NIDAH 12 - dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and he is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

[12a - 44 lines; 12b - 33 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.

[1] Rashi 12a DH k'Shi'ur Veses ד"ה כשעור וסת:

The word "b'Chatas" בחטאת is the beginning of a new Dibur

[2] Rashi DH Erah ד"ה ערה:

The words "Aval Yeshenah" אבל ישנה are the beginning of a new Dibur

[3] Rashi 12b DH v'Lo Peros ולא פירות

The words "she'Ochel Bailah" שאוכל בעלה

should be "she'Achal Bailah" שאכל בעלה


1)[line 1]מהו שתבדוק עצמה לבעלהMAHU SHE'TIVDOK ATZMAH L'VAILAH- that is, if she does not deal with Taharos

2)[line 5]כשיעור וסתK'SHI'UR VESES- the amount of time of a flow (i.e. immediately)

3)[line 8]המשקוףHA'MASHKOF- the lintel (this is a euphemism for the opening from which the blood flows)

4)[line 9]הויHEVEI- it is evident from this

5a)[line 9]קנוחKINU'ACH- an external wipe

b)[line 10]בדיקהBEDIKAH- an internal check

6)[line 12]אשם תלויASHAM TALUY

(a)If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas, he brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt (see further details in Background to Kerisus 23:1).

(b)A person who has relations with a Nidah b'Shogeg is obligated to offer a Korban Chatas. Our Gemara states that when a woman checks internally and finds that she is bleeding immediately after relations, she and her husband are obligated to offer a Korban Asham Taluy, since it is possible that she experienced bleeding only after the relations.

7)[line 15]עדן של צנועותEDAN SHEL TZENU'OS- (a) the Bedikah cloth of modest woman (the simple understanding of the Gemara); (b) according to the reading IDAN - the checking time of modest woman (ARUCH)

8)[line 28]ערהERAH- awake

9)[line 34]חמריןCHAMARIN- donkey-drivers

10)[line 42]לעולם בשיש לה וסתL'OLAM BESHE'YESH LAH VESES- the Gemara is forced to explain that the Beraisa is dealing with a woman who has a Veses. If she does not have a Veses, then even if she is sleeping she must arise; Tevi'ah will certainly not suffice when she is sleeping


11)[line 1]סודניSODANI (SUDNI)- (a) Talmid Chacham (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) beer maker (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

12)[line 1]מגניא באפיהMIGANYA B'APEI- she becomes loathsome to him


(a)KESUVAH - When a man marries a woman who was a Besulah (virgin) at the time of her Kidushin, he must write her a Kesuvah document in which he promises that she will receive 200 Zuz (the value of 960 grams of silver) from him or his estate if he divorces her or dies. The Tana'im argue whether this obligation is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan (Kesuvos 10a). (See Insights to Kesuvos 10:1.)

(b)When a man marries a widow or a divorcee who had once been married in the past (i.e. she was a Nesu'ah and was not just an Arusah) he must write her a Kesuvah document in which he promises that she will receive 100 Zuz from him or his estate if he divorces her or dies. Even if the woman is still a virgin, the woman is classified as a "Be'ulah" with regard to the amount of her Kesuvah because she was once married and she is not given the Kesuvah of a Besulah (Kesuvos 11a). The obligation to write a Kesuvah for a widow or divorcee is only mid'Rabanan (Kesuvos 10b — The Gemara there explains that the term for "widow," "Almanah," alludes to her Kesuvah of a "Manah," or 100 Zuz).

(c)At the time the husband writes the Kesuvah or at any point afterwards, the husband may designate a parcel of land towards the collection of the Kesuvah. The husband may not sell the land that he designated for such a purpose as long as he is married, but he is permitted to cultivate it and collect its fruits. If the wife dies during the husband's lifetime, the husband is once again permitted to sell the land. If the husband dies during the wife's lifetime or if he divorces his wife, the wife may collect her Kesuvah by taking title of the designated land.

(d)NICHSEI TZON BARZEL / NICHSEI MILUG - A woman brings into her marriage two types of possessions, as follows:

1.Possessions that the wife owned before marriage, the values of which were estimated and written in the Kesuvah, to be returned to her in full upon divorce or the husband's death. These are called Nichsei Tzon Barzel ("Iron Flock Properties") because their value does not change between the time of marriage and the time of divorce or the husband's death.

2.Possessions that were not estimated and their values were not specified in the Kesuvah. Upon divorce or the husband's death, the property is returned as is, regardless of its appreciation or depreciation (or deterioration) over the years. These are referred to as "Nechasim ha'Nichnasin veha'Yotz'in Imah" or "Nichsei Milug" ("Properties that are Plucked"), because for the duration of the marriage the husband may take ("pluck") the produce (Peiros) of these possessions (e.g. reaping the fruit of a field, or plowing with a bull). However, he may not "use up" the property itself (e.g. by digging trenches in the field or slaughtering the bull).

14)[line 8]מזונותMEZONOS

(a)As long as they are married, a husband must provide his wife with Mezonos (sustenance). According to some Tana'im, this obligation is mid'Oraisa and is learned from the verse "She'erah... Lo Yigra" (Shemos 21:10). Other Tana'im maintain that the obligation to provide one's wife with Mezonos is only mid'Rabanan. It is one of the Tena'ei Kesuvah (stipulations of the Jewish marriage contract) which are imposed by Beis Din upon every Jewish man and wife (Kesuvos 47b; see previous entry). Another Tenai Kesuvah is that after he dies, his daughters must be allowed to live in the house in which he lived, and must be provided for by his household, until they become married.

(b)If he dies before his wife, his wife must also be allowed to live in the house in which he lived and must be provided for by his household (with Mezonos) until she remarries. (This stipulation was only made in Yerushalayim and the Galil. In Yehudah, the heirs reserved for themselves the right to give her the value of her Kesuvah and have her find herself a new home.) (Mishnayos Kesuvos 4:7-12)


(a)See above, entry 13:d.

(b)The Bela'os to which our Gemara refers are the remnants of the Nichsei Tzon Barzel that the husband did not as of yet entirely deplete, such as articles of clothing that became partially worn out (RASHI). According to Rebbi Meir, a woman who has no Veses does not receive the remnants back.

16a)[line 10]הן עותוהHEN IVSUHA- they "corrupted" her [if she finds that she is bleeding]

b)[line 10]הן תקנוהHEN TIKNUHA- they "repaired" her [if she finds that she is not bleeding]

17)[line 11]אוי לו לבעלהOY LO L'VAILAH- as the Gemara explains, Aba Chanan means to argue either with Rebbi Meir or with Rebbi Chanina ben Antiganos. These are the last words of the Beraisa; from here on begins the Gemara's explanation of the Beraisa.

18)[line 16]הדרה ואתקנהHADRAH V'ASKENAH- she developed a Veses [after getting married to another man]

19)[line 22]לאגבויהL'AGBUYAH- to pay her