THE GREATEST TZADIKIM
(R. Yochanan): "Rabos Banos Asu Chayil" refers to Yosef and Bo'az;
"V'At Alis Al Kulanah" refers to Palti ben Layish.
(R. Shmuel bar Nachman): "Sheker ha'Chen" refers to Yosef. "V'Hevel ha'Yofi" refers to Bo'az. "Ishah Yir'as Hash-m Hi Sis'halal" refers to Palti ben Layish.
Alternatively, "Sheker ha'Chen" is the generation of Moshe. "V'Hevel ha'Yofi" is the generation of Yehoshua. "Ishah Yir'as Hash-m Hi Sis'halal" is the generation of Chizkiyah (which learned even more than those of Moshe and Yehoshua).
Alternatively, "Sheker ha'Chen" is the generation of Moshe and Yehoshua. "V'Hevel ha'Yofi" is the generation of Chizkiyah. "Ishah Yir'as Hash-m Hi Sis'halal" is the generation of R. Yehudah (which learned amidst awesome poverty).
Six of R. Yehudah's Talmidim would cover themselves in one garment, and learn.
WHEN THE KING IS A MOURNER
(Mishnah): If a relative of the king dies, he does not leave his palace;
R. Yehudah says, he may follow the coffin if he wants, like David did when Avner died - "David Holech Acharei ha'Mitah."
Chachamim: No, that was an exception. He needed to show everyone that he was grieved (and had not told Yo'av to kill him).
When they give to him the meal of Havra'ah, they sit on the ground, and he sits on a Dargesh (this will be explained).
(Gemara - Beraisa): In a place where the custom is that women follow the coffin, they must follow it. In a place where they go in front of the coffin, they must do so;
R. Yehudah says, when Avner died, they went in front of the coffin (and we have no source for them to go in back) - "David Holech Acharei ha'Mitah" (surely, he would not walk among the women)!
Chachamim: He needed to show all that he was grieved. He walked among the men and among the women (perhaps the women were in back!) - "va'Yede'u Chol ha'Am... Lo Haysah meha'Melech Lehamis Es Avner."
(Rava) Question: "Va'Yavo Chol ha'Am Lehavros (to give the first meal to a mourner) Es David" - it is written 'Lehachros' (to cut)!
Answer (Rava): At first, they wanted to depose him. When they realized that he had not told Yo'av to kill Avner, they came to console him.
(Rav Yehudah): Avner was punished because he did not protest against Sha'ul (Rashi - when Sha'ul ordered to kill the Kohanim of Nov; Maharsha - he did not convince Sha'ul of David's righteousness when David passed up the chance to kill Sha'ul).
(R. Yitzchak): He protested, but it did not help!
They both expound "va'Ykonen ha'Melech... Yadecha Lo Asuros v'Raglecha Lo li'Nchushtayim Hugashu":
Rav Yehudah explains, since you (Avner) were not in fetters, why didn't you protest?! Therefore, "ki'Nfol Lifnei Venei Avlah (you are like one who fell to the wicked)."
R. Yitzchak explains, David asked in astonishment 'why did you die like is proper for a Rasha?! You protested will all your strength. Why did you fall to Rasha'im?
Question: According to R. Yitzchak, why was Avner punished?
Answer (Rav Nachman): He (made Ish Boshes king, which) delayed the kingship of David over Yisrael for two and a half years.
THE BED THE KING SITS ON
(Mishnah): When they give to him the meal of Havra'ah... (he sits on a Dargesh).
Question: What is a Dargesh?
Answer #1 (Ula): It is a bed that is not used. It is only for the sake of good Mazel.
Question #1 (Rabanan): Until now, he never used this. Now that he is a mourner, he may sit on it?!
Answer (Rava): This is not difficult. Until now, he did not eat others' food, and now he does!
Question #2 (Rava): A Beraisa is difficult for Ula!
(Beraisa): A mourner need not turn over a Dargesh, rather, he stands it up (on its side).
If it is a bed, it should be turned over!
(Beraisa): A mourner turns over all the beds in the house.
Answer: Since people do not sit on it, it is like a bed for Kelim!
(Beraisa): He need not turn over a bed for Kelim.
Question #3 (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): It suffices (for a mourner) to unfasten the loops of a Dargesh, it falls by itself.
A bed for the sake of Mazel does not have loops!
Answer #2 (Ravin): A Dargesh is a leather sheet that attaches to a bedframe (through loops. One does not turn it over, lest the leather get ruined.)
(R. Yirmeyah): The loops of a Dargesh attach to holes in the bedframe itself. The ropes of a regular bed are attached on top of the frame.
Rejection (Mishnah): Wooden Kelim such as a bed or crib receive Tum'ah after the beams (of the frame) are smoothed with the skin of a fish.
If ropes of a regular bed are attached on top of the frame, there is no need to smooth them!
Rather, both kinds of beds attach to holes in the bedframe itself;
In a regular bed, ropes are inserted into and come out of the frame (and are interwoven). In a Dargesh, loops attach to holes in the frame.
(R. Yakov): The Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
(R. Yakov bar Ami): A bed with a beam attached above (on which a canopy is spread) cannot be turned over, therefore, a mourner just stands it up (on its head or back board).
LAWS OF A KING
(Mishnah): A king consults with the Sanhedrin of 71 before going to an optional war;
He may breach fences to make a path for himself, and no one may protest. He may make a path as wide as he wants.
Everyone takes spoils in war. He takes half (and chooses which half).
(Gemara) Question: Another Mishnah teaches this!
(Mishnah): Seventy-one judges are needed to decide to go to an optional war.
Answer: Since our Mishnah teaches other laws of kings, this was repeated.
(Rav Yehudah): A king is permitted everything in the Parshah of the king.
(Rav): No, the Parshah was said only in order to make the people fear the king. "Som Tasim Alecha Melech" - his fear should be upon you.
They argue like the following Tana'im.
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): A king is permitted everything in the Parshah of the king.
R. Yehudah says, the Parshah was said only to make the people fear the king - "Som Tasim..."
(R. Yehudah): Yisrael were commanded to fulfill three Mitzvos after entering Eretz Yisrael: to appoint a king, to exterminate Amalek, and to build the Beis ha'Mikdash.
R. Nehurai says, there were not commanded to appoint a king. Rather, the Parshah describes the laws of kings in case they will request one - "v'Omarta Asimah Alai Melech."
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): The elders of (Shmuel's) generation properly requested a king - "Tenah Lanu Melech Leshoftenu";
The ignoramuses requested improperly - "v'Hayinu... k'Chol ha'Goyim..."
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): Yisrael were commanded to fulfill three Mitzvos after entering Eretz Yisrael: to appoint a king, to exterminate Amalek, and to build the Beis ha'Mikdash;
Question: How do we know which came first?
Answer: "Ki Yad Al Kes Kah Milchamah la'Shem ba'Amalek";
Kisei refers to (the throne of) a king - "va'Yeshev Shlomo Al Kisei Hash-m l'Melech" (and war with Amalek is mentioned after this).
Question: Which comes first, exterminating Amalek or building the Beis ha'Mikdash?
Answer: "V'Heni'ach Lachem mi'Kol Oyveichem... ha'Makom Asher Yivchar Hash-m" (first, we must destroy Amalek).
We find similarly regarding David "... va'Shem Heni'ach Lo... (after subduing his enemies)... va'Yomer ha'Melech El Noson (he wanted to build the Beis ha'Mikdash)."
(Reish Lakish): At first (before he married Nochriyos), Shlomo was king (even) over higher beings (Malachim and Ruchos) - "va'Yeshev Shlomo Al Kisei Hash-m";
Later, he was (only) king over people "Hu Rodeh Al Kol Ever ha'Nahar mi'Tifsach v'Ad Azah";
(Rav or Shmuel): Tifsach and Azah are at different ends of the world;
(The other of Rav and Shmuel): Tifsach and Azah are next to each other. He ruled over the entire world as firmly as he ruled on the area between Tifsach and Azah.
Later (because he did not repent), he was king only over Yisrael - "Ani Koheles Hayisi Melech Al Yisrael";
Later, he was king only over Yerushalayim - "Divrei Koheles Ben David Melech bi'Yrushalayim";
Later, he was only king over his bed - "Hinei Mitaso sheli'Shlomo"
In the end (Ashmedai sent him away), he was only king over his staff - "v'Zeh Hayah Chelki mi'Kol Amali."
(Rav or Shmuel): This was his staff.
(The other of Rav and Shmuel): This was his garment (some texts - his bowl or cup).
Question: Did he return to his kingship?
Answer: Rav and Shmuel argued about this. One said that he did, and the other said that he did not.
The one who says that he did not return says that he was a king, and then a commoner;
The one who says that he returned says that he was a king, a commoner, and a king again.
(Mishnah): He may breach fences to make a path for himself. (...Everyone takes spoils in war. He chooses which half he wants to take.)
(Beraisa): Treasuries of (conquered) kings go to the king; he gets half of all other spoils.
Question (Abaye): Granted, it is the custom that treasuries of kings go to the king;
What is the source that he gets half of all other spoils?
Answer (Rav Dimi): "Va'Yimshechu la'Shem l'Nagid ul'Tzadok" equates the Nagid (leader) to Tzadok (the Kohen Gadol);
Just like Tzadok gets half (of the Lechem ha'Panim), also the Nagid.
Question: What is the source that the Kohen Gadol gets half of the Lechem ha'Panim?
Answer: "V'Hayah l'Aharon ul'Vanav" - Aharon gets half, and the other Kohanim get half.