[117a - 56 lines; 117b - 46 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashbam 117a DH Yehoshua v'Chol Yisrael Amruhu ד"ה יהושע וכל ישראל אמרוהו:

The words "v'Asi l'Meimar d'Chol Hani d'Amran" ואתי למימר דכל הני דאמרן

should be "Ha Matzi l'Meimar d'Chol Hani d'Amran" הא מצי למימר דכל הני דאמרן

[2] Tosfos 117a DH Hachi Garsinan she'Omdim ד"ה הכי גרסינן שעומדים:

The words "Anu Tzerichin Lomar Bo Haleluy-h Halelu" אנו צריכין לומר בו הללוקה הללו

should be "Anu Tzerichin Lomar Bo Ki Haleluy-h Halelu" אנו צריכין לומר בו כי הללוקה הללו (RASHASH)

[3] Rashbam 117b DH v'Neima Ad Haleluy-h ד"ה ונימא עד הללוקה:

The words "Ad v'Lo Ad bi'Chlal" עד ולא עד בכלל

should be "Ad v'Ad bi'Chlal ka'Parich" עד ועד בכלל קפריך

This is the Girsa of the Rashbam manuscript, which contains an additional Dibur, in which "Ad v'Lo Ad bi'Chlal" עד ולא עד בכלל is the Dibur ha'Maschil (see Dikdukei Sofrim #300).

[4] Rashbam 117b DH d'Aftarta ד"ה דאפטרתא:

The words "v'Rabeinu Shlomo Hayah Omer" ורבינו שלמה היה אומר

should be "v'Rabeinu ZT"L Hayah Omer" ורבינו זצ"ל היה אומר

This is the Girsa in the Rashbam manuscript (Dikdukei Sofrim #3).


1a)[line 1]כסיהKEISY-H- "va'Yomer, Ki Yad Al Kes Y-h, Milchamah la'Sh-m ba'Amalek, mi'Dor Dor" - "And he said, 'For the hand is on the throne of HaSh-m; HaSh-m maintains a war against Amalek from generation to generation'" (Shemos 17:16).

b)[line 1]ידידיהYEDIDY-H- "va'Yishlach b'Yad Nasan ha'Navi, va'Yikra Es Shemo Yedidyah, Ba'avur HaSh-m" - "He sent word through Nasan ha'Navi, and called his name Yedidyah, because of HaSh-m" (Shmuel II 12:25) - Nasan ha'Navi called the infant Shlomo "Yedidyah," which literally means "beloved of HaSh-m."

c)[line 2]מרחביהMERCHAVY-H- "Min ha'Meitzar Karasi Y-h, Anani va'Merchav Y-h - "From the straits I called out to HaSh-m; HaSh-m answered me with expansiveness; alt., "He answered me with the expansiveness of HaSh-m" (Tehilim 118:5).

2)[line 2]אחת הןACHAS HEN- are [each] one [long] word

3)[line 3]בלבדBILVAD- alone [is one word; the others are two separate words]

4)[line 7]תילי דבי חביבאTILEI D'BEI CHAVIVA- the Tehilim of the house of Rebbi Chiya (Rav's uncle; lit. beloved one)

5)[line 8]גיסאGISA- side

6)[line 12]נאמר ספר תהליםNE'EMAR SEFER TEHILIM- [the various chapters in] Sefer Tehilim were introduced

7a)[line 12]ניצוחNITZU'ACH- (a) glory; (b) [instructions to] a conductor (e.g. "la'Menatze'ach bi'Neginos"; Tehilim 4:1)

b)[line 12]נגוןNIGUN- a certain musical instrument (e.g. "la'Menatze'ach bi'Neginos"; ibid.)

c)[line 13]משכילMASKIL- (a) whispered to an announcer, who then repeated it loudly (Gemara line 30); (b) a certain form of musical composition; (c) the introductory word of a chapter containing an illuminating lesson

8)[line 16]שיר שבתורהSHIR SHEBA'TORAH- the Shirah of Az Yashir in Parshas Beshalach

9)[line 17]והלל זה מי אמרו?HALEL ZEH MI AMARO?- who was the first to recite this Halel (the one recited on Rosh Chodesh and Yom Tov)?

10)[line 19]על כל פרק ופרקAL KOL PEREK U'PEREK- (a) on every holiday; (b) on every Rosh Chodesh (according to the Girsa of the RASHBAM, whose Girsa follows these words with AL KOL REGEL U'REGEL)

11)[line 19]ועל כל צרה וצרה שלא תבא עליהןV'AL KOL TZARAH V'TZARAH SHE'LO TAVO ALEIHEN- this is a euphemism which means, "and upon every calamity which befell them (Klal Yisrael)"

12)[line 21]"כָּלּוּ תפלות...""KOLU SEFILOS..."- "The prayers [of David] have been completed" (Tehilim 72:20).

13)[line 25]בבכיB'VECHI- (a) in Ein Bechi (Baalbek, later Heilopoplis), an ancient city in Syria renowned for its temples and bazaars; (b) in sorrow. The Rashbam explains that this is a euphemism; the idol was, in reality, "happy," as its worshippers rejoiced in its service. The idol of Michah stood from the time that Klal Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael until the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

14a)[line 27]כנגד עצמו אמרןKENEGED ATZMO AMARAN- he expressed them in response to himself (his own personal suffering and travails)

b)[line 27]כנגד ציבור אמרןKENEGED TZIBUR AMARAN- he [prophetically] expressed them in response to the [suffering and travails that were to befall] Klal Yisrael

15)[line 30]על ידי תורגמןAL YEDEI TURGEMAN- through an announcer

16a)[line 33]עצבותATZVUS- depression

b)[line 33]קלות ראשKALUS ROSH- flippancy

17)[line 34]"'ועתה קחו לי מנגן;' והיה כנגן המנגן, ותהי עליו יד ה' ""'V'ATAH KECHU LI MENAGEN;' V'HAYAH K'NAGEN HA'MENAGEN, VA'TEHI ALAV YAD HASH-M" - "'And now take for me a musician;' and it was that as the musician played, the hand of HaSh-m came upon him" (Melachim II 3:15) (ELISHA AND YEHORAM THE SON OF ACHAV)

(a)King Yehoram, who followed the ways of his wicked father, Achav, joined forces with the king of Edom and with his brother-in-law, the righteous Yehoshafat, and set out to attack Meisha, the king of Mo'av. Mo'av, a vassal state of Yisrael, had been paying a heavy annual tax. However, upon the death of Achav, Meisha broke away from Yisrael and ceased paying the tax.

(b)They decided to travel the route of the desert of Edom, but on the way they ran out of water and found themselves without a drop for the soldiers or for the animals. Yehoram began to lament that HaSh-m had gathered these three kings together in order to deliver them into the hands of Mo'av, but Yehoshafat asked whether there was a Navi in the vicinity. When one of the servants of the king of Yisrael mentioned Elisha, he persuaded Yehoram to consult him for advice.

(c)The Navi was duly summoned. Initially, he asked Yehoram why he did not rather consult the prophets of his evil father Achav and of his evil mother Izevel (the prophets of Ba'al). When the king reiterated his earlier fears, Elisha swore to Yehoram that were it not for the fact that he favored Yehoshafat, he would not even look him in the face (and certainly would not take the trouble of consulting HaSh-m on his behalf). After asking for a minstrel to play music to dispel his anger (because prophecy requires Simchah), Elisha promised him salvation. The valley before them would bring forth pools of water, sufficient to supply his entire army as well as the animals.

(d)See Background to Berachos 7:47.

18)[line 35]וכן לדבר הלכהV'CHEN L'DVAR HALACHAH- and so for the matter of a Halachah (one should not attempt to determine Halachah while feeling lazy, depressed, sad, etc., but rather while happy from the performance of a Mitzvah)

19)[line 35]וכן לחלום טובV'CHEN L'CHALOM TOV- similarly for a good dream (one who goes to sleep while in such a state of happiness will have only good dreams)

20)[line 36]ואין שפתותיו נוטפות מַרV'EIN SIFSOSAV NOTFOS MAR- and his lips do not drip bitterness; i.e., and he does not approach his learning seriously

21)[line 36]תכוינהTICHVENAH- [his lips] will be burned

22)[line 37]"... שפתותיו שושנים, נוטפות מור עובר""... SIFSOSAV SHOSHANIM, NOTEFOS MOR OVER"- "... his lips are like roses, dripping flowing myrrh" (Shir ha'Shirim 5:13).

23a)[line 37]ששוניםSHE'SHONIM- that are learning

b)[line 38]מר עברMAR AVAR- bitterness which goes away (as opposed to burning his lips; Ya'avetz ibid.)

24a)[line 39]מילתא דבדיחותאMILSA D'BEDICHUSA- something humorous

b)[line 39]ובדחו רבנןU'BADCHU RABANAN- and the students were cheerful

25)[line 40]אימתאEIMSA- awe

26)[line 41]לא לנו...LO LANU...- not for our sake... [do we ask of you, HaSh-m, to save us from the Egyptians]

27)[line 41]"למעני למעני אעשה, [כי איך יחל? וכבודי לאחר לא אתן!]""L'MA'ANI L'MA'ANI E'ESEH, [KI EICH YACHEL? U'KEVODI L'ACHER LO ETEN!]"- "For my own sake, for my own sake I shall do it, for how can I let [My Name] be profaned? I will not give My honor to another!" (Yeshayah 48:11).

28)[line 42]יהושע וישראל אמרוהוYEHOSHUA V'YISRAEL AMRUHU- (a) Yehoshua and Klal Yisrael also said it (RASHI); (b) Yehoshua and Klal Yisrael were the first to say it (RASHBAM; this Machlokes applies equally to the rest of this section of the Gemara)

29)[line 43]דבורה וברק... סיסראDEVORAH U'BARAK... SISERA

(a)After the death of the Shofet (judge, leader of Klal Yisrael) Ehud ben Geira, Bnei Yisrael grew lax in their observance of Torah and Mitzvos. In order to stimulate the nation to Teshuvah, HaSh-m allowed King Yavin of Chatzor to attack and subjugate them. After twenty years of oppression under the iron fist of his cruel general Sisera, Bnei Yisrael finally repented and cried out to HaSh-m for relief.

(b)As they were now worthy of redemption, HaSh-m informed Devorah the prophetess that if Bnei Yisrael would wage war against Sisera, they would be successful. Together, she and Barak ben Avino'am (her husband, acting as general) led Bnei Yisrael to victory, following a flash flood which HaSh-m first brought to Nachal Kishon (the wadi of Kishon, through which a river flowed) to wipe out much of Sisera's army along with all 900 of his iron chariots. Sisera escaped the battlefield, only to meet his end at the hand of Yael, wife of Chever ha'Keini. The account of this battle and the glorious Song of Devorah that it inspired are recorded in Shoftim 4-5.

30)[line 44]חזקיה... סנחריבCHIZKIYAH... SANCHERIV- King Chizkiyahu was a righteous monarch of Yehudah who merited to see the miraculous downfall of the Assyrian king Sancheriv and the destruction of his army during their siege of Yerushalayim (Melachim II 18-19, Divrei ha'Yamim II 32; see Sanhedrin 26).

31)[line 45]חנניה, מישאל, ועזריה... נבוכדנצרCHANANYAH, MISHA'EL, V'AZARYAH... NEVUCHADNETZAR- Nevuchadnetzar, king of Babylonia, decreed that anyone who did not bow down to a certain golden statue would be thrown into a fiery furnace. Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah were righteous Jews who refused to do so; HaSh-m responded to their loyalty and Tefilos by miraculously sustaining them alive in the furnace (Daniel 3:1-30).

32)[line 49]הללויהHALELUY-H- [anytime the word] Halleluy-h [appears once — and only once — between two chapters of Tehilim]

33)[line 54]קראיKARA'EI- Talmidei Chachamim who specialize in Tanach


34)[line 6,12]עד ועד בכלל / עד ולא עד בכללAD V'AD BI'CHLAL / AD V'LO AD BI'CHLAL

(a)The word "Ad" ("until") has two possible meanings. It may include the target of the phrase — "Ad v'Ad bi'Chlal," or it may include everything up to but not including the target of the phrase — "Ad v'Lo Ad bi'Chlal."

(b)Rav Chisda would therefore explain that the Beraisa which expresses the opinion of Beis Shamai as "Ad Em ha'Banim Semechah" did not do so as "Ad b'Tzeis Yisrael" since that would imply that the chapter of "b'Tzeis Yisrael" was included.

(c)Rabah bar Rav Huna therefore would explain that the Beraisa which expresses the opinion of Beis Shamai as "Ad b'Tzeis Yisrael" did not do so as "Ad Em ha'Banim Semechah" since that would imply that the chapter of " Em ha'Banim Semechah" was not included.

35a)[line 16]קריאת שמעKERI'AS SHEMA- [the correct wording of the last Berachah following] Keri'as Shema (just before Shemoneh Esreh) [is]

b)[line 16]הללHALEL- [the correct wording of the Berachah following] Halel [on Seder night, according to the opinion of Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah, is]

c)[line 16]דצלותאD'TZELOSA- [the correct wording of the Berachah in] Shemoneh Esreh [is]

36)[line 17]רחמי נינהוRACHAMEI NINHU- [the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh] are petitions for the future (and therefore "Go'el Yisrael," which is in future tense, is most appropriate)

37)[line 23]דאפטרתאD'AFTARTA- [the correct wording of the blessing following] the Haftarah [is]

38)[line 23]"... ועשיתי לך שם גדול כשם הגדלים [אשר בארץ]""... V'ASISI LECHA SHEM GADOL, K'SHEM HA'GEDOLIM [ASHER BA'ARETZ]"- "... and I caused you to become well known (lit. I made your name great), as famous as the great ones who were in the land" (Shmuel II 7:9). This is part of a prophecy relayed from HaSh-m to King David through Nasan ha'Navi.

39)[line 24]זהו שאומרים מגן דודZEHU SHE'OMERIM MAGEN DAVID- This is why one of the Berachos following the Haftarah concludes with "Magen David," which is similar to "Magen Avraham," the conclusion of the first Berachah in Shemoneh Esreh. The "Gedolim" referred to by Nasan ha'Navi are the three Avos — Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yakov.

40)[line 24]"ואעשך לגוי גדול, ואברכך, ואגדלה שמך; והיה ברכה""V'E'ESCHA L'GOY GADOL, VA'AVARECHECHA, VA'AGADLAH SHEMECHA; VE'HEYEI BERACHAH"- "And I shall make you into a great nation, and I shall bless you, and I shall make your name great; and you shall be a blessing" (Bereishis 12:2).

41)[line 27]סבי דפומבדיתאSABEI D'PUMBEDISA- Rav Yehudah and Rav Eina (Sanhedrin 17b)

42)[line 32]דקביעא וקיימאD'KEVI'A V'KAIMA- which is fixed in place [every seventh day]

43a)[line 33]דקמעברי ירחיDEKA'ME'ABREI YARCHEI- for they extend the months [from 29 to 30 days at times]

b)[line 33]וקבעי לשניV'KAV'EI L'SHANEI- and set the [number of months in the] years

44)[line 40]נחית קמיהNACHIS KAMEI- I went down [to lead the congregation in prayer] in front of him

45)[line 41]משתקי ליהMESHASKI LEI- quieting (i.e., correcting) him

46)[line 43]בין הכוסות הללוBEIN HA'KOSOS HALALU- (lit. between these cups) between the first and second or second and third [of the four] cups

47)[line 45]אמר ליה ארבע כסי...AMAR LEI ARBA KASI...- In other words, this is not necessarily a proof that Birkas ha'Mazon must be recited upon a cup of wine (see Insights).