HE MAY NOT MARRY TOO MANY WIVES
(Mishnah): "V'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim" - a king may not marry more than 18 wives.
R. Yehudah says, he may marry more, on condition that they not divert his heart (from fearing Hash-m).
R. Shimon says, he may not marry even one who will divert his heart;
Question: If so, why does the Torah forbid taking too many?
Answer: One may not take many even if they inspire him to fear Hash-m, like Avigayil.
(Gemara) Question: In our Mishnah, R. Yehudah derives a Halachah from (what he understands to be) the reason for a Mitzvah, and R. Shimon does not. Elsewhere, they hold vice-versa!
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): One may not take a security from a widow, whether she is rich or poor - "v'Lo Sachabol Beged Almanah";
R. Shimon says, one may take from a rich widow, but not from a poor widow. You must return it, and you ruin her reputation.
Question: What does this mean?
Answer: If you would take from a poor widow, since you must return it every day, you would ruin her reputation (for people will see you by her every day).
Summation of question: R. Shimon derives a Halachah from the reason for a Mitzvah, and R. Yehudah does not!
Answer: Here (marrying too many wives) is different, for the Torah gave the reason - "v'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim (in order that) v'Lo Yasur Levavo" (therefore, R. Yehudah derives a Halachah from the reason);
R. Shimon: Had the Torah said only "v'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim", we would have known that this is lest they divert his heart;
The Torah explicitly said "v'Lo Yasur Levavo" to forbid even one who would divert his heart.
Question: If so, why must the Torah forbid taking too many?
Answer: It forbids taking many, even like Avigayil.
Question: What is the source that only 18 are allowed?
Answer: David had (children from) six wives "Amnon la'Achino'am... veha'Shishi Yisre'am l'Eglah", and Noson ha'Navi told him "v'Osifah Lecha ka'Henah vecha'Henah" - another six and another six.
Objection (Ravina): We should say that "ka'Henah" teaches (six more, and in all) 12, and "vecha'Henah" teaches (another 12, and in all) 24!
Support (Beraisa): "V'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim" - a king may not marry more than 24 wives.
According to the opinion that expounds 'vov' ("vecha'Henah"), he should be allowed 48!
Support (Beraisa): "V'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim" - a king may not marry more than 48 wives.
Question: What is the reason for the Tana of our Mishnah?
Answer (Rav Kahana): He equates the latter 'ka'Henah' to the former 'ka'Henah.' Just like the former teaches six more, also the latter.
DAVID'S WIVES AND CHILDREN
Question: David had a seventh wife, Michal, when Noson ha'Navi told him "ka'Henah vecha'Henah"!
Answer (Rav): Eglah is Michal. She is called Eglah because she was as dear to him as a calf (like Shimshon said) - "Lulei Charashtem b'Eglasi."
Question: Eglah had a child, but Michal did not - "ul'Michal Bas Sha'ul Lo Hayah Lah Yeled Ad Yom Mosah"!
Answer (Rav Chisda): She did not have a child Ad (before) the day she died. She bore a child the day she died.
Objection: The verse listed David's children in Chevron. The episode with Michal was (later, in) Yerushalayim!
"U'Michal... va'Tere Es ha'Melech David Mefazez u'Mcharcher Lifnei Hash-m va'Tivez Lo b'Libah."
(Rav Yehudah): She was punished for this (by not having children).
Correction: Rather, she did not have more children after this episode, she had children from before.
Question: "Va'Yikach David Od Pilagshim v'Nashim mi'Yrushalayim"!
Answer: He took more, until he had 18,
Question: What is the difference between Pilagshim and Nashim (wives)?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): Wives have a Kesuvah and Kidushin. Pilagshim do not have a Kesuvah, nor (our text; some texts - but have) Kidushin.
(Rav Yehudah): David had 400 children (perhaps this means 'descendants') from Yafos To'ar (attractive women taken in war);
They grew Bluris (long hair in back), and they sat in gold wagons at the head of the troops. They were the strong-arms of Beis David (to scare the enemy).
THE EPISODE WITH TAMAR
(Rav Yehudah): Tamar was the daughter of a Yafes To'ar (she was conceived before her mother converted) - "Daber Na El ha'Melech Lo Yimna'eni Mimeka";
Had she been David's daughter from a Yisraelis, she would have been Amnon's sister!
(Rav Yehudah): "Ul'Amnon Re'a... Chacham" - he was a Chacham for evil.
(Rav Yehudah): "Va'Tichak Es ha'Meshares va'Titzok Lefanav" - Tamar made fried food for Amnon.
Question: "Va'Yisna'eha" - (after he raped her,) why did he hate her?
Answer (R. Yitzchak): His Ever got caught on a hair, and it castrated him.
Question: She did not intend for this!
Correction: She intentionally tied a hair to castrate him.
Question: Rava taught that "va'Yetzei Lach Shem ba'Goyim b'Yafyech" - Benos Yisrael do not have hair in the underarms or near their Ervah! (Maharsha - they shave it; Maharshal - Hash-m causes that it does not grow.)
Answer: Tamar was the daughter of a Yafes To'ar.
(Beraisa - R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): "Va'Tichak Tamar Efer Al Roshah..." - this taught a great lesson to Benos Yisrael:
If such a great disgrace can occur even to the king's daughter, and all the more so to regular women. If it can occur even to modest women, and all the more so to immodest women!
(Rav Yehudah): At that time, they decreed against seclusion (with a married woman) and Bi'ah with a single girl.
Question: Seclusion is forbidden mid'Oraisa!
Question (R. Yochanan): "Ki Yesischa Achicha Ven Imecha" - do only maternal brothers entice, but not paternal brothers?!
Answer (R. Yochanan): Rather, this hints that a man may be secluded with his mother, but not with other Arayos.
Correction: Rather, they decreed against seclusion with a single girl.
"Va'Adoniyah... Misnasei Leimor Ani Emloch" - he tried on the crown that fits only those proper to be kings of Beis David, but it did not fit him.
Question: "Va'Ya'as... va'Chamishim Ish Ratzim Lefanav" - what was special about them?
Answer (Beraisa): He removed their spleens and the skin of the bottom of their feet (so they could run faster, and thorns would not hurt them).
HE MAY NOT ACQUIRE EXTRA HORSES OR MONEY
(Mishnah): "Lo Yarbeh Lo Susim" - only what he needs for his chariots (the army).
"V'Chesef v'Zahav Lo Yarbeh Lo Me'od" - only what he needs to pay his army.
He writes a Sefer Torah for himself, and takes it to war. When he returns, he takes it. When he judges, it is by him. When he reclines, it is opposite him - "v'Haysah Imo v'Kara Bo Kol Yemei Chayav."
(Gemara - Beraisa) Suggestion: "Lo Yarbeh Lo Susim" - perhaps he may not have even for his chariots or cavalry!
Rejection: "Lo Yarbeh Lo" - it is forbidden only if he increases to aggrandize himself.
Question: Which horses are forbidden?
Answer: Idle horses (that just run in front of him) are forbidden.
Question: What is the source that even one idle horse is forbidden?
Answer: We learn from "Lema'an Harbos Sus."
Question: If so, why does it say "Susim" (plural)?
Answer: This teaches that he transgresses a Lav for every idle horse.
Question: Had it not said "Lo", we would have said that he may not even have for his army (but a king needs these)!
Answer: We would have taught that he may have only a bare minimum for his army - "Lo" permits increasing these.
(Mishnah): "V'Chesef v'Zahav Lo Yarbeh Lo Me'od" - only what he needs to pay his army.
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "v'Chesef v'Zahav Lo Yarbeh Lo" forbids even what he needs to pay his army!
Rejection: "Lo Yarbeh Lo" - he does not increase for himself, but he may increase in order to pay his army.
Question: Had it not said "Lo", we would have said that he may not even have for his army (but he needs an army)!
Answer: We would have taught that he may have only the minimum needed to pay an army - "Lo" permits extra (in case he will need to hire more soldiers).
Question: What will we expound from "Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim"?
Answer: This excludes commoners (they may marry many women).
SHLOMO HAD TOO MANY HORSES, MONEY AND WOMEN
Contradiction (Rav Yehudah): It says "Li'Shlomo Arba'im Elef Urvos Susim", and it says "Arba'as Alafim Uryos Susim"!
Answer: Either he had 40,000 stable houses, each with 4,000 horse pens, or 4,000 stable houses, each with 40,000 pens.
Contradiction (R. Yitzchak): It says "Ein Kesef Nechshav bi'Ymei Shlomo li'M'umah", and it says "ha'Kesef bi'Yrushalayim ka'Avanim" (it had some importance)!
Answer: Before he married Bas Par'o (he engaged only in Chachmah), it had no importance; after he married her, it was like stones.
(R. Yitzchak): When Shlomo married Bas Par'o, Gavri'el inserted a reed in the sea. Dirt was deposited, and Romi was later built there.
Question (R. Yitzchak): Why weren't the reasons for Mitzvos revealed?
Answer (R. Yitzchak): The reasons for two Mitzvos were revealed, and the greatest Chacham stumbled in them.
It says "Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim" - Shlomo thought 'I will take many, they will not veer my heart';
Ultimately, they did "Hitu Es Levavo."
It says "Lo Yarbeh Lo Susim" - Shlomo thought 'I will acquire many, and we will not return to Mitzrayim;
Ultimately, they did - "va'Tetzei Merkavah mi'Mitzrayim."
THE KING WRITES AN EXTRA SEFER TORAH
(Mishnah): He writes a Sefer Torah for himself.
(Beraisa): It is not enough that he inherited one.
(Rabah): Even if one inherited a Sefer Torah, it is a Mitzvah to write one himself - "Kisvu Lachem Es ha'Shirah ha'Zos."
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): It is not enough that he inherited one.
Inference: This applies only to a king!
Answer: No, the only difference about a king is that he must write a second Sefer Torah.
(Beraisa): "V'Chosav Lo Es Mishnah ha'Torah ha'Zos" - he writes two Sifrei Torah for himself. He takes one with him, and the other he stores away.
The one he takes with him he hangs on his arm - "Shivisi Hash-m l'Negdi Tamid."
He does not take it into a bathhouse or Beis ha'Kisei - "v'Haysah Imo v'Kora Bo", he takes it only where he may read it.
THE LANGUAGE AND WRITING OF THE TORAH
(Mar Zutra): Originally, the Torah was given to Yisrael in Lashon ha'Kodesh, in Ivri writing (forms of the letters);
In the days of Ezra, it was given in Arame'ic, in Ashuris writing.
Yisrael chose Lashon ha'Kodesh and Ashuris. They left Arame'ic and Ivri writing for commoners.
Question: Who are the commoners?
Answer (Rav Chisda): They are Kusim.
Question: What is Ivri writing?
Answer (Rav Chisda): It is writing in big letters (Rashi; R. Tam - it is a writing particular to a place called Libona'ah; Maharsha - it is the writing we were used to from Lavan's house).
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): Ezra was worthy that the Torah be given through him, just Moshe preceded him.
It says "u'Moshe Alah El ha'Elokim" and it says "Hu Ezra Alah mi'Bavel." Just like the Aliyah of Moshe was for Torah, also that of Ezra.
Moshe said "v'Osi Tzivah Hash-m... Lelamed Eschem Chukim u'Mishpatim", and it says about Ezra "...u'Lelamed b'Yisrael Chok u'Mishpat."
Even though the Torah was not given through Ezra, the writing changed through him - "u'Chsav ha'Nishtevan";
It also says "Lo cha'Halin Kisva";
It also says "v'Chosav Es Mishnah ha'Torah ha'Zos" - a writing that will be Mishtaneh (change).