(a)The Pasuk in Zecharyah "v'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Hu, Yihyeh Or Yekaros v'Kipa'on" teaches us that there is something which is precious (rare) in this world, but will be easily available (or that is significant in this world but will be cheap) in the World to Come? To which three things does this refer?
(b)What did Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi see when he said that he had seen an inverted world?
(c)His father told him that he saw well. How did he see the Talmidei-Chachamim there?
(a)"Vehayah ba'Yom ha'Hu, Yihyeh Or Yekaros v'Kipa'on" - refers either to the light of the sun, or to the tractates of Nega'im and Ohalos, or to wealthy and prominent people.
(b)When Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that he saw an inverted world - he was referring to the World to Come: those who have been wealthy and prominent (in a purely material sense) in this world, will be insignificant there, whilst those who have been insignificant in this world, will be prominent there.
(c)He saw the Talmidei-Chachamim (who generally enjoyed tremendous respect in those days) there just as they were here - prominent and prestigious.
(a)What should a person bring with him when he arrives at the Gates of Heaven?
(b)Which group of people are supreme in Heaven?
(c)What causes the Gemara to amend the initial wording of 'Harugei Malchus'?
(d)The correct wording, the Gemara concludes, must be 'Harugei Lud'. Who were the Harugei Lud?
(a)'Praiseworthy is the person who arrives at the Gates of Heaven with his studies in his hands' (meaning that he not only studied but also put what he learnt into practice).
(b)It is the martyrs (who died Al Kidush Hash-m) who are supreme in Heaven.
(c)'The Harugei Malchus' (the martyrs) implies the famous ten Tana'im - Rebbi Akiva and his colleagues. But surely, those Tzadikim hardly needed to die a martyr's death in order to be considered supreme in Heaven.
(d)The 'Harugei Lud' were two brothers who owned up to having killed the princess (even though they were innocent) in order to save the Jewish community, which had been accused of the murder and which had been threatened with annihilation (should the murderer fail to own up).
(a)According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, how large will Yerushalayim be in time to come?
(b)Rebbi Elazar interprets the same Pasuk in Zecharyah ("ba'Yom ha'Hu, Yihye Al Metzilos ha'Sus Kodesh la'Hashem") to mean that all the ornaments that one hangs between the horse's eyes will be holy. Rebbi Yochanan appears to make a compromise between the two explanations. How does he interpret the Pasuk?
(c)According to the first two explanations ...
1. ... how does this connect with the continuation of the Pasuk "Vehayah ha'Siros b'Veis Hash-m k'Mizrakim Lifenei ha'Mizbe'ach"?
2. ... what does the continuation of the Pasuk "v'Lo Yihye Kena'ani Od b'Veis Hash-m" mean?
(a)According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, Yerushalayim in time to come, will stretch as far as a horse can run in half a day.
(b)Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk to mean that all the booty which Yisrael will collect in the half-day that a horse runs they will declare holy for Hash-m (an apparent compromise between the explanations of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi and Rebbi Elazar).
(c)According to the first two explanations ...
1. ... the continuation of the Pasuk "Vehayah ha'Siros b'Veis Hash-m k'Mizrakim Lifnei ha'Mizbe'ach" - is a different issue: it is telling us that Yisrael will become rich from all the booty, and will dedicate vast amounts to the Beis ha'Mikdash (there will be so much wealth, that even the 'Siros' (the pots) will be of silver, like the silver-'Mizrakim'.
2. According to them, the continuation of the Pasuk "v'Lo Yihye Kena'ani Od b'Veis Hash-m" - is merely an acronym 'Lo Yihye Kan Ani b'Veis Hashem' - everyone will come to the Beis ha'Mikdash, and there will not be a poor person amongst you.
(a)And how does Rebbi Yochanan explain this latter Pasuk?
(b)From where do we know that "Kena'ani" means a businessman or a merchant?
(a)Rebbi Yochanan explains this latter Pasuk to mean that Hekdesh will become so enriched, that there will be no more need of treasurers (Kena'ani means a merchant) to look for funds for Bedek ha'Bayis.
(b)We know that Kena'ani means a businessman from the Pasuk in Vayeshev "Vayar Sham Yehudah Bas Ish Kena'ani", which cannot be understood literally, since Yehudah would not have contravened the strict instructions that the Avos handed down to their children - not to marry a Kena'ani. Consequently, it must mean that Yehudah married the daughter of a local merchant.
(a)How does the Gemara interpret the Pasuk (ibid) ...
1. ... "ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihye Hash-m Echad"? Do we not say every day "Shema Yisrael ... Hash-m Echad"?
2. ... "u'Shemo Echad"? Is His Name not One in this world, too?
(b)What did that old man tell Rava when he was about to reveal the Name of Hash-m (with the appropriate vowels) in his annual Derashah?
(c)What is the significance of the Pasuk in Shemos "Zeh She'mi l'Olam, v'Zeh Zichri l'Dor Dor"?
(a)The Gemara interprets the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihye Hash-m Echad" - to mean that, unlike in this world, where, on good news, we recite a Berachah 'ha'Tov v'ha'Meitiv', and on bad news 'Baruch Dayan ha'Emes', in the World to Come, there will be only one Berachah to recite: namely, that of 'ha'Tov v'ha'Meitiv', because there will not be any bad news (hence "Hash-m Echad" - since 'Hashem' denotes Chesed).
2. ... "u'Shemo Echad" - to mean that, unlike in this world, where Hash-m's Name is written one way (Havayah), but pronounced another (as Adnus), in the World to Come, it will be pronounced the same way as it is written (with the destruction of Amalek and the powers of evil, Hash-m will reign supreme with His Midas ha'Chesed, and will no longer need to bring His Midas ha'Din to bear).
(b)When Rava was about to reveal the Name of Hash-m (with the appropriate vowels) in his annual Derashah (because we do not know with which set of vowels the Name Havayah will be read) - that old man stopped him short; "Zeh Shemi Le'olam", he pointed out ("This is My Name, to hide it")! It may not be revealed.
(c)"Zeh Shemi l'Olam, v'Zeh Zichri l'Dor Dor" - means that Hash-m's Name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written, as we explained earlier.
Hadran Alach, 'Elu Ovrin'
Perek Makom she'Nahagu.
(a)Until when is it only customary not to do work on Erev Pesach? How about after that?
(b)What is the reason for this?
(c)What should someone do if he arrives in a town where the Minhag is to work until midday from a town where the Minhag is not to, or vice-versa?
(d)What major reason does the Mishnah give for not deviating from the local Minhag (though this needs clarification)?
(a)The Minhag not to do work on Erev Pesach - extends until midday. From then on, working is prohibited Al Pi Halachah, not Al Pi Minhag.
(b)The reason for this - is to ensure that one does not forget to destroy one's Chametz, Shecht the Korban Pesach and to bake one's Matzos for the Seder; all this because it is a Mitzvah to settle down to the Seder when the time arrives as soon as possible, without a moment's more delay than necessary.
(c)Someone who arrives in a town where the Minhag is to do work until midday from a town where the Minhag is not to, or vice-versa - is obligated to adopt the Chumros of the town where he is, as well as to retain those of his home town.
(d)A major reason for not deviating from the local Minhag - is because of Machlokes (not to cause strife).
(a)'Ha'Holech mi'Makom she'Kalu l'Makom she'Lo Kalu ... Chayav Leva'er'. What is a 'Makom she'Kalu' and what is a 'Makom she'Lo Kalu'?
(a)A 'Makom she'Kalu' means when no more fruit in any of the fields of one of the three areas (which will be discussed shortly); and a 'Makom she'Lo Kalu' means that fruit remains even in even one of its fields of that area.
(a)From which time of day is work forbidden ...
1. ... on Erev Pesach?
2. ... on Erev Shabbos and every other Erev Yom-Tov?
(b)What other difference is there between someone who works on Erev Pesach and someone who works on another Erev Yom-Tov or on Erev Shabbos?
(c)Why will someone who works on Motzei Shabbos, Motzei Yom-Tov or Motzei Yom Kippur not receive a Divine blessing?
(d)Which other occasion should be added to this list?
(a)Work is forbidden ...
1. ... on Erev Pesach - from midday.
2. ... on Erev Shabbos and every other Erev Yom-Tov - from Minchah Ketanah (i.e. two and a half hours before nightfall).
(b)Someone who works on Erev Shabbos and Erev Yom-Tov will not see a Siman Berachah from his work, whereas someone who works on Erev Pesach is also placed in Cherem.
(c)Someone who works on Motzei Shabbos, Motzei Yom-Tov or Motzei Yom Kippur (without adding the necessary Tosefes) will not receive a Divine blessing - because he is showing disrespect towards these holy days by not extending them in accordance with the Halachah.
(d)The same applies to someone who works on a Ta'anis Tzibur (which the Beis-Din decreed because it failed to rain in the required time.
(a)Who is ...
1. ... a Zariz v'Nifsad'?
2. ... a Shafal v'Niskar'?
(b)Into which category did the women of Mechoza belong?
(c)How does Rava reconcile the apparent contradiction between the two Pesukim in Tehilim "Ki Gadol Ad Shamayim Chasdecha" and "Ki Gadol me'Al Shamayim Chasdecha"?
(d)With which principle does this conform?
1. ... a Zariz v'Nifsad' - is someone who works the entire week, including Friday (he loses the Mitzvah of desisting from work on Erev Shabbos).
2. ... a Shafal v'Niskar' - is someone who out of laziness, does no work the whole week, including Friday (he will receive reward for desisting from work on Erev Shabbos).
(b)The women of Mechoza, according to the testimony of Rava (who was their Rav) were spoilt, and did not work the whole week. Nevertheless, they would receive their due reward for desisting from work on Erev Shabbos.
(c)Rava explains that the Pasuk "Ki Gadol Ad Shamayim Chasdecha" refers to the lesser reward due to a person who performs Mitzvos she'Lo Lishmah, whereas that of "Ki Gadol me'Al Shamayim Chasdecha" refers to the greater reward of someone who performs Mitzvos Lishmah.
(d)Rav Yehudah said 'Le'olam Ya'asok Adam b'Torah u'Mitzvos Af-Al-Pi she'Lo Lishmah, she'Mitoch she'Lo Lishmah, Ba Lishmah'.
(a)What is ...
1. ... 'Maskulta'?
2. ... Rechayim? Why can neither of them expect to see a Divine blessing in their work?
(b)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Sadin Asesah va'Timkor"?
(c)Why is selling jars and (bundles) of canes (to build fences) not a lucrative business?
(d)Why is there is no Divine blessing for ...
1. ... market-vendors;
2. ... people who rear small animals:
3. ... people who chop down good trees to sell as firewood;
4. ... for those who are forever trying to obtain the bigger portion? What do they all have in common?
1. ... 'Maskulta' - means a woman who would take her scales to the market, where, for a small fee, she would rent them out to anyone who needed to weigh something.
2. ... 'Rechayim' - means that, in a similar fashion, rent out one's mill, which entailed a lot of work, for a small fee. Neither of them expect to see a Divine blessing in their work - because it is simply not a lucrative business (and one cannot rely on miracles).
(b)We learn from the Pasuk "Sadin Asesah va'Timkor" - that the above is confined to weighing with the scales, but that any kind of business (even buying and selling scales and mills) is praiseworthy by a woman no less than by a man.
(c)Selling jars and (bundles of) canes (to build fences) is not a lucrative business - because, due to the bulks involved, they are subject to Ayin ha'Ra.
(d)There is no Divine blessing for ...
1. ... market-vendors - because they do their work in public view;
2. ... people who rear small animals - because small animals graze in other people's fields (as the Gemara explains in Bava Kama);
3. ... people who chop down good trees to sell as firewood - because people look at them askance for chopping down good trees;
4. ... nor for those who are forever trying to obtain the bigger portion - for obvious reasons. What they all have in common is that they result in Ayin ho'Ra.
(a)Why does the Gemara consider it obvious that the following will not receive a Divine blessing in their respective undertakings?
1. A Meturgeman (whose job it is to translate the Derashah on Shabbos and Yom-Tov)?
2. Someone who invests the property of orphans for a percentage?
3. Someone who is dependent on his far-flung ships for an income?
(b)Why did the Anshei Kneses ha'Gedolah fervently pray that the Sofrim should not become rich?
(c)Is it possible for a Sofer to circumvent this curse?
(a)There is no Divine blessing in the wages of ...
1. ... a Meturgeman - because it appears that he is receiving payment for working on Shabbos;
2. ... someone who invests the property of orphans for a percentage - because the orphans are not able to be Mochel (to forego what he has done), which means that he will have to face the Father of orphans, even for the smallest mistakes.
3. ... someone who is dependent on his far-flung ships for an income - because of all the risks involved, some of which are bound to materialize (and one cannot rely on miracles).
(b)The Anshei Kneses ha'Gedolah fervently prayed that the Sofrim should not become rich - to avoid their early retirement.
(c)A Sofer can circumvent this curse (which incidentally, covers all those who deal with their goods) - if he works Lishmah, since then, his wealth will not stop him from continuing with his holy work.
(a)What did the residents of Baishan ask Rebbi Yochanan about traveling from Tzor to Tzidon?
(b)What did he reply?
(a)The residents of Baishan asked Rebbi Yochanan whether the Minhag adopted by their fathers not to travel from Tzor to Tzidon was binding on them, too.
(b)He replied with the Pasuk in Mishlei "Shema Be'ni, Musar Avicha, v'Al Titosh Toras Imecha"- i.e. one cannot change the adopted Minhag of one's parents, even through Hataras Nedarim at the hand of a Beis-Din. Note: This only applies in a case when the initial Minhag was initiated with the knowledge that it was not forbidden i.e. as a new Minhag, but not if it was initiated erroneously, on the understanding that it was forbidden, when really, it was not (see Tosfoe 51a D.H. 'I').