1) RECITING TWO "KEDUSHOS" ON ONE CUP OF WINE
QUESTION: The Gemara proves from a Beraisa that one may recite both Birkas ha'Mazon and Havdalah on a single cup of wine.
The Beraisa apparently contradicts the Gemara earlier (102b) which says, "Ein Osin Mitzvos Chavilos Chavilos" -- "we may not package Mitzvos together" when there is another option. How can these two statements be reconciled?
(a) The RASHBAM and TOSFOS explain that the Gemara here refers to a situation in which there is no other option (for example, one has enough wine for only one cup).
(b) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 29:12-13) rules that only the blessings of Kidush and Birkas ha'Mazon may not be recited on one cup of wine. The blessings of Kidush and Havdalah (such as when Yom Tov occurs on Motza'ei Shabbos), or Havdalah and Birkas ha'Mazon, however, may be recited on one cup, even l'Chatchilah.
The Rambam's opinion is consistent with the implication of the Gemara earlier (102b) which specifies Kidush and Birkas ha'Mazon as two different Kedushos, but it does not mention Havdalah and Birkas ha'Mazon. RABEINU CHANANEL (102b) and the MAGID MISHNEH explain that Havdalah and Birkas ha'Mazon both mark the end of an event (Havdalah marks the end of Shabbos; Birkas ha'Mazon marks the end of a meal). Kidush, on the other hand, denotes the beginning of Shabbos. Therefore, it is considered a separate Kedushah which cannot be recited on the same cup as Birkas ha'Mazon.
The NETZIV (in MEROMEI SADEH) points out that the Gemara here, which says that Havdalah and Birkas ha'Mazon may be recited on one cup, provides strong support for the Rambam.
2) WASHING HANDS BEFORE KIDUSH
OPINIONS: The Gemara quotes Rav Bruna, who proposed that "one who washes his hands (Netilas Yadayim) may not recite Kidush." The Gemara then relates that Rav used to recite Kidush over bread when he was in the mood for bread, and he would recite Kidush over wine when he was in the mood for wine. The Gemara views Rav's conduct as a refutation of Rav Bruna's assertion and proves that Rav Bruna was incorrect.
What did Rav Bruna mean when he said that a person who washed his hands may not recite Kidush? How did Rav's conduct disprove Rav Bruna's statement?
(a) RASHI and the RASHBAM explain that one who has washed his hands should not recite Kidush because it would be an interruption (Hesech ha'Da'as) between washing his hands and the recitation of ha'Motzi over the bread. Rather, he should have someone else recite Kidush for him. (The Rashbam points out that this situation is b'Di'eved; one should not wash his hands before Kidush, as the Gemara says in Shabbos (51b), according to Beis Hillel.)
The Gemara proves from the conduct of Rav that Kidush is not considered an interruption. Rav would wash his hands and then recite Kidush over bread, and he was not concerned that this constituted a Hesech ha'Da'as.
(Although Rav recited Kidush over bread and not wine, TOSFOS (DH Mekadesh) suggests that Rav would sometimes wash his hands with intention to recite Kidush over bread, and afterwards he would change his mind and recite Kidush over wine. The fact that Rav washed his hands first even though he knew that he might change his mind proves that Kidush over wine is not considered an interruption between washing the hands and the blessing over the bread. See also CHAZON YECHEZKEL for another approach to the Rashbam's opinion.)
(b) TOSFOS (DH ha'Notel) quotes RABEINU ELCHANAN who explains that Rav Bruna meant that a person who washes his hands before Kidush should not recite Kidush on wine, because he will appear arrogant. The Gemara in Chulin (106a) says that one who washes his hands for fruit (or fruit juice, such as wine) is considered arrogant. Instead, one who washed his hands before Kidush should recite Kidush over bread.
The Gemara disproves this approach from the conduct of Rav, who used to wash his hands before he chose whether to make Kidush over bread or over wine, and even after he washed he would sometimes recite Kidush over wine. (Even though the Gemara does not clearly state that Rav would wash his hands before he chose how he would recite Kidush, this is Rabeinu Elchanan's understanding of the Gemara.)
(c) RABEINU TAM (cited by Tosfos) explains that Rav Bruna maintained that one does not need to recite Kidush "b'Makom Se'udah." Since he does not need to recite Kidush in the place where he intends to eat his meal, he should not wash his hands before Kidush, because perhaps he will decide not to eat (since he is not obligated to eat after Kidush), and his blessing of "Netilas Yadayim" will be a Berachah l'Vatalah.
When the Gemara disproves this by showing that Rav sometimes recited Kidush over bread, it does not mean that Rav actually recited his Kidush over the bread. (Rabeinu Tam asserts that Kidush may not be recited over bread.) Rather, the Gemara means that Rav would sometimes eat a meal after he recited Kidush, and sometimes he would not eat a meal, because he maintained (101a) that Kidush does not need to be recited "b'Makom Se'udah." Rav washed his hands even before he chose whether to eat or not. This proves that one may wash before Kidush, even though Kidush does not need to be "b'Makom Se'udah," and there is no concern that he will decide not to eat after he has washed.
(d) The BA'AL HA'ME'OR says that this Sugya is connected to the following Sugya, which discusses whether a person may recite Kidush or Havdalah if he has already started to eat (which he was not allowed to do). Rav Bruna stated that not only is a person not permitted to recite Kidush if he eats before Kidush (as Rav Yosef said in the name of Shmuel), but even if he merely washes his hands in preparation to eat, he may not recite Kidush. Since it is a disgrace to Kidush to eat beforehand, to prepare to eat is also a disgrace to Kidush.
The Gemara relates that Rav would wash his hands and then recite Kidush over bread. If it is disgraceful to Kidush to wash beforehand just as it is disgraceful to Kidush to eat beforehand, then Rav should not have been able to recite Kidush over bread at all. (According to the Ba'al ha'Me'or, this Sugya is not in accordance with the Halachah. The Halachah is that one who eats before Kidush may recite Kidush.)
(e) The RIF writes, "We see from Rav that Kidush depends on personal preference and not on Netilas Yadayim." The Rishonim argue about what the Rif means to say.
The RA'AVAD says that Rav Bruna's statement that "one who washes his hands may not recite Kidush" means that one may no longer recite Kidush over wine, because when he washed his hands he showed that he planned to recite Kidush over bread. Once he decided not to recite Kidush over wine, he cannot change his mind and he must recite Kidush over bread. The Gemara then demonstrates that Rav used to decide whether to make Kidush over wine or bread even after he washed his hands, which proves that it "depends on personal preference (Chavivus) and not on Netilas Yadayim."
(f) The RAN suggests a different interpretation for the words of the Rif. Rav Bruna meant that one is not allowed to recite Kidush over bread. One who washes before Kidush reveals that he does not want to use wine. He thereby loses the option to recite Kidush over wine, because he showed that he does not like wine. However, he also cannot recite Kidush over bread, because, according to Rav Bruna, one is never allowed to recite Kidush over bread. Therefore, he must have someone else recite Kidush for him.
The Gemara then proves from Rav that one is allowed to recite Kidush over bread. The Gemara disproves only one of Rav Bruna's two rulings. Rav Bruna ruled that one may not recite Kidush over bread, and that one who washed with intent to recite Kidush over bread may not recite Kidush over wine (and therefore he cannot recite Kidush at all). The Gemara disproves only his first point, that bread cannot be used for Kidush. The Gemara does not disprove his second ruling, that once a person shows that he does not like wine, he may not recite Kidush over wine.
This explanation is most consistent with the words of the Gemara. Rav Bruna said that "one who washes his hands may not recite Kidush," which implies that he may not recite Kidush at all (unlike the explanations of Tosfos (b), Rabeinu Tam (c), and the Ra'avad (e)). Furthermore, the Gemara does not say that Rav would recite Kidush over wine "when he had washed his hands." Rather, the Gemara says merely that he would recite Kidush over wine when he wanted to; it does not mention that he washed his hands before that Kidush, which implies that he did not wash his hands before he recited Kidush over wine (again, unlike the explanations of Tosfos, Rabeinu Tam, and the Ra'avad). Had he washed, he would not have been able to recite Kidush over wine, but only over bread. The Ran asserts that this is also the way the RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 29:9) understands the Gemara.