NIDAH 11 - dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and he is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

[11a - 40 lines; 11b - 53 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi

[1] Rashi 11b DH Dilma Kav'ah ד"ה דלמא קבעה:

"shecheshe'Yichlu Yemei Tohar, Havah Lah Veses l'Esrim" שכשיכלו ימי טוהר הוה לה וסת לעשרים

These words apparently belong above, before the word "ul'Rebbi" ולרבי (Aruch la'Ner, Mei Nidah)


1)[line 6]קפצהKAFTZAH- she jumped

2)[line 28]צריכה להיות בודקתTZERICHAH LI'HEYOS BODEKES- the Gemara (Daf 11b) explains that all the Bedikos of the Mishnah were performed only by a woman who often handled Taharos

3)[line 28]הנדהNIDAH

By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she experienced bleeding only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. (The current practice is to consider all women who experience bleeding to be Zavos — see below, entry #9 — and therefore they must count seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.)

4)[line 28]היושבת על דם טוהרHA'YOSHEVES AL DAM TOHAR (YOLEDES: DAM TOHAR)

(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:

1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom — see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.

(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(d)The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar — see Insights to Nidah 25a.

5)[line 30]פעמיםPA'AMAYIM- twice

6)[line 30]שהיא עוברתSHE'HI OVERES- she prepares herself (BARTENURA)

7)[line 31]שהן אוכלות בתרומהSHE'HEN OCHLOS B'TERUMAH- the same Bedikah would apparently be done by a non-Kohenes who wanted to eat Kodshim Kalim. From the Mishnah it appears that Chazal required a Bedikah only before eating Terumah, since a person who is Tamei is liable to Malkus for eating Terumah; before touching Terumah or Kodshim it was not necessary to do a Bedikah (MISHNAH ACHARONAH, 1st explanation)

8)[line 32]בשעת עברתן מלאכול בתרומהB'SHE'AS AVARASAN MI'LE'ECHOL BI'TERUMAH- when they stop eating Terumah

9)[line 34]ימי זיבתהYEMEI ZIVASAH (ZAVAH: YEMEI ZIVAH)

(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Kerisus 8:4:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah. She is prohibited to her husband and has the status of an Av Ha'Tum'ah (see Background to Nidah 5:8).

(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she experiences bleeding afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she experiences bleeding.

(c)If a woman experiences bleeding for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count "Shiv'ah Neki'im," seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she experiences no other bleeding. On the morning of the seventh day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).

10a)[line 37]ממעין סתוםMI'MA'AYAN SASUM- from when she had not been menstruating previously

b)[line 37]ממעין פתוחMI'MA'AYAN PASU'ACH- from when she had been menstruating previously

11)[line 38]מבקשת לישב על דם טוהרMEVAKESHES LEISHEV AL DAM TOHAR- the day preceding the days of Yemei Tohar (see above, entry #4)

12a)[line 38]מעין אחד הואMA'AYAN ECHAD HU- there is a common source for the flow of Dam Tamei and Dam Tohar

b)[line 39]שני מעינות הםSHNEI MA'AYANOS HEM- there are two different sources for the flow of blood; one for Dam Tamei and one for Dam Tohar


13)[line 1]בית שמאי היאBEIS SHAMAI HI- that is, according to Rav and Levi, it is Beis Shamai who rules that "Ma'ayan Echad Hu"; their argument is in the opinion of Beis Hillel (see Gemara Nidah Daf 35b)

14)[line 2]סתם ואחר כך מחלוקתSTAM V'ACHAR KACH MACHLOKES

(a)The Chachamim set down various rules to determine the Halachah when there is an argument among the Tana'im.

(b)One of these rules applies where we find a certain Halachah recorded anonymously ("Stam") in one place in the Mishnah and it is recorded with dissenting views in another place. If the Stam Mishnah is the latter of the two, it is meant to resolve the argument and show that the Halachah follows this opinion (RASHI). If the dissenting opinions are recorded after the Stam Mishnah, it does not prove that we rule like the Stam Mishnah. This is either because such a Stam Mishnah provides no proof that the Stam is the Halachic opinion, or else because the argument following the Stam is meant to cast doubt on the Stam Mishnah and show that the Halachah does not follow that opinion. (See Background to Avodah Zarah 7:7.)

15)[line 12]שלא הגיע זמנה לראותSHE'LO HIGI'A ZEMANAH LIR'OS- who has not reached the age of menstruation (puberty)

16)[line 14]עד שתחיה המכהAD SHE'TICHYEH HA'MAKAH- until the wound heals

17)[line 15]שלא פסקה מחמת תשמישSHE'LO PASKAH MACHMAS TASHMISH- she did not have marital relations without seeing blood

18)[line 25]עכרןACHARAN- clouded them, distorted them

19)[line 49]חדא מכלל חברתה אתמרCHADA MI'CHLAL CHAVERTAH ITMAR- it is from one of them that we derive his other ruling