[7a - 54 lines; 7b - 57 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 7a [line 27]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #10
 Gemara [line 29]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #11
 Gemara [line 30]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #13
(There is no need to make the change suggested by the Be'er Sheva in the margin, #1)
 Gemara [line 38]:
The word "Alima" אלימא
should be "Ileima" (or "Iy Leima") אי לימא (this word is already corrected in more recent printings of the Gemara)
 Rashi 7a DH she'Nises ד"ה שנשאת:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #35
 Gemara 7b [line 5]:
Rashi's Girsa of this section is radically different from the printed version. Although he does not quote the Sugya in full (and Rabeinu Gershom suggests two different ways of wording it), we may deduce that Rashi's Girsa is as follows:
(a) The words "Asa l'Rabanan v'Hachi ka'Amar Rebbi Akiva l'Rabanan, Amrisu Megadef Leis Bei Ma'aseh" אתא לרבנן והכי קאמר רבי עקיבא לרבנן אמריתו מגדף לית ביה מעשה
should be "Asa Rabanan v'Hachi ka'Amrei Rabanan l'Rebbi Akiva, Amart Megadef Ne'emar Bo Kares bi'Mkom Korban" אתא רבנן והכי קאמרי רבנן לרבי עקיבא אמרת מגדף נאמר בו כרת במקום קרבן
(b) The words "Mahu Megadef, Mevarech Es ha'Shem, Ela Kares di'Chsiv l'Mai Asa, Amrei Lei Liten Kares l'Mekalel di'Chsiv b'Mekalel" מהו מגדף מברך את השם אלא כרת דכתיב למאי אתא אמרי ליה ליתן כרת למקלל דכתיב במקלל
should be "Mahu Megadef, Oved Avodah Zarah, Ela Kares b'Mevarech Es ha'Shem Menalan, Amar Lehu di'Chsiv b'Mekalel" מהו מגדף עובד עבודה זרה אלא כרת במברך את השם מנלן אמר להו דכתיב במקלל
 Gemara [line 56]:
The words "Lo l'Karev" לא לקרב
should be "Lo l'Korban" לא לקרבן
 Rashi 7b DH Mai Avdan ד"ה מאי עבדן:
The words "Chada Vadai Olas ha'Of" חדא ודאי עולת העוף
should be "mi'Safek v'Olas ha'Of" מספק ועולת העוף
 Rashi DH Modeh Rebbi Yosi ד"ה מודה רבי יוסי:
The words "l'Shum Chatas" לשום חטאת
should be "l'Shum Chet" לשום חטא
1)[line 18]מתעגל בוMIS'AGEL BO- rolls on him
2)[line 23]ממאי מפיק ליה?MI'MAI MAPIK LEI?- from what is he excluding it?
3)[line 26]שעבר עליו יום הכיפורים אין מביא אשם תלויSHE'AVAR ALAV YOM HA'KIPURIM, EIN MEVI ASHAM TALUY- that once Yom ha'Kipurim has passed, he does not bring an Asham Taluy. Yom Kipur provides atonement for a person who is not sure about whether or not he sinned, so that he does not have to bring an Asham Taluy (see Background to Temurah 34:1).
4)[line 35]על שביןAL SHAVIN- for those who repent
5)[line 39]המיר דתוHEMIR DASO- he became an apostate. (Even though Rava says that Yom ha'Kipurim provides atonement even to those who do not want it to atone for them, nevertheless it certainly does not provide atonement for one who is Hemir Daso entirely (since he denies the existence of HaSh-m). The Gemara later teaches that a "Porek Ol" (one who throws off the burden of Torah and Mitzvos from himself) does not attain atonement on Yom ha'Kipurim. On the other hand, Rava could not have learned that the Beraisa is discussing a person who was Hemir Daso and never did Teshuvah, because the Beraisa would never have entertained the possibility that Yom Kipur does provide him with atonement.)
6)[line 41]קראו מקרא קודשKERA'O MIKRA KODESH- (a) he accepted upon himself the sanctity of Yom ha'Kipurim by reciting the blessing, "Mekadesh Yisrael v'Yom ha'Kipurim" (RASHI); (b) he affirmed that Beis Din established the beginning of the month of Tishrei by not doing Melachah on the tenth of the month because of the sanctity of the day, and not due to mere laziness (TOSFOS Shevuos 13a, DH Lo, citing RABEINU TAM); (c) he affirmed the sanctity of the day by wearing elegant, festival clothing (TOSFOS here, DH u'Kera'o, citing the Mechilta)
7)[line 43]הא רבי אליבא דרבי יהודהHA REBBI ALIBA D'REBBI YEHUDAH- this Beraisa is Rebbi, expressing the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah. Even though Rebbi Yehudah's name is not mentioned specifically in the Beraisa, the Beraisa is a quote from the Toras Kohanim, and we know that any anonymous statement in the Toras Kohanim is attributed to Rebbi Yehudah (Sanhedrin 86a).
8)[line 45]פורק עולPOREK OL- one who throws off the yoke of Mitzvos from himself
9)[line 45]מגלה פנים בתורהMEGALEH PANIM BA'TORAH- one who expounds the Torah arrogantly and falsely
10)[line 45]מפר ברית בשרMEFER BRIS BASAR- one who does not circumcise himself (RASHI to Shevuos 13a, TOSFOS to Yevamos 72a) or one who stretched his foreskin (so that the sign of the Bris Milah was no longer apparent) (Yerushalmi Sanhedrin 10:1)
11)[line 46]מודה רבי בעבירות דיוה''כ גופיה דלא מכפרMODEH REBBI B'AVEIROS D'YOM HA'KIPURIM GUFEI, D'LO MECHAPER- and Rebbi agrees that Yom ha'Kipurim does not attain atonement for one who transgressed the sins of Yom ha'Kipurim itself (and did not do Teshuvah for them)
12)[line 49]בהדי דקאכל נהמאBA'HADI D'KA'ACHIL NAHAMA- while he was eating bread
b)[line 49]חנקתיה אומצאCHANAKTEI UMTZA- a piece of meat choked him
13)[line 50]פסקיה מרא לשקיהPASKEI MARA L'SHAKEI- his hoe/ax slipped and cut off his thigh, killing him
14)[line 9]פסח שניPESACH SHENI
If the Kohanim, the Klei Shares, or the majority of the Jewish people are Tamei Mes on the fourteenth day of Nisan, the Korban Pesach is brought b'Tum'ah. Otherwise, those who are Tahor bring it b'Taharah on the fourteenth of Nisan, while those individuals who are Temei'im bring their Korban the following month on Pesach Sheni (the fourteenth day of Iyar) and eat it the following evening.
15)[line 12]גירפתה הקערה וחיסרתהGEIRAFTAH HA'KE'ARAH V'CHISARTAH- you emptied the plate and even scraped off some of the wood itself
16)[line 19]יש מביאות קרבןYESH MEVI'OS KORBAN (KORBAN YOLEDES)
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:
1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom — see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.
2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).
(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar — see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
17)[line 20]מביאות קרבן ואינו נאכלMEVI'OS KORBAN V'EINO NE'ECHAL - they bring a Korban, but it is not eaten (CHATAS HA'OF HA'BA'AH AL HA'SAFEK)
(a)It is prohibited to offer an animal as a sacrifice when its obligation is in question, since it is possible that we will be slaughtering, offering, or eating Chulin ba'Azarah.
(b)Unlike other Korbanos, a Chatas ha'Of is not slaughtered nor is it offered on the Mizbe'ach. Instead, Melikah is performed upon it and its blood is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach. Therefore, it may be offered (but not eaten) even when its obligation is not certain. For example, if it is unclear whether a woman gave birth to (or miscarried) a fully formed child or not, she may bring, out of doubt, a bird as a Chatas in order to permit her to eat Kodshim. The bird, however, is not eaten.
18a)[line 23]סנדלSANDAL- a flat, fish-shaped abortion
b)[line 23]שיליאSHILYA- commonly translated as the placenta; a more accurate description is the fetal membranes in which the fetus forms, which are attached to the placenta (RASHI to Berachos 4a; TOSFOS to Nidah 18a DH Shilya and elsewhere in the Rishonim)
c)[line 23]שפיר מרוקםSHEFIR MERUKAM- skin that envelops a partially formed dead fetus
19)[line 31]מלא גניניםMALEI GENINIM- a skin filled with pieces of a variety of colors (which would have matured into a fetus had it survived)
20)[line 33]יוצא דופןYOTZEI DOFEN
A child or animal born by a Caesarian birth is called a Yotzei Dofen (lit. it went out through the wall [of the abdomen]). Certain Halachos are associated with the Yotzei Dofen (see Background to Yevamos 84:1).
21)[line 36]מאי "וכן שפחה"?MAI "V'CHEN SHIFCHAH"?- what is the purpose of the words, "And so, too, a Shifchah"? The Gemara is asking why must the Mishnah mention that a Shifchah brings a Korban Yoledes independently? Had the Mishnah said that even a convert brings a Korban Yoledes, it would have been teaching us the Derashah of the Beraisa (i.e. that we learn from the word "Ishah" that a convert brings a Korban Yoledes). However, if we already know that a convert brings such a Korban, it is not necessary for the Mishnah to inform us that a Shifchah also brings a Korban Yoledes. (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #17, quoting TOSFOS)
22)[line 46]בעי גברא ידיעהBA'I GAVRA YEDI'AH- one must know [that he has sinned in order to be obligated n the offering of a Chatas Kevu'ah]
23)[line 50]המפלת לאור שמונים ואחדHA'MAPELES L'OR SHEMONIM V'ECHAD- a woman who miscarries on the evening that commences the eighty-first day (that is, the evening that follows the eightieth day) after she gave birth. See above, entry #16.
24)[last line]הדמים אינן מוכיחיםHA'DAMIM EINAN MOCHICHIM- the case of a woman's blood is not a proof. You, Beis Hillel, attempted to prove that the woman must bring a separate Korban for this birth from the fact that the woman's blood was no longer Tahor at the time of the birth. That proof is invalid, because whenever a woman gives birth during the 80-day period of Dam Tohar, her blood is not Tahor (since only Dam Nidah is Tahor and not Dam Leidah)!
25)[last line]בתוך מלאתB'SOCH MELOS- within the period during which she may not yet bring a Korban, i.e. within 80 days after giving birth. This period is called "Melos" based on the verse, "Ad Melos Yemei Taharah" - "... [she (a woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing, nor come into the sanctuary,] until the days of her purity are fulfilled" (Vayikra 12:4) (Rambam, Perush ha'Mishnayos).