach) are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The remains of the bulls (and the goats) (including the meat and parts that are not sacrificed) are burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)

4)[line 23]מסייעMESAYEI'A- helps

5)[line 26]היה יושבHAYAH YOSHEV (MIDRAS HA'ZAV)

(a)A Nidah (see Background to Nidah 11:3), Yoledes (see Background to Nidah 29:6), Zav (see Background to Nidah #43:13), or Zavah (see Background to Nidah 30:5), can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres, earthenware objects) that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon). Two examples of Midras are known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the Tachton of a Zav, etc.). An object that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.

(b)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

(c)A Zav, like a Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes, can cause objects that are under him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether he touches them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the Tachton of a Zav). An object under a Zav becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.

(d)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(e)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav, etc., also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes.

6)[line 26]טליותTALIYOS- shawls

7)[line 30]מפני שיכולה לעמוד על שלשהMIPNEI SHE'YECHOLAH LA'AMOD AL SHELOSHAH- That is, any three of the animal's legs can support it without the fourth leg. Therefore, each leg, when viewed independently, is only Mesayei'a. It is not able to support the animal by itself, but the legs that are helping it (that is, the three other legs combined), are able to support the animal by themselves. It is "Zeh Eino Yachol v'Zeh Yachol." (TOSFOS DH Mipnei; see Girsaos #2)

8)[line 35]המתהפךHA'MIS'HAPECH- who turns over and back while lying down

9)[line 36]ספסליןSAFSALIN- benches

10)[line 37]פונדאותPUNDA'OS- (O.F. brides) long sashes in which money is kept; moneybelts


11)[line 2]שמשענתMISH'ENES- support


Offering a Korban is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos" are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the Korban that will be thrown on the Mizbe'ach), Holachah (carrying the blood towards the Mizbe'ach), and Zerikah (throwing the blood on the Mizbe'ach). These and all other Avodos must be done with the right hand.

13)[line 35]קנה של גרדיKANEH SHEL GARDI- a pole that is used in a standing loom

14)[line 41]כלפי לייאKELAPEI LAYA- where are you turning to? (the opposite should be true!)

15)[line 44]כעדשהK'ADASHAH- an amount the size of a lentil bean

16)[line 46]אם היה כלי צריך לוIM HAYAH KLI TZARICH LO- if he needed the utensil for another purpose in the place to which he carried it

17)[line 47]העלם אחדHE'ELEM ECHAD

A He'elem is a period of forgetfulness. If a person sins more than once (for example, if he ate two or more k'Zeisim of Chelev) in one He'elem, and later finds out that he has sinned, he only has to bring one Korban Chatas to atone for his sins. The Gemara is trying to refute this ruling based upon the Beraisa that was brought.