[94a - 31 lines; 94b - 53 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 94a DH d'Mesharbetei Nafshaihu ד"ה דמשרבטי נפשייהו:

The words "l'Hashmit mi'Yad ha'Nos'an" להשמיט מיד הנושאן

should be "l'Hishameit mi'Yad ha'Nos'an" להישמט מיד הנושאן

[2] Tosfos 94a DH Rebbi Shimon רבי שמעון [the 2nd line]:

The words "she'Hayesah Melachah Na'aseis" שהיתה מלאכה נעשית

should be "she'Hayesah ha'Melachah Na'aseis" שהיתה המלאכה נעשית


1)[line 4]פלוגתא דרבי יוחנן ורבי שמעון בן לקישPELUGTA D'REBBI YOCHANAN V'REBBI SHIMON BEN LAKISH

(a)If a person sins more than once (for example, if he ate two or more k'Zeisim of Chelev) and later finds out that he has sinned, he only has to bring one Korban Chatas to atone for his sins.

(b)If he finds out at different times about his separate transgressions, there is a question in the Gemara as to whether he must bring a separate Korban for each transgression. According to one ruling, he must bring separate Korbanos since the separate knowledge of each transgression is enough to cause each to be considered a separate sin, with regard to Korbanos.

2)[line 9]החי נושא את עצמוHA'CHAI NOSEI ES ATZMO

(a)The Torah does not prohibit carrying live people (or animals, according to Rebbi Nasan) from one Reshus to another on Shabbos, because the live person "carries himself."

(b)The commentaries offer various explanations to explain why one is exempt for such a Hotza'ah. (The Gemara's statement that the live person "carries himself" is very ambiguous.) According to TOSFOS (95a DH she'ha'Chai as explained by KORBAN NESAN'EL on the Rosh, #6), this means that the act of carrying live objects is a different class of carrying. Since it was not done in the Mishkan, it is not included in the Melachah of Hotza'ah.

3)[line 12]משרבטי נפשייהוMESHARBETEI NAFSHAIHU- they pull themselves downwards


(a)The Chachamim decreed not to sell a beast of burden to a Nochri. The reason for this prohibition is that if one could sell his animal to a Nochri, he may be tempted to lend or rent his animal to the Nochri, who would then work with a Jew's animal on Shabbos. This is prohibited, as the verse states, "Lo Sa'aseh Chol Melachah... u'Vehemtecha" - "Do not do any work [on Shabbos]... [nor] your animals" (Shemos 20:10).

(b)Another reason given for this decree is that the Jew might start the sale a few minutes before the start of Shabbos and call to the loaded animal on Shabbos to show the Nochri how well it works. By doing so he would transgress the prohibition of Mechamer on Shabbos (Avodah Zarah 15a).

5)[line 23]דבי וייאדןD'VEI VAIDAN- falconers

6)[line 24]כפותKAFUS- one which is bound

7)[line 25]פרסאיPARSA'EI- Persians

8)[line 25]כמאן דכפיתי דמוK'MAN D'CHEFISI DAMU- they can be considered bound

9)[line 27]רמות רוחא הוא דנקיט להוRAMUS RUCHA HU D'NAKIT LEHU- they are haughty

10)[line 28]פרדשכאPARDASHKA- officer

11)[line 28]דרתח מלכא עילויהD'RASACH MALKA ILAVEI- at whom the king was enraged

12)[line 28]רהיט תלתא פרסי בכרעיהRAHIT TELASA PARSEI B'CHAR'EI- he (the officer) ran three Parsa'os (approx. 12,000 ft.) by foot


13)[line 8]שכבאSHICHVA- a corpse

14)[line 9]דרוקראDERUKRA- the name of a Babylonian town

15)[line 13]דעיילת ביה אתD'AILAS BEI AT- you yourself would do it (take the corpse out to a Karmelis)

16)[line 17]סימני טומאהSIMANEI TUM'AH- the signs of Tum'as Tzara'as

17)[line 17]הכוהHICHVAH- one who burns


(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors — see (b) below.) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah; see below, b:1-4) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor. If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger, or even when the Kohen first sees the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor.

(b)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Nig'ei Tzara'as that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah, Nesek, Karachas or Gabachas.

1.NIG'EI BASAR refers to Tzara'as that affects normal skin. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white (see (c) below), sometimes with some red mixed in. The period of Hesger for Nig'ei Basar is two weeks. A Kohen inspects the Nega at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah for Nig'ei Basar are: (1) the lesion spreads ("Pisyon"); (2) two or more white hairs ("Se'ar Lavan") grow inside the lesion after it appears on the skin; (3) a patch of normal looking skin ("Michyah"), measuring two by two hairs or more, appears in the middle of the Nega.

2.SHECHIN or MICHVAH refers to the Tzara'as of a boil or a burn. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with red mixed in, that develops over a partially healed pustule, boil or blister produced by non-fire heat or by friction (in the case of Shechin), or over a burn produced by the heat of a fire (in the case of Michvah). The period of quarantine for Shechin and Michvah is only one week, after which the Kohen declares the Metzora either Tahor or Muchlat. (The Halachos of Shechin and Michvah are identical. These marks are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei — Nega'im 9:2.) Their signs of Tum'ah are: (1) the mark spreads (Pisyon); (2) two or more white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark after the Nega Tzara'as appears.

3.NESEK (pl. Nesakim) refers to Tzara'as that appears beneath the hair of the scalp, beard or eyebrows. According to most Rishonim, a Nesek appears as normal skin that is revealed when a cluster of hair (measuring the size of a Gris) falls out from parts of the scalp or beard that are normally covered with hair, such that a bald spot without even two normal hairs is created (see RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29). The period of Hesger for a Nesek is two weeks. At the beginning of the Hesger, the Kohen shaves the hair surrounding the Nesek, only leaving a two-hair-thick ring of normal hair around the Nesek. A Kohen inspects the Nesek at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah of a Nesek are: (1) the Nesek spreads ("Pisyon") — that is, more hair falls out around the periphery of the original Nesek; (2) two or more thin, golden hairs ("Se'ar Tzahov Dak") grow inside the Nesek after it appears on the skin. Nesek, unlike the other Nega'im, also has a Siman Taharah, which can make it Tahor at any time: If normal, black hairs grow in the Nesek, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora to be Tahor.

4.KARACHAS or GABACHAS refers to Tzara'as that affects a completely bald scalp (which became bald through exposure to a balding agent, or through a normal balding process — see RASH to Nega'im 10:10 and RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29), either in the fore part of the head (Gabachas) or the back part of the head (Karachas). Their Halachos are identical to those of Nig'ei Basar (above, 1) that appear on a normal, non-hairy part of the skin, except that it lacks the Siman Tum'ah of Se'ar Lavan (since it is on a part of the body on which hair does not grow). (The Halachos of Karachas and Gabachas are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei — Nega'im 10:10.)

(c)The four marks that make a person a Metzora through Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah and Karachas or Gabachas are: (1) Baheres, which is the color of snow; (2) Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; (3) Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; (4) Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell (RASHI).

(d)For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Chulin 82:5.

19)[line 21]משתקלאMISHTAKLA- [since if one more] is removed

20)[line 29]ממת גדולMI'MES GADOL- That is, from a Mes which is larger than a k'Zayis. Since the absence of this half-Zayis does not bring it to the limit of its Tum'ah (meaning that even without it more than an exact k'Zayis remains), it is not considered to be a substantial Hotza'ah even according to Rav Nachman.

21)[line 30]צפרניוTZIPORNAV- his nails

22)[line 30]שפמוSEFAMO- his mustache

23)[line 31]הגודלתHA'GODELES- one who braids her hair

24)[line 31]הכוחלתHA'KOCHELES- one who paints her eyelids with a blue or tinted powder

25)[line 31]הפוקסתHA'POKESES- (a) one who parts her hair with a comb or her hands (RASHI Moed Katan 9b DH Pokeses); (b) one who colors her face red by applying mud to her face or by painting it with rouge (see Rashi 64b DH v'Lo Sifkos, and TOSFOS Moed Katan 9b DH Pokeses)

26)[line 33]שבותSHEVUS

Shevus refers to actions that the Rabanan prohibited on Shabbos. The Torah states, "uva'Yom ha'Shevi'i Tishbos" ("and you shall rest on the seventh day") (Shemos 23:12). The Rabanan learn that this applies even to actions that are not Melachos, and as a result they prohibited actions that were permitted mid'Oraisa (see Shabbos 114b).

27)[line 40]מלא פי הזוגMELO PI HA'ZUG- the amount of hair that fills up the tip of a pair of scissors

28)[line 41]קרחהKARCHAH- the prohibition against the non-Jewish practice of making a bald spot as a sign of mourning (Devarim 14:1)

29)[line 45]ציציןTZITZIN- small strips of skin