(a)According to Rav Yehudah, the 'Birchas ha'Shir' that is included in the fourth Kos, is 'Yehalelucha' (the final Berachah of Hallel). What is it according to Rebbi Yochanan?
(b)The Gemara rules like Rebbi Yochanan. What is the order of the Seder after Hallel (starting from Hallel ha'Gadol)?
(c)Most opinions agree that we say Hallel ha'Gadol over the fourth Kos. They also agree that Hallel ha'Gadol comprises Kapitel 136 ("Hodu la'Hashem Ki Tov" - though some add preceding sections of Tehilim). Why is it called Hallel ha'Gadol?
(d)And what is the significance of Kapitel 23 ("Hash-m Ro'i"), which, according to Yesh Omrim (Rebbi Nasan), we say instead?
(a)According to Rav Yehudah, the 'Birchas ha'Shir' that is included in the fourth Kos, is 'Yehalelucha' (the final Berachah of Hallel); according to Rebbi Yochanan, it incorporates 'Nishmas', too. (Note: some texts read 'Kos Chamishi, Omrin Alav Hallel ha'Gadol' - see Rosh, Siman 33 - who goes on to discuss the voluntary fifth Kos).
(b)The order of the Seder after Hallel is Hallel ha'Gadol, Nishmas and the Berachah (though whether the Berachah is 'Yishtabach' [which always follows Nishmas], or 'Yehalelucha' [which he might say after Hallel, where it is always said] is not clear - see Rosh, end of Siman 32).
(c)Kapitel 136 ("Hodu la'Hashem Ki Tov") is called Hallel ha'Gadol - because in contains the phrase "Nosen Lechem l'Chol Basar", and the fact that Hash-m sits in Heaven and distributes food to all the creatures that He created, is a great thing.
(d)Kapitel 23 ("Hash-m Ro'i"), which, according to Yesh Omrim (Rebbi Nasan) we say instead - also speaks about Hash-m feeding Klal Yisrael.
(a)What do the twenty-six 'Ki l'Olam Chasdo' represent?
(b)What is the deeper meaning of "Hodu la'Hashem Ki Tov Ki Le'olam Chasdo"?
(c)What do we learn from the fact that ...
1. ... whereas by childbirth, the Torah writes "b'Etzev Teldi Vanim" (Bereishis), by Parnasah, it writes "b'Itzavon" (ibid)?
2. ... whereas by redemption, the Torah writes "ha'Mal'ach ha'Go'el Osi" (Vayechi), by Parnasah it writes "ha'Elokim ha'Ro'eh Osi" (ibid)?
(a)The twenty-six 'Ki l'Olam Chasdo' represent the twenty-six generations before the Torah was given, when Hash-m fed the world purely on the merit of His kindness.
(b)"Hodu la'Hashem Ki Tov Ki Le'olam Chasdo" - means that one should thank Hash-m - because He exacts payment from everybody (for his sins) via the good things that he has, the rich man with his ox (i.e. He takes it as a security in order to spare his life), the poor man with his lamb; the orphan with his egg and the widow with her chicken.
(c)We learn from the fact that ...
1. ... whereas by childbirth, the Torah writes "b'Etzev Teldi Vanim", by Parnasah, it writes "b'Itzavon" - that the pains of Parnasah are double those of child-birth.
2. ... whereas by redemption, the Torah writes "ha'Mal'ach ha'Go'el Osi", by Parnasah it writes "ha'Elokim ha'Ro'eh Osi" - that Parnasah is far more difficult to execute than redemption from one's personal troubles, since by redemption, Yakov Avinu talked about a Mal'ach performing it, whereas by Parnasah, he mentioned Hash-m Himself.
(a)What is the story behind the two (seemingly contradictory) Pesukim (both in Bereishis) "v'Kotz v'Dardar Tatzmi'ach Lach", and "b'Zei'as Apecha Tochal Lechem"?
(b)What does Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah learn from the juxtaposition of the two Pesukim in Tehilim "Nosen Lechem l'Chol Basar" and "l'Gozer Yam-Suf li'Gezarim"?
(c)To what - besides the day of death - does he compare a person who is constipated?
(d)Rav Sheshes also quotes him on a number of issues: How does he explain the juxtaposition of the Pasuk in Ki Sisa ...
1. ... "Elohei Masechah Lo Sa'seh Lach" to "es Chag ha'Matzos Tishmor"?
2. ... "la'Kelev Tashlichun Oso" to "Lo Sisa Sheima Shav"? Which three things does the latter Pasuk incorporate?
(a)After Adam sinned, Hash-m said to him "v'Kotz v'Dardar Tatzmi'ach Lach", implying that he will have to eat the thorns and the thistles (just like the animals). At this, he burst into tears at the thought of eating together with his donkey from the same feeding-trough. So Hash-m changed the decree to "b'Zei'as Apecha Tochal Lechem" - from which we can learn that people generally prefer the curse of hard work to that of embarrassment.
(b)Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah learns from the juxtaposition of the two Pesukim in Tehilim "Nosen Lechem l'Chol Basar" and "l'Gozer Yam-Suf li'Gezarim" - that (seen from a human perspective), a person's Parnasah is as difficult (miraculous) as the crossing of the Reed-Sea.
(c)He compares a person who is constipated - to the day of death and to Keri'as Yam-Suf. (Note: It is unclear why the Rashbam explains 'Nekavav' to mean constipation, nor is it clear what the Gemara is telling us. The Agados Maharsha explains it to mean the digestive system, and the Gemara is teaching us here that it is an ongoing wonder that surpasses the miracle of Keri'as Yam-Suf).
(d)Rav Sheshes, quoting Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah - explains the juxtaposition of the Pasuk in Ki Sisa ...
1. ... "Elohei Masechah Lo Sa'seh Lach" to "es Chag ha'Matzos Tishmor" - to teach us that someone who treats Chol ha'Mo'ed like an ordinary week-day, is considered as if he was guilty of idolatry.
2. ... "la'Kelev Tashlichun Oso" to "Lo Sisa Sheima Shav" - that someone who speaks Lashon ha'Ra, hears and accepts Lashon ha'Ra or gives false testimony against one's fellow-Jew deserves to be thrown to the dogs (who, in Egypt, knew when to remain silent).
(a)We recite Hallel on a regular basis rather than Hallel ha'Gadol, because it contains five major events. Which event is represented by ...
1. ... "b'Tzeis Yisrael mi'Mitzrayim"?
2. ... "ha'Yam Ra'ah va'Yanos"?
3. ... "he'Harim Rakedu che'Eilim"?
4. ... "Es'halech Lifenei Hash-m"?
5. ... "Lo Lanu Hash-m, Lo Lanu"?
(b)What other two tragedies might "Lo Lanu ... " refer to?
(c)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak ascribes the preference of Hallel over Hallel ha'Gadol to the Pasuk "Ana Hash-m Maletah Nafshi". What does that represent?
(d)According to Chizkiyah, it is due to the paragraph of "Lo Lanu" and "Halelu es Hash-m". Which Tzadikim said these words, and to which event does it refer?
(a)We recite Hallel on a regular basis rather than Hallel ha'Gadol, because it contains five major events:
1. "b'Tzeis Yisrael mi'Mitzrayim" represents Yetzi'as Mitzrayim;
2. "ha'Yam Ra'ah va'Yanos" - Keri'as Yam-Suf;
3. "he'Harim Rakedu che'Eilim" - Matan-Torah;
4. "Es'halech Lifnei Hash-m" - Techi'as ha'Meisim;
5. "Lo Lanu Hash-m, Lo Lanu" - the pangs of Mashi'ach.
(b)"Lo Lanu Hash-m, Lo Lanu" might also refer to Shibud Malchi'os (our subservience to the nations of the world), or the battle of Gog and Magog.
(c)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak ascribes the preference of Hallel over Hallel ha'Gadol to the Pasuk "Ana Hash-m Maletah Nafshi" - which refers to the escape of the souls of Tzadikim from Gehinom.
(d)According to Chizkiyah, it is due to the paragraph of "Lo Lanu" and "Halelu es Hash-m" - which refers to Chananya, Misha'el and Azaryah, who were miraculously saved from the fiery furnace, and who then praised Hash-m by alternating the phrases of these two paragraphs.
(a)Others say that it was Gavriel who said "v'Emes Hash-m Le'olam". To which episode does this refer?
(b)Who was Yurkemo, and what did he volunteer to do?
(c)Why did Gavriel think that he was better suited for the job?
(d)What did he subsequently do?
(a)Others say that it was Gavriel who said "v'Emes Hash-m Le'olam" - when Hash-m sent him down to cool the fire of the furnace, in keeping with the promise that He had made to him a thousand years earlier, when he asked permission to save Avraham from the furnace into which Nimrod had thrown him. Hash-m replied then that since Avraham was unique on earth, it was only befitting that he should be saved by Hash-m, who is unique in the Heaven. He therefore promised Gavriel that he would give him the opportunity to save three of his descendants.
(b)Yurkemo, the angel of hail, volunteered to save the three Tzadikim from the furnace.
(c)Gavriel thought that he was better suited for the job - because it is a greater miracle by far for the angel of fire to cool down a furnace than it is for the angel of hail to do so.
(d)He subsequently came down to earth, cooled down the fire from the inside, so that the Tzadikim should come to no harm, and heat it up on the outside, to consume those who cast them in.
(a)According to Rebbi Nasan, it was the fish who said "v'Emes Hash-m Le'olam". What is the connection between this and the Pasuk in Tehilim "va'Yamru Al Yam b'Yam-Suf", and with the Pasuk in Beshalach "va'Yar Yisrael es Mitzrayim Mes Al S'fas ha'Yam"?
(b)What did Hash-m mean when He promised the fish one and a half times as much?
(c)How did Hash-m induce Sisra and his soldiers to enter the River Kishon?
(d)Why is the River Kishon referred to as 'Nachal Kidumim'?
(a)According to Rebbi Nasan, it was the fish who said "v'Emes Hash-m Le'olam". When Yisrael rebelled at the Yam-Suf, expressing doubts as to whether the Egyptians had actually drowned, Hash-m ordered the Sea to eject their bodies on to dry land for Yisrael to see. Meanwhile, the fish had been deprived of a glorious meal - and Hash-m never withholds the due of any creature. Many years later, Hash-m paid the fish their due (He must also have granted them long life and transferred them to the River Kishon), when He drowned Sisro and his army in the River Kishon.
(b)When promised the fish one and a half times as much - he was referring to the fact that Sisro had nine hundred chariots, as opposed to the six hundred of Par'oh.
(c)Hash-m induced Sisra and his soldiers to enter the River Kishon - by sending down the stars to heat up their armor, causing them to jump into the river to cool down.
(d)The River Kishon is referred to as 'Nachal Kidumim' - because Hash-m made it a guarantor from years back (Yemei Kedem means from days of old).
(a)How does Resh Lakish explain the Pasuk in Hallel "Moshivi Akeres ha'Bayis"?
(b)How does Rava explain the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Ahavti Ki Yishma Hash-m, es Koli Tachanunai"?
2. ... "Dalosi v'Li Yehoshi'a"?
(a)Resh Lakish explains the Pasuk in Hallel "Moshivi Akeres ha'Bayis" - as a complaint from the leaders of Klal Yisrael as to how Hash-m's children (the rest of Klal Yisrael, through their sins in the Galus) had humbled them and made them lowly like a weasel that dwells in the tunnels underneath the house (see also Agados Maharsha).
(b)Rava explain the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Ahavti Ki Yishma Hash-m, es Koli Tachanunai" - to mean that we know that Hash-m loves us, only when He answers our prayers (but not when He saves us from our troubles whilst at the same time, ignoring them - see Ya'avetz).
2. ... "Dalosi v'Li Yehoshi'a" - to mean: 'I (Klal Yisrael) may be poor in Mitzvos, but I am still worthy of being saved'.
(a)Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi sent Rebbi a number of Chidushim from his sick-bed: How did he explain the Pasuk "Halelu es Hash-m Kol Goyim ... Ki Gavar Aleinu Chasdo"?
(b)On what grounds will Hash-m instruct Mashi'ach to accept Egypt's gift?
(c)Kush too, will send a gift. On what grounds will they 'convince' Hash-m that their gift, must certainly be accepted?
(d)What will Rome claim, and what will Hash-m reply?
(a)Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi explained the Pasuk "Halelu es Hash-m Kol Goyim ... Ki Gavar Aleinu Chasdo" - to mean that even the nations of the world should praise Hash-m for the wonders and miracles that He performed with us (how much more so must we praise Him!).
(b)Hash-m instructed Mashi'ach to accept Egypt's gift - on the grounds that they were our hosts for many years.
(c)Kush too, will send a gift. They will 'convince' Hash-m that their gift must certainly be accepted on the grounds that if Egypt's gift was accepted, then theirs certainly should - since they (unlike Egypt) did not enslave Yisrael.
(d)Rome will claim that their gift should certainly be accepted, since they (unlike the previous two) are our brothers (strange, isn't it, how for two thousand years they seem to have forgotten that brotherliness, and suddenly they remember)! But Hash-m will reject their claim. He will tell the angel Gavriel to scold them and to acquire Klal Yisrael.
(a)Who is ...
1. ... the wild animal who dwells among the canes?
2. ... the wild animal whose deeds are all written with one pen (what does this mean)?
3. ... the strong one who resembles a calf?
4. ... those who open their hand to receive money, but who fail to do the will of the owners?
(b)What caused Yisrael to be scattered among the nations?
1. ... the wild animal who dwells among the canes - is Rome (Edom).
2. ... the wild animal whose deeds are all written with one pen - also refers to Rome. 'their deeds are all written with one pen' - means that all the Romans as one man proclaim Yisrael guilty.
3. ... the strong one who resembles a calf which has no owner - refers to Yisrael whom the nations slaughter like a Hefker calf.
4. ... those who open their hand to receive money, but who fail to do the will of the owners - refers to the Romans, who accept bribery, but who then renege on their promises.
(b)It was the attempt to fight with the nations (rather than to accept their yoke) that caused Yisrael to become scattered among the nations (see Agados Maharsha).
(a)How many main roads are there in Rome, how many palaces are there on each one, and how many steps does each palace contain?
(b)What will one find on each step?
(c)All of these are for the benefit of those who are "Yoshvim Lifnei Hash-m" (Yeshayah). What two connotations does this have?
(d)Who is 'Atik Yomin'?
(a)There are three hundred and sixty five main roads in Rome; each road contains three hundred and sixty five palaces and each palace contains three hundred and sixty five steps.
(b)On each step, one will find enough food to feed the entire world.
(c)All of these are for the benefit of those who are "Yoshvim Lifnei Hash-m" - meaning either someone who attends the Beis-Hamedrash so regularly, that he knows exactly where everybody sits, or someone who greets his friends in Yeshiva (because he is always there first) - see Agados Maharsha.
(d)'Atik Yomin' refers to Hash-m, who was there right at the creation -and before.