12th CYCLE DEDICATION
GITIN 47 (26 Av) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Aharon Tzvi ben Simcha Ha'Levy Fleck by his son, Avraham Fleck of Yerushalayim.

[47a - 53 lines; 47b - 35 lines]

1)[line 1]פירקן!PIRKAN!- Redeem me!

2)[line 3]משום קלקולאMISHUM KILKULA- for [fear that they will be] ruined [through assimilation once their father is not there to protect them]

3)[line 3]כ"ש הכאKOL SHE'KEN HACHA- all the more so here [I should redeem even you]

4)[line 4]קטלאKETALA- [threat of] death

5)[line 4]ישראל מומר הואYISRAEL MUMAR HU!- he is a Jewish apostate! It is clear from RASHI DH Eima that their concern was that he was more than one who habitually sins. They meant that he was a Min - an idolater.

6a)[line 5]נבילותNEVEILOS- an animal that died as a result of anything other than Shechitah (Halachically valid slaughter)

b)[line 5]טריפותTEREIFOS- an animal that has a malady that will cause it to die within the year

7)[line 6]אימא לתיאבון הוא דקאכילEIMA L'TEI'AVON HU DEK'ACHIL- let us say that he ate [them] due to an appetite [for them, and not as a rebellion against HaSh-m]

8)[line 7]זמניןZIMNIN- there were times

9)[line 8]שביק היתירא ואכיל איסוראSHAVIK HEITEIRA V'ACHIL ISURA- he left the permitted [food] and consumed the forbidden [food, even though there was no difference in taste between them]

10)[line 8]א"ל, זילAMAR LEI, ZIL- [Rav Ami] said to him, "Go"

11)[line 8]לא קא שבקי לי דאפרקינךLO KA SHAVKEI LI D'AFARKINACH- they do not allow me to redeem you

12)[line 9]ריש לקישREISH LAKISH- The following story happened before Reish Lakish became a Torah scholar (see Bava Metzia 84a) (TOSFOS DH Reish Lakish).

13)[line 10]שקלSHAKAL- he took

14)[line 10]חייתא וגלגלתאCHAISA V'GALGALTA- a pouch containing a stone or lead weight

15)[line 11]גמיריGEMIREI- we known

16)[line 11]יומא בתראYOMA BASRA- [upon] the last day [of their victim's life] (i.e., on the day that they intend to kill and eat him)

17a)[line 11]כל דבעי מינייהו עבדי ליהKOL D'BA'EI MINAIHU AVDEI LEI- whatever he wants from them, they do for him

b)[line 12]כי היכי דליחול אדמיהKI HEICHI D'LEICHIL DAMEI- a) so that he will pardon them for [spilling] his blood (RASHI); b) so that his blood will be sweetened [as a result of his happiness] (ARUCH)

18)[line 14]אקמטינכו ואותבינכוAKAMTINCHU V'OSVINCHU- to tie [each of] you up (both hands and feet - ARUCH) and sit you down

19)[line 14]אמחי' חייתא ופלגאEMCHEI CHAISA U'FALGA- I will deal him a blow and a half [with my pouch]

20)[line 16]כד מחייה חד חייתאKAD MACHYEI CHAD CHAISA- when he delivered one blow [to each one]

21)[line 16]נפק נשמתיהNAFAK NISHMASEI- lit. he soul left; i.e., he died

22)[line 17]חרקיניה לשיניהCHARKINEI L'SHINEI- he [appeared to] gnash his teeth [at Reish Lakish as a result of the death blow]

23)[line 17]אחוכי קא מחייכת בי!ACHUCHEI KA MECHAICHAS BI!- You are laughing at me!

24)[line 18]אכתי פש לך גבי פלגא דחייתא!AKATI PASH LACH GABI PALGA D'CHAISA!- I still have the right to deal you half a blow!

25)[line 19]נפק ואתאNAFAK V'ASA- he went and came [home]

26)[line 19]יתיב קאכיל ושתיYASIV KA'ACHIL V'SHASI- [for the rest of his life] he sat, ate, and drank [what he purchased with what he earned that day; he set aside no funds for the future]

27)[line 20]ברתיהBERATEI- his daughter

28)[line 20]לא בעית מידי למזגא עליה?LO BA'IS MIDI L'MIZGA ALEI?- Do you not require something (such as a pillow or mattress) upon which to lie down?

29)[line 21]כריסי כריKEREISI KARI- my belly is my cushion; his custom was to lie upon his stomach (TOSFOS) (perhaps this means that when he became weary, his head would fall upon his belly; Y. Teven)

30)[line 21]כי נח נפשיהKI NACH NAFSHEI- when his soul rested; i.e., when he passed away

31)[line 21]קבאKAVA (DRY MEASURES(

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus a Kav is approximately 1.2, 1.38 or 2.4 liters depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

32)[line 22]מוריקאMORIKA- saffron

33)[line 22]קרא אנפשיהKARA A'NAFSHEI- he applied to himself

34)[line 22]"[כִּי יִרְאֶה חֲכָמִים יָמוּתוּ, יַחַד כְּסִיל וָבַעַר יֹאבֵדוּ,] וְעָזְבוּ לַאֲחֵרִים חֵילָם""... V'AZVU LA'ACHERIM CHEILAM"- "[For when a wealthy man sees that wise men die, that the fool and the idiot perish alike,] and they leave their wealth to others" (Tehilim 49:11). Reish Lakish bemoaned that which he left after his death even so much as a Kav of Saffron.

35)[line 24]בכוריםBIKURIM - Bringing One's First Fruits to the Beis Ha'Mikdash

(a)Every season, one must identify those fruits which were the first to emerge in his field. After they ripen, they are placed in a basket and brought to the Beis ha'Mikdash. After arriving in the Beis ha'Mikdash, while the basket is still on his shoulder, the owner of the fruit recites certain verses, thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and granting us the land of Eretz Yisrael (Devarim 26:3,5-10). He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (Bikurim 2:3), and bows down before HaSh-m. The Bikurim are afterward given to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8).

(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael is blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates (Bikurim 1:3). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land [heard from a leading botanist - MK].)

(c)In certain instances, one does not recite the verses when bringing Bikurim (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if one brings Bikurim between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see Sukah 36b and Rashi there).

(d)The Bikurim must be eaten by Kohanim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If one eats Bikurim outside of Yerushalayim once they have entered a) the Azarah (RASHI); b) Yerushalayim (RAMBAM) (Makos), then he is liable to receive Malkus (lashes). In such an instance, the Bikurim must be returned to Yerushalayim and eaten there.

36)[line 25]תיקון העולםTIKUN HA'OLAM- communal benefit; namely, so that Jews do not sell their lot in Eretz Yisrael off to Nochrim, and if they do, that they should have a vested interest in redeeming it

37)[line 25]אין / יש קנין לעובד כוכבים בארץ ישראל להפקיע מידי מעשרEIN / YESH KINYAN L'OVED KOCHAVIM B'ERETZ YISRAEL L'HAFKI'A MI'YEDEI MA'ASER - Whether or not Land Belonging to a Nochri in Eretz Yisrael has Sanctity

(a)Amora'im disagree as to whether or not land in Eretz Yisrael acquired by a Nochri loses its inherent Kedushah (sanctity). According to those who maintain that Yesh Kinyan l'Oved Kochavim b'Eretz Yisrael l'Hafki'a mi'Yedei Ma'aser, produce grown on such land is exempt from Terumah, Ma'aser (see next entry), Shevi'is (see Background to 53:38), and Bikurim (see above, entry #34). Those who disagree rule that the produce grown by the Nochri still retains its Kedushah, and a Jew who acquires it must treat it accordingly.

38)[line 27]מעשרMA'ASER - tithes from produce (HAFRASHAS TERUMOS U'MA'ASROS)

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.

(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).

(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).

(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity (Devarim 14:22-27).

(e)If it is impractical to bring the actual food to Yerushalayim, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed with money. This money receives the status of Ma'aser Sheni, and is then brought to Yerushalayim. In Yerushalayim the money is used to buy food, which in turn receives the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim.

(f)If the owner of the Ma'aser Sheni redeems his own Ma'aser, he must add a fifth of the total value (equal to a quarter of the original value) onto the money used (Vayikra 27:30-31); if someone else redeems it, he may do so with money equal to the value of the Ma'aser.

(g)Until Terumah and Ma'asros have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten. The word "Tevel" means a mixture, and can be used to refer to any produce from which one must separate a part. If one intentionally eats Tevel, then he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (see Background to Sukah 25:25).

39)[line 28]יש / אין קנין לעובד כוכבים בא"י לחפור בה בורות שיחין ומערותYESH / EIN KINYAN L'OVED KOCHAVIM B'ERETZ YISRAEL LA'CHPOR BAH BOROS SHICHIN U'ME'AROS - Whether or not a Nochri who Owns Land in Eretz Yisrael may Change its Contours

(a)Amora'im disagree as to whether or not a Nochri who owns land in Eretz Yisrael may disfigure the land through digging various types of ditches in it. Those who maintain that he has no such right require a Jew who sells land in Eretz Yisrael to a Nochri to stipulate that he not affect any changes within it (YA'AVETZ).

40)[line 29]לחפורLA'CHFOR- to dig

41a)[line 29]בורותBOROS- round wells

b)[line 29]שיחיןSHICHIN- elongated ditches [used for water storage]

c)[line 29]מערותME'AROS- caves [used for water storage]

42)[line 32]"[רֵאשִׁית] דְּגָנְךָ, [תִּירֹשְׁךָ, וְיִצְהָרֶךָ, וְרֵאשִׁית גֵּז צֹאנְךָ תִּתֶּן לוֹ]""[RESHIS] DEGANCHA, [TIROSHCHA, V'YITZHARECHA...]"- "[The first of] your grain, [your wine, and your oil, and the first of your shearings give to him]" (Devarim 18:4; see also Devarim 12:17 and 14:23). This verse mentions some of the Matnos Kehunah - gifts presented by Zarim (non-Kohanim) to Kohanim.

43)[line 36]דיגונךDIGUNCHA- your act of leveling a finished pile of grain. This action is termed Miru'ach, and, as the final stage in storing grain, classifies the grain as "Dagan." At this point Terumos and Ma'asros must be separated mid'Oraisa. Rabah maintains that grain grown by a Jew and leveled by a Nochri is exempt from Ma'asros, whereas grain grown by a Nochri and leveled by a Jew is obligated.

44)[line 37]מנא אמינא לה?MINA AMINA LAH?- what is my source [that the land of a Nochri retains its Kedushah]?

45)[line 38]לקטLEKET - Fallen Stalks that are Left for the Poor

(a)"Leket" refers to stalks of grain that have fallen to the ground while being cut or gathered during the harvest. Such stalks must be left for the poor; they not be retrieved by their owner (Vayikra 19:9-10).

(b)This prohibition applies only to individual - i.e., one or two - fallen stalks of wheat. Should three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket, and may be retrieved.

46)[line 38]שכחהSHICHECHAH - Forgotten Sheaves Of Grain that are Left for the Poor

(a)If while harvesting grain one mistakenly leaves one or two bundles of wheat in the field, they may not be retrieved. Rather, they must be left for the poor (Devarim 24:19). Also included in the category of Shichechah is part of one's field that was overlooked during the harvest.

47)[line 38]פאהPE'AH - The Corner of One's Field that is Left for the Poor

(a)The "corner" of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor (Vayikra 19:9-10). This means that one must leave some of his produce unharvested. Mid'Oraisa one may leave any amount; however, the Rabanan fixed the minimal Shi'ur at one sixtieth of the field. It is praiseworthy to leave even more than this (Pe'ah 1:2).

(b)Pe'ah applies not only to produce grown in a field such as wheat, but also to fruit that grows on trees (Devarim 24:20). The laws of Pe'ah apply to any food item that grows from the ground, one wishes to retain for himself, is harvested all at once, and is kept in storage (Pe'ah 1:4).

48)[line 39]הפקירHIFKIR- he abandoned it, rendering it ownerless. One need not separate from that which is ownerless. This is because the Torah explains that the reason for the obligation to give Ma'aser to the Levi is that "he does not have a portion and an inheritance with you" (Devarim 14:29). Since Leviyim have just as much of a portion in Hefker as a Yisrael, that which is Hefker is exempt from Ma'aser (SIFRI cited by RASHI).

49)[line 40]דישראלD'YISRAEL- that [the produce had been grown by] a Jew [and then designated as Leket, Shichechah, or Pe'ah]

50)[line 41]מפקרי וקיימיMIFKERI V'KAIMI- it was already made ownerless [before the Nochri acquired it due to its status as Leket, Shichechah, or Pe'ah]

51)[line 42]דעובד כוכביםD'OVED KOCHAVIM- [Leket, Shichechah, and Pe'ah] of a Nochri [which he is not obligated to separate and which are therefore not ownerless unless he clearly specifies so]

52)[line 45]אדעתא דישראלA'DAITA D'YISRAEL- with Jews in mind

53)[line 48]עד שלא הביאה שלישAD SHE'LO HEVI'AH SHELISH- before they have grown a) a third of their total growth (RASHI); b) to the extent that were they ground or pressed they would produce a third of the flour, oil, or wine that they would be expected to produce once fully grown (BARTENURA to Ma'asros 1:3) [at which point they become obligated in Terumos and Ma'asros]

54)[line 51]סוריאSURYA- [certain areas of modern-day] Syria [that had been conquered by David ha'Melech and annexed to Eretz Yisrael]

55)[line 51]כיבוש יחיד שמיה כיבוש / לא שמיה כיבושKIBUSH YACHID SHEMEI KIBUSH / LO SHEMEI KIBUSH - Whether or Not the Conquest of an Individual is Halachically Considered a Conquest

(a)All areas of Eretz Yisrael conquered by the nation as a whole attain the Kedushah of the land regarding Terumah, Ma'aser (see above, entry #37), Shevi'is (see Background to 53:38), and Bikurim (see above, entry #34). There is a Machlokes Tana'im as to whether land annexed to Eretz Yisrael as the result of a conquest initiated by an individual has this status as well. One such area is that of Surya, which was conquered as the result of the initiative of David ha'Melech.

(b)Our Gemara explains that according to the opinion which maintains that a Kibush Yachid is not granted the status of Eretz Yisrael, the obligation to separate Ma'asros there is only mid'Rabanan. When this decree was instituted, it was applied only to Jews and not Nochrim.

56)[last line]שותפותSHUTFUS- partnership

47b----------------------------------------47b

57)[line 1]טבלTEVEL- see above, entry #37:g

58)[line 4]יש ברירה / אין ברירהYESH BEREIRAH / EIN BEREIRAH - Whether or Not an Effect may be Determined Retroactively

(a)In numerous places in Shas, Tana'im and/or Amora'im disagree as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (Bereirah is effective) or "Ein Bereirah" (Bereirah is not effective). The term "Bereirah" usually refers to one's ability to make the effect of his action contingent retroactively upon future events. Examples of Bereirah include: buying or selling an object on the condition that it rains on the following day, or that the object of the sale will remain undefined until the following day. "Ein Bereirah" means that the result of an action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains this opinion with the following logic: "It is not proper for an action to be effective when the subject of that action is still in question." (See Insights to Chulin 14:3.) "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation will take effect.

(b)When an action is contingent on a past event, there is no question that it takes effect when the stipulation is fulfilled - even if those involved are unaware as to whether or not the event had taken place. Take, for example, one who hears that his Rebbi has arrived in an adjacent city and wishes to visit that city on Shabbos to hear him speak. He is unsure, however, as to which side of the city his Rebbi is staying. He may set up an Eruv Techumin (see Background to Beitzah 37:16) on each side of the city prior to sundown on Erev Shabbos and declare, "If my Rebbi is presently staying in the village to the east, then the Eruv to the east is my Eruv; if he is in the village to the west, then the Eruv to the west is my Eruv." Although he was unaware of his Rebbi's location at the time that the Eruvin were placed, he will know which of his two Eruvin was effective when he determines it ("Kevar Ba Chacham" - see Chulin 14b).

(c)One may stipulate that his action take place "Al Tenai" - conditionally. One may, for example, buy or sell an item on condition that his intended move to Eretz Yisrael works out, or he may divorce his wife on condition that he does not return within a specified period of time. If the condition is not upheld, the transaction or divorce is null and void - even though the condition was set in the future. See Insights to Gitin 25:2 for an explanation of the various opinions of the Rishonim regarding the difference between Bereirah and Tenai.

(d)Most Poskim rule (based on Beitzah 38a) that the Halachah is that Bereirah is not effective for Halachos that are d'Oraisa in nature (assuming that this results in a stringency), but that it is effective for Halachos that are d'Rabanan in nature (even when this results in a lenient ruling).

(e)In the case of our Gemara, produce grew in the joint domain of a Jew and a Nochri. When it grew, every part of the produce was half obligated in Ma'aser and half exempt. Rebbi, who does not hold of Bereirah, rules that even after the division all of the produce remains in this indeterminate state. Therefore, one may not separate Ma'aser from other produce to exempt it, since regular produce is more obligated than the joint produce, nor may he separate Ma'aser from that produce to exempt other produce, since it is less obligated than other produce. Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, however, maintains that Bereirah is effective. We can therefore assume that the produce that ends up in the possession of the Jew is that which grew in his possession as well, and it is fully obligated in Ma'aser.

59)[line 9]מפני תיקון העולםMIPNEI TIKUN HA'OLAM- see above, entry #35

60)[line 10]מדאורייתא לאMID'ORAISA LO- he is under no biblical obligation [to purchase the first fruits from the Nochri and bring them as Bikurim, which would be the case if the land belonging to the Nochri retained its Kedushah]. Since the owner of land in Eretz Yisrael must bring Bikurim, and the Nochri is not obligated, the obligation would fall on the last person to have had it.

61)[line 11]שתי תקנות הווSHTEI TAKANOS HAVU- [the obligation that rests upon the seller is biblical in nature, and the reason why it exists as a result of a decree is that] there were two decrees

62)[line 11]הוו מייתיHAVU MAISI- they would bring [Bikurim]

63)[line 12]חזוCHAZU- [the Chachamim] saw

64)[line 12]קא מקריKA MAKREI- a) it would happen; b) according to the Girsa KA MOKREI (MAHARAM) or KA MAYEKREI (TOSFOS YOM TOV) - [the fields] would appreciate in value

65)[line 13]סברי בקדושתייהו קיימןSAVREI BI'KEDUSHASAIHU KAIMAN- they thought that the fields remained with their original sanctity [and there was therefore no prohibition against selling to Nochrim as long as they made sure to redeem the Bikurim]

66)[line 14]מאן דלא סגי ליהMAN D'LO SAGI LEI- one who did not have the means [to redeem his field]

67)[line 14]משתקעןMISHTAK'AN- remain

68)[line 16]המוכר שדהו לפירותHA'MOCHER SADEHU L'FEIROS- one who sells his field [for a specific length of time, in which case he has sold it only] for [the rights to] that which it produces

69)[line 17]מביא וקורא... מביא ואינו קוראMEVI V'KOREI... MEVI V'EINO KOREI- see above, entry #34:c

70)[line 18]קנין פירות כקנין הגוף דמי / לאו כקנין הגוף דמיKINYAN PEIROS K'KINYAN HA'GUF DAMI / LAV K'KINYAN HA'GUF DAMI - Whether or Not the Acquisition of the Profit is Akin to That of the Principle

(a)Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagree in a case in which one purchases "Peiros" (profits), but not the "Keren" (principle). Examples of this include one who purchases that which is produced by a certain field or children who will be born to a particular maidservant, but not the field or the maidservant themselves. Rebbi Yochanan maintains that the ownership of the Peiros grants a certain degree of ownership in the principle as well, whereas Reish Lakish disagrees (see also Bava Basra 136a).

71)[line 21]"[וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְכָל הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לְךָ ה' אֱ-לֹקֶיךָ] וּלְבֵיתֶךָ...""[V'SMACHTA V'CHOL HA'TOV ASHER NASAN LECHA HASH-M EL-KECHA,] UL'VEISECHA..."- "[And you shall rejoice in all the goodness that HaSh-m has given to you] and to your house..." (Devarim 26:11) - This verse refers to the bringing of Bikurim. In the verse, one's "house" refers to one's wife, since without her the house cannot function (see 52a and Background to 52:52a).

72)[line 22]ביכורי אשתוBIKUREI ISHTO (NICHSEI MILUG / NICHSEI TZON BARZEL)

(a)All possessions belonging to a married woman fall into one of two categories: Nichsei Milug or Nichsei Tzon Barzel.

1.NICHSEI MILUG - In return for that which a husband is obligated to redeem his wife should she fall into captivity, the Chachamim decreed that he reaps the profits of any property belonging to his wife. Although the principle is hers, her husband reaps any gains that it produces as long as they are married. He may not, however, actively diminish the principle. For example, he owns any produce harvested from her field and the right to work her beast of burden, but he may not dig trenches in the field nor slaughter the ox. These possessions are called "Nichsei Milug" - "possessions that are plucked" - since he "plucks" the benefits from his wife's property (RA"V to Yevamos 7:1 and ARUCH Erech Malag). Nichsei Milug are not recorded, nor their values estimated, in a woman's Kesuvah (marriage contract). If her husband divorces her or dies before she does, then her Nichsei Milug are returned to her as is, regardless of any appreciation, depreciation, or deterioration that occurred through the intervening years.

2.NICHSEI TZON BARZEL - Property belonging to one's wife that are recorded and their values estimated in her Kesuvah are called "Nichsei Tzon Barzel" - lit. "iron sheep possessions." In the Kesuvah, her husband takes full responsibility for these items. Should he divorce her or die before she does, then his estate must see to it that she receives their value at the time of the marriage. Because he has a higher degree of responsibility for Nichsei Tzon Barzel than he does for Nichsei Milug, her husband has a higher degree of ownership in them as well.

(b)Our Gemara discusses Bikurim produced from a field of Nichsei Milug.

73)[line 28]מתה אשתוMESAH ISHTO- his wife died [and he inherited the principle of the field]

74)[line 32]בצרןBETZARAN- if one harvested grapes [of Nichsei Milug]

75)[line 32]שגרןSHEGARAN- he sent them

76)[line 33]"ולקחת... והבאת...""V'LAKACHTA... V'HEVEISA..."- This is a paraphrase of the verse which states regarding Bikurim, "V'LAKACHTA ME'REISHIS KOL PRI HA'ADAMAH ASHER TAVI ME'ARTZECHA..." - "And you shall take of the first of all the fruit of the earth, which you shall bring from your land..." (Devarim 26:2). Because the word "Tavi" implies a command to bring the Bikurim to the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Gemara refers to it as "v'Hevesa" - "and you shall bring."

77)[line 34]באחדB'ECHAD- [performed] by one [individual from the beginning through the end]6

78)[line 34]קמ"לKA MASHMA LAN- we see from this [that although he is now the owner of the field when he was not at the time of the harvest, he may still read the verses since he was able to do so even before his wife's death]

79)[last line]אזדו לטעמייהוAZDU L'TA'AMAIHU- [Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish] follow their reasoning as expressed elsewhere

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