[11a - 52 lines; 11b - 46 lines]
1)[line 1]במזומנין להMEZUMANIN LAH- those whom [the Nasi (see next entry)] invited for that [specific purpose]
2)[line 1]ברבן גמליאלRABAN GAMLIEL- Raban Gamliel was the Nasi (lit. prince). This was the hereditary position of spiritual leader in Eretz Yisrael.
3)[line 2]השכימו לי שבעה לעלייהHASHKIMU LI SHIV'A L'ALIYAH- have seven [judges] join me early tomorrow morning in the upper story [in order to extend the year] (See Insights)
4)[line 4]ירדYERED- he should go down (i.e., leave)
5)[line 7]שב, בני, שבSHEV, BNI, SHEV- sit, my son, sit
6)[line 9]ולא שמואל הקטן הוהLO SHMUEL HA'KATAN HAVAH- [the one who came without an invitation] was not Shmuel ha'Katan
7)[line 11]כיסופאKISUFA- [the possible] embarrassment [of he who was not really invited]
8)[line 12]והריח ריח שוםHERI'ACH REI'ACH SHUM- he smelled the smell of garlic
9)[line 14]רבי שמעון ברביREBBI SHIMON B'REBBI- Rebbi Shimon the son of Rebbi
10)[line 17]מהיכא גמיר לה?ME'HEICHA GAMIR LAH?- from where did he learn [that it is proper to take responsibility for that which he did not do in order to save another from embarrassment]?
11)[line 19]קדשני בביאהKIDSHANI B'VI'AH - betrothed me with relations (ERUSIN V'NISU'IN)
(a)The first stage of Halachic marriage is called Kidushin (betrothal). Kidushin can be accomplished in one of three ways:
1.KESEF - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her money or anything equal in value to a Perutah (a very small coin). Upon doing so, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'(-----) Zo" - "Behold you are betrothed to me through this (-----)."
2.SHTAR - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her a marriage document. This may be written upon any surface, and need not be of any specific value. The words "Harei At Mekudeshes Li bi'Shtar Zeh" must be written upon the Shtar.
3.BI'AH - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through having relations with her. At that time, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Bi'ah Zo." Because Kidushin requires witnesses, the Chachamim strongly condemned anyone who uses this method of Kidushin. In our Gemara, a woman told Rebbi Meir that a member of his Beis Midrash had betrothed her through Bi'ah, but she was not sure who it was.
(b)The Torah refers to this stage of marriage as "Erusin" (Devarim 22:23). The term "Kidushin" is used by the Rabanan in order to connote that just as everyone is prohibited to benefit from Hekdesh (an object sanctified to the service of HaSh-m), through Kidushin a woman becomes prohibited to everyone in the world save her husband (Kidushin 2b; see also Tosfos 7a DH v'Nifshetu). Although a man and woman are married after Kidushin, they may not yet live together as man and wife.
(c)The second stage of Halachic marriage - the completion of the marriage - is termed Nisu'in. This is accomplished through Chupah. Chupah is never clearly described in the Gemara, and various opinions are offered by the Rishonim as to what exactly it entails (see Insights to Kesuvos 57:1). The general idea behind Chupah is that the groom brings his wife into his house. After the Chupah is performed, the marriage is complete.
12)[line 20]גט כריתותGET KERISUS- a bill of divorce
13)[line 24]"וַיַּעַן שְׁכַנְיָה בֶן יְחִיאֵל מִבְּנֵי עֵילָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֶזְרָא, 'אֲנַחְנוּ מָעַלְנוּ בֵאלֹקֵינוּ וַנֹּשֶׁב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ; וְעַתָּה, יֵשׁ מִקְוֶה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל זֹאת'""VA'YA'AN SHECHANYAH VEN YECHIEL MI'BNEI EILAM VA'YOMER L'EZRA, 'ANACHNU MA'ALNU VE'LKEINU VA'NOSHEV NASHIM NOCHRIYOS ME'AMEI HA'ARETZ; V'ATAH, YESH MIKVEH L'YISRAEL AL ZOS'" - "And Shechanyah son of Yechiel from Eilam responded and said to Ezra, 'We have rebelled against our G-d and we have married Nochri women from the nations of the land; but now, there is hope for Yisrael in this [matter]!'" (Ezra 10:2) (THE JEWISH MEN DIVORCE THEIR NOCHRI FAMILIES IN THE TIME OF EZRA)
(a)Upon discovering that many of the men who returned from Bavel had married women from the various nations of Kena'an as well as Amoniyos and Mo'aviyos, Ezra became extremely distraught. He prayed and wept bitterly over the terrible sin. As he prayed, a large contingent of weeping men, women, and children, realizing the severity of their actions, gathered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Their spokesman was Shechanyah ben Yechiel. Our Gemara highlights the fact that Shechanyah ben Yechiel included himself in his confession, even though he had not sinned in this manner.
(b)Shechanyah's plan was to make a covenant before HaSh-m to send away the foreign wives, together with the children that they had borne. Ezra seized upon this opportunity to bind the leaders of the Kohanim, Leviyim, and Yisraelim in an oath that they would abide by their resolution. Ezra also enacted that whoever did not abide by the resolution would have their property destroyed and would be excommunicated.
(c)Although the process took some time due to the logistics involved, ultimately the nation was once again purified.
14)[line 26]מיהושעYEHOSHUA- [the reaction of HaSh-m in the following incident involving] Yehoshua
15)[line 27]"וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, 'קֻם לָךְ! לָמָּה זֶּה אַתָּה נֹפֵל עַל פָּנֶיךָ? חָטָא יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגַם עָבְרוּ אֶת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם, וְגַם לָקְחוּ מִן הַחֵרֶם, וְגַם גָּנְבוּ, וְגַם כִּחֲשׁוּ, וְגַם שָׂמוּ בִכְלֵיהֶם'""VA'YOMER HASH-M EL YEHOSHUA, 'KUM LACH! LAMAH ZEH ATAH NOFEL AL PANECHA? CHATA YISRAEL V'GAM AVRU ES BRISI ASHER TZIVISI OSAM, V'GAM LAKCHU MIN HA'CHEREM, V'GAM GANVU, V'GAM KICHASHU, V'GAM SAMU VI'CHLEIHEM'" - "And HaSh-m said to Yehoshua, 'Get up! Why do you fall upon your face? Yisrael has sinned and have also transgressed My covenant that I commanded them, and have also taken from the spoils, and have also stolen, and have also denied [doing so], and have also placed [the booty] in their vessels.'" (Yehoshua 7:10-11) (KLAL YISRAEL'S FIRST DEFEAT)
(a)Klal Yisrael's first conquest upon entering Eretz Yisrael was the city of Yericho (see Background to Ta'anis 14:10). Through the Navi Yehoshua, HaSh-m forbade all members of Klal Yisrael from partaking of the spoils of Yericho. The traitorous Achan ben Karmi ben Zavdi ben Zerach of the tribe of Yehudah ignored this directive, and - unbeknownst to the rest of Klal Yisrael - helped himself to some of the booty. As a result of this transgression, Klal Yisrael lost the following battle at Ay, and thirty-six men perished.
(b)Yehoshua did not know why Klal Yisrael had been defeated at Ay. He fell upon his face in supplication to HaSh-m. HaSh-m instructed Yehoshua to draw lots to uncover the guilty party and sentence him to death. Upon discovering that the culprit was Achan, Yehoshua confronted him. Achan admitted to his guilt. Achan was then put to death to atone for his sin. Stones were piled over his grave as a sign that he had died an ignominious death (Yehoshua 7:1-26).
(c)Our Gemara highlights that HaSh-m did not inform Yehoshua directly about whom the culprit was.
16a)[line 28]וכי דילטור אני?V'CHI DILATOR ANI?- am I an informer?
b)[line 28]לֵךְ הטל גורלותLECH HATEL GORALOS!- go and cast lots!
17)[line 29]"[וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל מֹשֶׁה,] 'עַד אָנָה מֵאַנְתֶּם לִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי?'""[VA'YOMER HASH-M EL MOSHE,] 'AD ANAH ME'ANTEM LI'SHMOR MITZVOSAI V'SOROSAI?'"- "[And HaSh-m said to Moshe,] 'Until when will you refuse to guard My commandments and My Torah?'" (Shemos 16:28). HaSh-m said this to Moshe after certain members of Klal Yisrael went to collect Man on Shabbos, after having been expressly commanded not to. (See Insights for an explanation of the development of the Gemara until this point.)
18)[line 31]בבת קולBAS KOL - (A HEAVENLY VOICE)
One form of revelation below that of true prophecy is called a Bas Kol (lit. echo). This refers to a heavenly voice that can be heard only by individuals on a high spiritual level. In numerous places throughout the Talmud, we find instances in which those on earth gained information from Heaven relayed through a Bas Kol.
19)[line 31]מסוביןMESUBIN- reclining to eat (the accepted way of eating in the times of the Gemara was while reclining upon a cot on one's left side)
20)[line 31]בעליית בית גוריהALIYAS BEIS GURYAH- the upper story belonging to the house of Guryah
21)[line 33]זכאיZAKAI- worthy
22)[line 34]הי חסיד! הי עניו!HEI CHASID! HEI ANAV!- What a pious man! What a humble man!
23)[line 34]תלמידו של עזרא!TALMIDO SHEL EZRA!- a student of Ezra! Ezra ha'Sofer led Klal Yisrael back from Bavel to rebuild the second Beis ha'Mikdash. Both he and Hillel ha'Zaken came from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael and became the Nasi (YA'AVETZ).
24)[line 35]ביבנהYAVNEH- a city along the coast of Eretz Yisrael near present-day Rechovot. This was the first of ten places that the Sanhedrin (Halachic Supreme Court) stopped in when it went into exile, just prior to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash.
25)[line 37]אף הוא אמר בשעת מיתתוAF HU AMAR B'SHE'AS MISASO- [Shmuel ha'Katan] also said [the following words of prophecy] at the time of his passing (proving that he was indeed worthy of receiving the Divine Presence)
26a)[line 38]שמעון וישמעאל לחרבאSHIMON V'YISHMAEL L'CHARBA- [Raban] Shimon [ben Gamliel (the Nasi)] and [Rebbi] Yishmael [ben Elisha (the Kohen Gadol) will fall] to the sword
b)[line 38]וחברוהי לקטלאV'CHAVROHI L'KETALA - and his colleagues to execution (ASARAH HARUGEI MALCHUS)
(a)Ten great Tanaic sages were murdered by the Roman Empire, over the course of many years, on the pretext of atoning for the sale of Yosef ha'Tzadik by his brothers. These executions occurred around the time of the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b)The victims of this persecution were Rebbi Akiva, Rebbi Yishmael Kohen Gadol, Raban Shimon, Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, Rebbi Chananya (alt. Chanina) ben Teradyon, Rebbi Yeshevav ha'Sofer, Rebbi Chutzpis ha'Meturgeman, Rebbi Elazar ben Shamu'a, Rebbi Chanina ben Chachina'i, and Rebbi Yehudah ben Dama.
(c)After specifying that Raban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rebbi Yishmael Kohen Gadol would be killed by the sword, Shmuel ha'Katan then predicted that "their colleagues will be put to death [through other means]."
c)[line 38]ושאר עמא לביזאU'SHE'AR AMA L'VIZA- and the rest of the nation will be despoiled
d)[line 39]ועקן סגיאן עתידן למיתי על (עלמא) [עמא]V'AKAN SAGI'AN ASIDIN L'MEISI AL (ALMA) [AMA]- and many troubles are to befall the nation
27)[line 39]יהודה בן בבאYEHUDAH BEN BAVA- one of the Asarah Harugei Malchus (see above, entry #26:b), who was brutally killed by the Romans when they caught him ordaining the five primary students of Rebbi Akiva
28)[line 39]לומר כןLOMAR KEN- to say this [eulogy of Hei Chasid! etc.]
29)[line 40]שנטרפה שעהNITREFAH SHA'AH- the time was troubled [from the persecutions]
30)[line 40]שאין מספידין על הרוגי מלכותEIN MASPIDIM AL HARUGEI MALCHUS- we do not eulogize those put to death by the monarchy [lest the king hear of it and take offense]
31)[line 41]ליטול רשות אצל שלטון אחד שבסוריאLI'TOL RESHUS ETZEL SHILTON ECHAD SHEB'SURYA- to speak to a certain ruler is Syria regarding matters concerning the public
32)[line 42]ושהה לבאSHAHAH LA'VO- he delayed in returning
33a)[line 44]הדרכיםHA'DERACHIM- the roads [that are still muddy from the rainy season]
b)[line 44]הגשריםHA'GESHARIM- the bridges [that were washed out during the rainy season and have still not been repaired]
c)[line 45]תנורי פסחיםTANUREI PESACHIM- the clay ovens [in Yerushalayim used to roast] the Korban Pesach [that became wet during the rainy season and now must dry out in the sun before they are usable]
34)[line 45]שנעקרו ממקומןNE'EKRU MI'MEKOMAN- uprooted [themselves] from their places [of residence in order to travel to Yerushalayim to offer the Korban Pesach]
35a)[line 46]השלגHA'SHELEG- [concern that people will not arrive to offer their Korban Pesach due to an abundance of] snow
b)[line 46]הצינהHA'TZINA- [concern that people will not arrive to offer their Korban Pesach due to] the cold
36)[line 47]הגדיים... הטלאיםHA'GEDIYIM… HA'TELA'IM - the kid-goats... the lambs (for the Pesach-offering (KORBAN PESACH)
(a)In the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon (Shemos 12:6). A Korban Pesach consists of an unblemished male goat (a Gedi) or lamb (a Taleh) within its first year of life. The Korban may be slaughtered in any part of the Azarah (the inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash; see Zevachim 56b).
(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).
(c)One who is able to offer the Korban Pesach and neglects to do so receives the punishment of Kares (see Background to 3:27). The Mitzvah of Korban Pesach is one of only two positive commandments that are punishable by Kares.
(d)The Beraisa cited by our Gemara teaches that even if the Gediyim and Tela'im are very young and thin, we do not push off the Korban Pesach by making a leap year. This is because even a very young animal with little meat is valid to be offered as a Korban Pesach.
37)[line 48]הגוזלות שלא פירחוHA'GOZLOS SHE'LO PIRCHU - the young birds that have not yet flown (KEN CHOVAH)
(a)A Ken Chovah (nest of birds brought as an obligatory Korban) consists of two birds of the same type, either Torim (mature turtledoves) or Bnei Yonah (young pigeons). One of these birds is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Of, and the other is offered as a Korban Olas ha'Of.
(b)The following people are obligated to bring a Ken Chovah:
1.a Zav (see Background to Kerisus 8:4);
2.a Zavah (see Background to Kerisus 8:9);
3.a poor Yoledes (see Background to Kerisus 7:16);
4.a Nazir Tamei (see Background to Kerisus 27:14);
5.a poor Metzora (see Background to Kerisus 8:16);
6.a poor person who transgressed one of the following sins:
i.Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1),
ii.Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Kerisus 12:7)
iii.Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Kerisus 2:10).
(c)It is common practice to postpone fulfilling one's obligations to offer Kinim until he comes to the Beis ha'Mikdash for Yom Tov. Furthermore, a person with the status of Mechusar Kippurim (e.g. Zav, Zavah, or Yoledes) is forbidden to partake of the Korban Pesach before completing his purification by offering his or her Ken Chovah. The Beraisa cited by our Gemara explains that even so, even if it is early enough in the season that the birds are yet young, this is not a reason to add a month to the year. This is because pigeons are offered as Kinim specifically when they are young.
38)[line 48]עושין אותן סעד לשנהOSIN OSAN SA'AD L'SHANAH- we make [these factors] into a support for [declaring a leap] year. On 11b, the Gemara explains that there are three main considerations that are taken into account when Beis Din considers making a leap year (Aviv, Peiros ha'Ilan, and Tekufah). If two of the factors are in effect, then a leap year is declared; if only one is in effect, then a leap year is not declared. The Beraisa cited by our Gemara states that if the animals fit for the Korban Pesach or those fit for Kinim are too young, then this factor may be added to one of the primary three factors in order to extend the year prior to Pesach.
39)[line 48]כיצד?KEITZAD?- what is an example [of the text of the declaration that was sent out by Beis Din when they declared a leap year]?
40)[line 49]מהודעין אנחנא לכון דגוזליא רכיכיןMEHODA'IN ANACHNA LECHON D'GOZLAYA RECHICHIN- we hereby inform you that the birds are yet young
41)[line 50]ואימריא (דערקין) [דעדקין]IMRA (D'ARKIN) [D'ADKIN]- the sheep are small (lit. thin)
42)[line 50]וזימנא דאביבא לא מטאZIMNA D'AVIVA LO MATA- the time of the Aviv has not arrived
43)[line 50]ושפרת מילתא באנפאיSHIFRAS MILSA B'ANPA'I- the matter is proper in my eyes
44)[line 51]ואוסיפית על שתא דא תלתין יומיןOSIFIS AL SHATA DA TELASIN YOMIN- I have added to this year thirty days
45)[last line]רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר חֹדֶשRABAN SHIMON BEN GAMLIEL OMER, CHODESH- Raban Shimon ben Gamliel (who was cited in the first Beraisa as having added thirty days to the leap year) says a month [of twenty-nine days]
46)[last line]תא חזיTA CHAZI- go and see
47a)[line 1]תקיפאי קדמאיTEKIFA'I KADMA'I- the earlier ones who were sharp of tongue [and yet still acted humbly]. This refers to Raban Gamliel. (For examples of his sharpness, see RASHI.)
b)[line 1]לעינוותני בתראיINVESANI BASRA'I- the later ones who were humble [and yet not as much so as the earlier generations]. This refers to Raban Shimon, son of Raban Gamliel.
48)[line 3]מעלהMA'ALEH- a step
49)[line 3]בהר הביתHAR HA'BAYIS- the Temple Mount
50)[line 3]הלזHA'LAZ- of distinguished appearance (RASHI to Daniel 8:16)
51)[line 4]איגרות חתוכותIGROS CHATUCHOS- parchment that has been cut into pieces [and is ready to be inscribed]
52)[line 5]טול איגרתא חדאTOL IGRESA CHADA- take one piece of parchment
53)[line 6]לאחנא בני גלילאה עילאהLA'ACHANA BNEI GELILA'AH ILA'AH- to our brothers the residents of the Upper Galilee (in the north of Eretz Yisrael)
54)[line 7]גלילאה תתאהGELILA'AH TATA'AH- the Lower Galilee (which is also in the north of Eretz Yisrael)
55)[line 7]שלומכון יסגא!SHELOMCHON YISGEI!- may you have much peace! (cf. Daniel 3:31)
56)[line 8]דזמן ביעורא מטא לאפרושי מעשראZMAN BI'URA MATA L'AFRUSHEI MA'ASRA - the time to complete the separation of all Ma'asros has arrived (BI'UR MA'ASROS)
(a)Once a crop is harvested and brought into the owner's storehouse or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). The Torah does not specify an amount that must be given for Terumah; however, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. This Terumah is also termed Terumah Gedolah.
(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).
(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).
(d)During the first, second, fourth, and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. If one is unable to bring the Ma'aser Sheni produce itself, he may redeem it with coins and bring the coins to Yerushalayim instead (Devarim 14:22-27). The owner of the produce must add a fourth of its value, which is a fifth of the total (i.e., 125%), when redeeming the produce (Vayikra 27:30-31). This money is then used to purchase food items in Yerushalayim.
(e)On the afternoon of Erev Pesach of the fourth and seventh years of a Shemitah cycle, the owner of produce must perform Bi'ur Ma'asros. All Terumos, Ma'aser Rishon, and Ma'aser Ani that remain in his possession must be given to their proper recipients. Any remaining Ma'aser Sheni, along with Kerem Reva'i (the fourth-year produce of a vineyard, which has the same status of Ma'aser Sheni), Bikurim (first fruits which should have been given to a Kohen; see Background to Gitin 47:35), and coins used to redeem Ma'aser Sheni or Kerem Reva'i must be destroyed.
(f)One who fulfills the Mitzvah of Bi'ur Ma'aser recites Viduy Ma'aser. This is a declaration that he has set aside all required tithes and gifts, and that he has fulfilled the various Mitzvos associated with them (Devarim 26:12-15).
(g)Although the text of Viduy Ma'aser is found in the Torah, one may recite it in any language that he understands.
(h)The first letter that Raban Gamliel instructed Rebbi Yochanan ha'Sofer to send was to remind the inhabitants of the Galil that "the time of Bi'ur has arrived, to separate Ma'aser." This was a reminder that it was either the fourth or seventh year of a Shemitah cycle (see RASHI here and the comments of the RASHASH), and that all Terumos, Ma'asros, etc. ought to be designated and then distributed before Pesach arrived.
57)[line 9]ממעטנא דזיתאMA'ATANA D'ZEISA- the bowls in which olives were placed to ripen and soften prior to pressing. Olives were the most common crop grown in the Galil.
58)[line 10]דרומאDEROMA- the south [of Eretz Yisrael]
59)[line 12]מעומרי שיבליאOMREI SHIBLAYA- the bundles of wheat. Wheat was the most common crop grown in the south.
60)[line 13]בני גלוותאBNEI GALVASA- those who dwell in the Diaspora (who were too far away to otherwise hear of the occurrence of a leap year)
61)[line 14]דבמדיDEB'MADAI- who are in Madai (Media)
62)[line 18]ובאנפי חבירייUV'ANPEI CHAVEIRAI- and in the eyes of my colleagues. Our Gemara points out that although Raban Gamliel was sharper of speech than his son Raban Shimon, he mentioned his colleagues in his pronouncements whereas his son Raban Shimon did not.
63)[line 19]בתר דעברוהוBASAR D'AVRUHU- [this incident occurred] after (a) they removed [Raban Gamliel from his position as Nasi, whereupon he became more humble] (RASHI) ;( b) they removed [Raban Gamliel from his position as Nasi and then reinstated him as co-Nasi with Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah, in which case he had a colleague] (TOSFOS DH Basar); (c) according to the Girsa BASAR D'AVRUHA - [this incident occurred] after [Raban Gamliel's colleagues] established a leap year [in his absence conditional upon his acquiescence upon his return] (TOSFOS RABEINU PERETZ) (See Insights)
64)[line 21]פירות האילןPEIROS HA'ILAN- fruits of the tree. This refers to the determination of whether the Shiv'as ha'Minim (seven types of produce endemic to Eretz Yisrael) will not ripen before Shavuos, when Bikurim (see Background to Gitin 47:35) must be brought to the Beis ha'Mikdash and given to a Kohen
65)[line 21]התקופהHA'TEKUFA- the season. This refers to the determination of whether the autumnal equinox will fall beyond the holiday of Sukos or the vernal equinox will fall beyond the second day of Pesach.
66)[line 23]הכל שמחיןHA'KOL SEMEICHIN- everyone is happy [since the postponement of Pesach will not result in a longer period during which Chadash (see below, entry #72) is forbidden, since the grain crop will not be ripe before then anyway]
67a)[line 25]על התקופה שמחיןAL HA'TEKUFAH SEMEICHIN- [does Rebbi Shimon ben Gamliel mean to say that] everyone is happy when the Tekufah [is one of the reasons why the year is extended since, if it is not, those who made the pilgrimage to Yerushalayim for Sukos will end up having to return afterward during the rainy season]
b)[line 25]או על התקופה מעברין?O AL HA'TEKUFAH ME'ABRIN?- or [does Rebbi Shimon ben Gamliel mean to say that] for the [reason of] Tekufah [alone] we extend the year [since a) it is mid'Oraisa (RASHI); b) it is unmistakable (TOSFOS DH O)]
68)[line 26]תיקוTEIKU - An Unanswered Question
The Gemara often leaves a question unanswered with the word "Teiku." The PRI MEGADIM (Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) cites three explanations for this term:
1.[this question shall remain] sealed in its container (ARUCH, Erech Tik)
2.let [the question] stand ("Tehei Ka'I"; MUSAF HA'ARUCH)
3.Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos)
69a)[line 27]יהודהYEHUDAH- the portion of Yehudah. This includes Yerushalayim and the south of Eretz Yisrael.
b)[line 27]עבר הירדןEVER HA'YARDEN- Transjordan
c)[line 28]הגלילHA'GALIL- the north of Eretz Yisrael
70)[line 28]על שתים מהןAL SHETAYIM ME'HEN- [if the abovementioned factors are present] in two of these [regions]
71)[line 30]עומרOMER - The Omer Offering (KORBAN HA'OMER)
(a)The Korban ha'Omer, also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim (Vayikra 2:14-16), is offered on the sixteenth of Nisan (i.e., the second day of Pesach). A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this point in the season, the grain is still green and moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5, or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. On the morning of the sixteenth of Nisan, the flour is then mixed with olive oil, frankincense is placed upon it, and it is offered as a Korban Minchah. This day is also known as the Yom ha'Nef (day of waving), since Tenufah (waving) is performed upon the Korban prior to its offering. This is accomplished by waving it in the four directions of the compass as well as up and down. A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:9-13).
(b)Chadash refers to grain that took root after the Korban ha'Omer is offered. Such grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered (Vayikra 23:14). When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, since this is when the Korban Omer would have been offered.
72)[line 32]ביהודהB'YEHUDAH- in [the Sanhedrin which is located in the Beis ha'Mikdash in the region of] Yehudah
73)[line 36]"... לְשִׁכְנוֹ תִדְרְשׁוּ וּבָאתָ שָׁמָּה""… L'SHICHNO SIDRESHU U'VASA SHAMAH"- "... seek out where HaSh-m's presence dwells] and come there" (Devarim 12:5).
74)[line 37]בשכנו של מקוםSHECHENO SHEL MAKOM- the presence of HaSh-m (lit. The Place, since HaSh-m is the location, as it were, of the entire world); i.e., in Yerushalayim
75)[line 41]"תִּקְעוּ בַחֹדֶשׁ שׁוֹפָר, בַּכֶּסֶה לְיוֹם חַגֵּנוּ""TIK'U VA'CHODESH SHOFAR, BA'KESEH L'YOM CHAGEINU"- "Blow the Shofar during the month, upon the day that is designated for a holiday" (Tehilim 81:4).
76)[line 43]שהחדש מתכסה בוHA'CHODESH MISKASEH BO- the moon (lit. the month) is hidden upon it (i.e., it is a new moon). Rebbi Aba interprets the word "Keseh" to mean "hidden."
77)[line 44]"כִּי חוֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא, מִשְׁפָּט לֵא-לֹקֵי יַעֲקֹב""KI CHOK L'YISRAEL HU, MISHPAT LE'L-KEI YA'AKOV"- "For it is a [Heavenly] statute for Yisrael, a [day of] judgment for the G-d of Yakov" (Tehilim 81:5). Rebbi Aba interprets this verse to mean that "the statute that Yisrael observe on this day - namely, Kidush ha'Chodesh - is similar to judgment.
78)[line 45]משפט ביוםMISHPAT BA'YOM- judgment must be carried out [only] during the daytime (see 34b)