1)WHAT IS INCLUDED IN VOWS
(a)(Mishnah): If one vowed from milk, he may have Kum (water which separates from the milk);
(b)R. Yosi forbids.
(c)If he vowed from Kum, he may have milk.
(d)Aba Sha'ul says, if one vowed from cheese, he is forbidden both salted and unsalted cheese.
(e)If he vowed from meat, he may have gravy and Kipah (tiny pieces of meat at the bottom of the pot);
(f)R. Yehudah forbids.
(g)R. Yehudah: A case occurred, and R. Tarfon forbade eggs cooked with the meat!
(h)Chachamim: The case was, he said 'this meat';
1.If one forbade a food and it became mixed with other food, if the forbidden food can be tasted, the mixture is forbidden.
(i)If one vowed from wine, he is permitted a Tavshil containing wine;
1.If he vowed 'I will not taste this wine' and it fell into a Tavshil, if the wine can be tasted, it is forbidden.
2)VOWS DEPEND ON THE WAY PEOPLE SPEAK
(a)(Gemara) Contradiction (Mishnah): If one vowed from lentils, he is forbidden Ashishim (the waste of lentils (Tosfos, Rosh) or lentils fried in honey (Ran));
1.R. Yosi permits. (Tosfos, Rosh - he and Chachamim switched their opinions about whether or not by-products are forbidden. Ran - we ask only against R. Yosi, who forbids by-products but permits a special form of the Isur itself.)
(b)Answer: We explain vows according to the way people speak;
1.In Chachamim's region, milk is called milk, and Kum is called Kum;
2.In R. Yosi's region, Kum is also called Kum of milk. (Rosh - and in Chachamim's region, Ashishim are called Ashishim of lentils, but not in R. Yosi's region. Alternatively, Chachamim call a waste product by the name of its source, and R. Yosi does not.)
(c)(Beraisa): If one vowed from milk, he is permitted Kum. If he vowed from Kum, he is permitted milk;
(d)If one vowed from milk, he is permitted cheese. If he vowed from cheese, he is permitted milk;
(e)If one vowed from gravy, he is permitted Kipah. If he vowed from Kipah, he is permitted gravy;
1.If he said 'this meat is forbidden to me', he may not even have its gravy or Kipah.
(f)If one vowed from wine, he is permitted a Tavshil that has the taste of wine;
1.If he said 'this wine is forbidden to me', and it fell into a Tavshil, if it has the taste of wine, it is forbidden.
(g)(Mishnah): If one vowed from grapes, he may drink wine. If one vowed from olives, he may have oil;
(h)If he said 'I will not taste these grapes or olives', he may not have them, or what comes from them.
(i)(Gemara - Rami bar Chama) Question: Why is the law in the Seifa unlike the Reisha?
1.Is it because he said 'these'?
2.Or, is it because he said 'I will not taste'?
i.Question: If it is because he said 'these', why does the Seifa say that he also said 'I will not taste'?
ii.Answer: This teaches that even though he said 'I will not taste', he is forbidden in what comes from them only if he said 'these'.
(j)Answer #1 (Rava - Mishnah): If one said 'these Peros are forbidden to me, (or) to my mouth' - he is forbidden in Chilufeihem (what they are exchanged for) and Giduleihem (what grows from them).
1.Inference: He is permitted what comes out of them.
(k)Rejection: No, he is forbidden what comes from them.
1.The Mishnah teaches a bigger Chidush, that Chilufeihem is like Giduleihem.
(l)Answer #2 (Mishnah): If one said 'I will not eat' or 'I will not taste', he is permitted Chilufeihem and Giduleihem.
1.Inference: He is forbidden what comes from them!
(m)Rejection: No. The Mishnah discussed only Chilufeihem and Giduleihem, for these were taught in the Reisha.
(n)Answer #3 (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): A case occurred in which (I vowed from meat, and) R. Tarfon forbade to me eggs cooked with the meat;
1.Chachamim: Yes; but this is only when the vow was from 'this meat';
2.(We agree that) if one forbade a food, and it became mixed with other food, if the Isur can be tasted, the mixture is forbidden.
(o)Retraction: This was not the question. (Surely, Rami knew the Mishnah, which teaches that "this" suffices to forbid what comes from the food.)
1.Rather, he asked whether saying 'I will not eat' or 'I will not taste' also forbids what comes from it (even if he didn't say 'this')?
(p)Answer (Mishnah): If one said 'I will not eat fish, fishes', he may not eat big or small fish, whether raw or cooked. He may eat chopped fish and brine.
(q)Rejection (Rava): Perhaps the Mishnah discusses when the brine already left the fish before the vow.