[118a - 51 lines; 118b - 48 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 118a [line 23]:

The words "Amar Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah Kashin Nekavav..." אמר רבי אלעזר בן עזריה קשין נקביו

should be "Amar Rav Sheshes Mishum Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah Kashin Nekavav..." אמר רב ששת משום רבי אלעזר בן עזריה קשין נקביו

This is the Girsa in the manuscripts, and explains why the Gemara brings the next two Sugyos (Dikdukei Sofrim #3).

[2] Gemara 118b [line 29]:

The words "a'Gevuros v'Nifla'os d'Avid b'Hadaihu, Kol she'Ken..." אגבורות ונפלאות דעביד בהדייהו כל שכן

should be "a'Gevuros v'Nifla'os d'Avid, Kol she'Ken..." אגבורות ונפלאות דעביד כל שכן

This is the Girsa of the manuscripts (Dikdukei Sofrim #4).

[3] Gemara 118b [line 33]:

The words "Lo Kol she'Ken? Amar Lo ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu Kabel Mehem; Miyad..." לא כל שכן אמר לא הקדוש ברוך הוא קבל מהם מיד

should be "Lo Kol she'Ken? Miyad..." לא כל שכן מיד

This is the Girsa of the manuscripts (Dikdukei Sofrim #9).

[4] Gemara 118b [last line]:

The words "Lo Ye'atzar, Zeh Beis Otzar" לא יאצר זה בית אוצר

should be "Lo Ye'atzar, Zeh Beis Otzeroseihen" לא יאצר זה בית אוצרותיהן

This is the Girsa of the manuscripts and of the Rashbam (Dikdukei Sofrim #1).


1)[line 1]יהללוך ה' א-לקינו...YEHALELUCHA HASH-M EL-KEINU...- this is the closing paragraph of Halel

2)[line 2]נשמת כל חיNISHMAS KOL CHAI- the Tefilah of Nishmas Kol Chai [as well, as our Mishnah differentiates between the regular recitation of Halel and that of Seder night]

3)[line 5]מ"הודו" עד "נהרות בבל"ME"HODU" AD "NAHAROS BAVEL"- that is, Tehilim 136. We recite this chapter in Pesukei d'Zimrah on Shabbos and Yom Tov; it consists of 26 praiseworthy actions of HaSh-m followed by the words "Ki l'Olam Chasdo."

4)[line 6]מ"שיר המעלות" עד "נהרות בבל"MI"SHIR HA'MA'ALOS" AD "NAHAROS BAVEL"- that is, Tehilim 134-136

5)[line 7]מ"כי יעקב בחר לו י-ה" עד "נהרות בבל"MI"KI YAKOV BACHAR LO Y-H" AD "NAHAROS BAVEL"- that is, from Tehilim 135:4 - Tehilim 136

6)[line 9]שהקדוש ברוך הוא יושב ברומו של עולם ומחלק מזונות לכל בריהSHE'HKB''H YOSHEV B'RUMO SHEL OLAM U'MECHALEK MEZONOS L'CHOL BERYAH- for HaSh-m sits at the zenith of the heavens and distributes sustenance to all of his creatures. This idea is mentioned in Tehilim 136:25: "He gives sustenance to all flesh, for his kindness is forever." It is due to the mention of this central principle that this chapter is called "Halel ha'Gadol."

7)[line 12]בחסדוB'CHASDO- in his kindness [although they had done nothing to justify it]

8)[line 13]שגובה חובתו של אדם בטובתוSHE'GOVAH CHOVASO SHEL ADAM B'TOVASO- the manner in which one has an obligation [to thank HaSh-m] is [dependent upon] the way in which HaSh-m favors him

9a)[line 13]בשורוB'SHORO- with his ox

b)[line 13]בשיוB'SEIYO- with his sheep (i.e., with his poverty, which atones for his transgressions; RASHBAM)

10a)[line 15]"[... הרבה ארבה עצבונך והרנך;] בעצב [תלדי בנים...]""HARBAH ARBEH ITZVONECH V'HERONECH;] B'ETZEV [TELDI VANIM...]"- "[... I will greatly increase your anguish and your pregnancy;] with anguish [shall you give birth to children...]" (Bereishis 3:16). This was part of the curse placed upon Chavah as punishment for eating from the Etz ha'Da'as.

b)[line 15]"[... ארורה האדמה בעבורך,] בעצבון [תאכלנה כל ימי חייך]""ARURAH HA'ADAMAH BA'AVURECHA,] B'ITZAVON [TOCHELENAH KOL YEMEI CHAYECHA]"- "... the ground is cursed because of you, you will eat from it with anguish all the days of your life" (Bereishis 3:17). This was part of the curse placed upon Adam ha'Rishon as punishment for eating from the Etz ha'Da'as. The word "b'Itzavon" is a stronger form of the word for "Etzev"; the RASHBAM states that it connotes double the anguish (see RASHASH).

11)[line 18]"וקוץ ודרדר תצמיח לך, [ואכלת את עשב השדה]""V'KOTZ V'DARDAR TATZMI'ACH LACH, [V'ACHALTA ES ESEV HA'SADEH]"- "And it will grow thorn and thistle for you, [and you shall eat the grass of the field]" (Bereishis 3:18). This is the continuation of the previously quoted verse.

12)[line 19]באבוס אחד?B'EVUS ECHAD?- from one trough?

13)[line 20]נתקררה דעתוNISKARERAH DAITO- lit. his mind cooled; i.e., he calmed down

14a)[line 20]אשרינו אם עמדנו בראשונהASHREINU IM AMADNU BA'RISHONAH- (a) we would have been fortunate to have been alive prior to the sin of Adam ha'Rishon (MAHARSHA); (b) according to the Girsa ASHREINU SHE'LO AMADNU BA'RISHONAH - we are fortunate not to have been alive when Adam ha'Rishon sinned and was punished

b)[line 21]ועדיין לא פלטינן מינהV'ADAYIN LO PALTINAN MINAH- (a) and we have still not completely left the splendor of that period [as there are plants which are edible as they grow, without requiring any toil] (MAHARSHA); (b) [according to the other Girsa -] we still have not entirely escaped the punishment [for those plants that we eat require much toil]

15)[line 21]עיסבי דדבראISBEI D'DABRA- plants of the field

16)[line 22]קשין... כקריעת ים סוףKASHIN... K'KRI'AS YAM SUF- This does not mean, G-d forbid, that there is something which is "difficult" for HaSh-m. Rather, the idea expressed in our Gemara is that these phenomena require as great a miracle as that which was required for the splitting of the Reed Sea. The reason why it is important for us to know this is in order that we realize how important it is to pray for their successful outcome (RASHBAM).

17)[line 23]לגוזרGOZER- to He who slices

18)[line 23]נקביו של אדםNEKAVAV SHEL ADAM- the holes of man; that is, the process through which one excretes waste from his body [when he is constipated]

19)[line 24]"מהר צעה להפתח [ולא ימות לשחת, ולא יחסר לחמו. ואנכי ה' א-לקיך, רגע הים ויהמו גליו...]""MIHAR TZO'EH L'HIPASE'ACH [V'LO YAMUS LA'SHACHAS, V'LO YECHSAR LACHMO. V'ANOCHI HASH-M EL-KECHA, ROGA YAM VA'YEHEMU GALAV...]"- "The wanderer will soon be released [and will not die in the pit, nor will his bread be lacking. And I am HaSh-m your G-d, who agitates the sea and churns its waves...]" (Yeshayah 51:14-15). Our Gemara understands the word "Tzo'eh" not as "wanderer," but rather "bound" — referring to one who is constipated.

20)[line 25]כל המבזה את המועדותKOL HA'MEVAZEH ES HA'MO'ADOS- anyone who shames the festivals [by performing prohibited work on Chol ha'Mo'ed]

21)[line 29]"לא תשא שמע שוא" (וקרי ביה "לא תשיא")"LO SISA SHEMA SHAV," V'KARI BEI LO SASI- [the verse says,] "Do not carry false hearsay" (Shemos 23:1) (and read it as, "Do not cause false hearsay to be carried.") (The RASHBAM says that the words "v'Kari Bei Lo Sasi" are unnecessary.)

22)[line 30]האיHAI- this [Halel, which we recite on festivals]

23)[line 32]וחבלוCHEVLO- birth pangs

24)[line 33]כאיליםK'EILIM- like rams

25)[line 36]מלחמת גוג ומגוגMILCHEMES GOG U'MAGOG

(a)Magog is one of the sons of Yefes son of Noach (Bereishis 10:2). The prophets (Yechezkel 38-39) describe a cataclysmic war lead by Gog from the land of Magog, wherein many nations will combine forces to wage war against Eretz Yisrael. The prophet assures Gog that HaSh-m Himself will undermine the war effort and destroy all of his forces.

(b)We have a tradition that this war will occur at the end of days, preceding the revelation of HaSh-m as Master of the world.

26)[line 37]מילוטMILUT- the escape

27)[line 38]ירידתן של צדיקים לכבשן האשYERIDASAN SHEL TZADIKIM L'KIVSHAN HA'ESH- see Background to Pesachim 117:32.

28)[line 43]גבריאל אמרוGAVRIEL AMARO- Nevuchadnetzar observed a fourth individual in the furnace along with Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah, whose "appearance was as that of an angel" (Daniel 3:25). This was the Mal'ach Gavriel. Our Gemara explains that HaSh-m sent Gavriel in fulfillment of a promise made centuries earlier; hence, Gavriel exclaimed, "HaSh-m is true forever!"

29)[line 43]נמרודNIMROD

(a)Nimrod was a mighty king who ruled Babylonia from soon after the flood in the times of Noach until he was killed by Esav on the day that Avraham Avinu died. He was a staunch idol-worshipper, and it was he who instigated the building of the Tower of Bavel.

(b)When Terach, father of Avraham, found that his son had rejected the worship of graven images, he brought him to judgment in front of King Nimrod. Nimrod ordered that Avraham be thrown into a fiery furnace. HaSh-m himself miraculously sustained Avraham Avinu in the fire, and he was not harmed. It was for this reason that Nimrod was called Amrafel, king of Shin'ar (Bereishis 14:1). Amrafel is a contraction of "Amar Pol" - "he said [to Avraham], fall [into the furnace]" (RASHI ibid.; RASHBAM).

30)[line 44]אצנןATZANEN- I will cool [the furnace]

31)[line 46]אינו מקפח שכר כל בריהEINO MEKAPE'ACH SCHAR KOL BERYAH- does not withhold reward from any creature

32)[line 48]יורקמו שר הברדYORKEMU SAR HA'BARAD- Yorkemu, the angel appointed over hail


33)[line 1]אקדיח מבחוץAKDI'ACH MIB'CHUTZ- I will overheat the outside [resulting in the fiery death of those who threw Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah into the flames (Daniel 3:22)]

34)[line 5]שבאותו הדורSHEB'OSO HA'DOR- of that generation (i.e., that of those who left Mitzrayim)

35)[line 5]מקטני אמנה היוMI'KETANEI AMANAH HAYU- were weak in their belief [in HaSh-m]

36)[line 6]"... וימרו על ים בים סוף""... VA'YAMRU AL YAM B'YAM SUF"- "... and they rebelled (lit. exchanged) at the sea, at the Reed Sea" (Tehilim 106:7).

37)[line 9]שר של יםSAR SHEL YAM- the angel appointed over the sea

38)[line 10]פלוטPELOT- spit out

39)[line 11]מתנהMATANAH- a present [of food for the fish in the sea]

40)[line 13]נחל קישוןNACHAL KISHON- see below, entries #43-44

41)[line 13]ערבAREV- a guarantor

42)[line 15]דקרי דפרזלאDAKREI D'FARZELA- iron chariots

43)[line 15]"[ויזעק סיסרא את כל רכבו,] תשע מאות רכב ברזל, [ואת כל העם אשר אתו, מחרשת הגוים אל נחל קישון]""[VA'YAZ'EK SISERA ES KOL RICHBO,] TESHA ME'OS RECHEV BARZEL, [V'ES KOL HA'AM ASHER ITO; ME'CHAROSHES HA'GO'YIM, EL NACHAL KISHON]" - "[And Sisera gathered all his chariots,] nine hundred chariots of iron, [and all the people who were with him, from Charoshes ha'Go'yim to the brook of Kishon]" (Shoftim 4:13) (THE FALL OF SISERA)

(a)Following the death of the Shofet Ehud, Yisrael once again began to sin. In order to stimulate the nation to Teshuvah, HaSh-m allowed King Yavin of Chatzor to attack and subjugate them. After twenty years of oppression under the iron fist of his cruel general Sisera, Bnei Yisrael finally repented and cried out to HaSh-m for relief.

(b)As they were now worthy of redemption, HaSh-m informed Devorah the prophetess that if Bnei Yisrael would wage war against Sisera, they would be successful. She called upon Barak ben Avino'am from Kedesh Naftali (her husband) and instructed him to gather an army to fight Sisera. He was to gather ten thousand men from Naftali and Zevulun to Har Tavor, while she would draw Sisera to the Nachal Kishon, with his entire army, chariots and all. In her capacity as a prophetess, she assured Barak that she would deliver Sisera into his hands.

(c)For the rest of the story, see below, entry #44b.

44a)[line 16]ממסילותםMI'MESILOSAM- from their orbits

b)[line 16]"מן שמים נלחמו; הכוכבים [ממסילותם נלחמו אם סיסרא. נחל קישון גרפם; נחל קדומים, נחל קישון; תדרכי נפשי עז]""MIN SHAMAYIM NILCHAMU; HA'KOCHAVIM [MI'MESILOSAM NILCHAMU IM SISERA...]" - "From heaven they fought; the stars [from their orbits did battle with Sisera. Nachal Kishon swept them away; the ancient stream, Nachal Kishon; but I trod upon it vigorously]" (Shoftim 5:20-21) (THE VICTORY OVER SISERA)

(a)See above, entry #43.

(b)Devorah, the prophetess, and her husband, Barak ben Avino'am, acting as geneal, led Bnei Yisrael to victory over Sisera, following a flash flood which HaSh-m first brought to Nachal Kishon (the wadi of Kishon, through which a river flowed) to wipe out much of Sisera's army along with all 900 of his iron chariots. Sisera escaped the battlefield, only to meet his end at the hand of Yael, wife of Chever ha'Keini. The account of this battle and the glorious Song of Devorah that it inspired are recorded in Shoftim 4-5.

(c)Sisera's army fell miraculously, as if the angels were fighting on behalf of Yisrael. The Chachamim explain that HaSh-m caused the stars to heat up their suits of armor so that they would enter the wadi of Kishon to cool down. A miracle occurred and the water of the river swept them away and they drowned. Simultaneously, HaSh-m kept His word to the fish of the Yam Suf: When He ordered the sea to cast the corpses of the Egyptians onto dry land, the fish were deprived of their fodder, and He promised that a time would come when He would repay them. The fish now received their long-awaited meal.

(d)Sisera fled on foot and arrived at the tent of Chever ha'Keini (a descendent of Yisro), who was neutral, where he was greeted by his righteous wife, Yael, who invited him into the tent. To drain his strength completely, she allowed him to be intimate with her seven times, as the Gemara explains. Following that, she gave him milk, which made him drowsy. When he fell asleep, she took one of the tent-pegs and hammered it into his skull, killing him instantly. The commentaries explain that she used a tent-peg, rather than Sisera's sword, because a woman is forbidden to wield weapons (since they are considered the apparel of men). When, a short while later, Barak came looking for Sisera, Yael was able to show him the corpse of the enemy general.

(e)Sisera's mother, meanwhile, was peering anxiously out of her window, wondering why her warrior son was so long in returning from the battlefield. The wives of the generals reassured her that the delay was due to the division of the vast amount of spoil that they surely captured from the defeated Jewish army, and due to his choosing from the beautiful Jewish maidens, as the verse relates. The real reason for her son's failure to arrive was Yael's act on behalf of the Jewish people.

45)[line 17]נחיתוNECHISU- they rested

46)[line 17]אקדירוAKDIRU- were burned

47)[line 18]לאקרורי למיסחי נפשייהוL'AKRUREI L'MISCHI NAFSHAIHU- to cool off [and] to douse themselves

48a)[line 19]גרפםGERAFAM- swept them away

b)[line 19]"נחל קישון גרפם נחל קדומים נחל קישון תדרכי נפשי עז""NACHAL KISHON GERAFAM; NACHAL KEDUMIM, NACHAL KISHON; TIDRECHI NAFSHI OZ"- "Nachal Kishon swept them away; the ancient stream, Nachal Kishon; but I trod upon it vigorously" (Shoftim 5:21) - See above, entry #44b.

49)[line 21]"מושיבי...""MOSHIVI..."- [the verse is homiletically interpreted as,] "He places me..." (Tehilim 113:9).

50a)[line 22]אמרה כנסת ישראלAMRAH KENESES YISRAEL- [the distinguished elders of] the nation of Yisrael said [regarding the less distinguished among them]

b)[line 22]שמוני בניך כחולדה זוSAMUNI BANAYICH KA'CHULDAH ZU- Your sons, due to their sins, have placed me as a marten (alt. weasel)

c)[line 23]הדרה בעיקרי בתיםHA'DARAH B'IKAREI BATIM- which dwells in the foundations of houses

51)[line 25]"... דלותי, ולי יהושיע""... DALOSI, V'LI YEHOSHI'A"- "... I was brought low, but He saved me" (Tehilim 116:6). The Gemara interprets "Dalosi" as "I am impoverished [of Mitzvos]."

52a)[line 28]"הללו את ה' כל גוים [... כי גבר עלינו חסדו]""HALELU ES HASH-M KOL GOYIM [... KI GAVAR ALEINU CHASDO]"- "All nations praise HaSh-m [... for His kindness has strengthened upon us]" (Tehilim 117:1-2).

b)[line 28]אומות העולם מאי עבידתייהו?UMOS HA'OLAM MAI AVIDTAIHU?- What business do the nations of the world have [praising HaSh-m for the kindness He has shown to us]?

53)[line 30]כסבורKASAVUR- he will think

54)[line 32]"יאתיו חשמנים מני מצרים; כוש תריץ ידיו לא-לקים""YE'ESAYU CHASHMANIM MINI MITZRAYIM; KUSH TARITZ YADAV LE'L-KIM."- "They will bring gifts from Egypt; Kush (a kingdom comprising modern-day Ethiopia and Sudan) shall quickly hand [gifts] to El-kim" (Tehilim 68:32).

55)[line 36]"גער חית קנה, עדת אבירים בעגלי עמים, מתרפס ברצי כסף; בזר עמים קרבות יחפצו""GE'AR CHAYAS KANEH, ADAS ABIRIM B'EGLEI AMIM, MISRAPES B'RATZEI CHASEF; BIZAR AMIM KERAVOS YECHPATZU"- "Destroy the beast of the reeds, the assembly of mighty ones among the calves of nations, who ingratiates himself for pieces of silver, who scatter nations and desires battles" (Tehilim 68:31). The Gemara first reads the first four words of the verse as "Ge'ar Chayas, Kaneh Adas," meaning, "Destroy the [Roman] beast [of Esav], and take for Yourself the community [of Yisrael]."

56)[line 37]הקניםHA'KANIM- the reeds; here, a forest

57)[line 37]"יכרסמנה חזיר מיער, וזיז שדי ירענה""YECHARSEMENAH CHAZIR MI'YA'AR, V'ZIZ SADAI YIR'ENAH"- "The boar of the forest (Esav) ravages it, and the prowlers of the field feed upon it" (Tehilim 80:14).

58)[line 38]שכל מעשיה נכתבין בקולמוס אחדSHE'KOL MA'ASEHA NICHTAVIN B'KULMUS ECHAD- all of its actions are written with a single quill, i.e., its actions are all concentrated toward the singular goal of harming Klal Yisrael. This interpretation is based on the use of the word Kaneh, a reed used in fashioning a Kulmus, in the singular form.

59a)[line 40]לקבל ממוןL'KABEL MAMON- to accept bribes

b)[line 40]רצון בעליםRETZON BE'ALIM- the conditions stipulated by those who extended the bribes

60)[line 41]קרבותKEREIVOS- closeness [with — i.e., assimilation into — the surrounding nations]

61)[line 42]שווקיםSHEVAKIM- marketplaces

62)[line 43]בירניותBIRANIYOS- towers

63)[line 44]מעלותMA'ALOS- stairs

64)[line 46]הני למן?HANEI L'MAN?- for whom are these [treasures]?

65)[line 46]"[והיה] סחרה ואתננה קודש לה', לא יאצר ולא יחסן; כי ליושבים לפני ה' יהיה סחרה, לאכול לשבעה ולמכסה עתיק""[V'HAYAH] SACHRAH V'ESNANAH KODESH LA'SH-M, LO YE'ATZER V'LO YECHASEN; KI LA'YOSHVIM LIFNEI HASH-M YIHEYEH SACHRAH, L'ECHOL L'SAV'AH VELI'MCHASEH ASIK"- "And her merchandise and harlot's wages will become holy to HaSh-m, it shall be neither stored nor accumulated; for her merchandise will belong to those who sit before HaSh-m, to eat their fill [from it] and for elegant clothing" (Yeshayah 23:18).

66a)[last line]בית אוצרBEIS OTZAR- a silo [in which produce is stored]

b)[last line]בית גניזהBEIS GENIZAH- a vault [in which valuables are stored]