[31a - 37 lines; 31b - 35 lines]

1)[line 2]בכותיםKUSIM

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the Rambam (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)

2)[line 2]שוםSHUM- garlic

3)[line 23]לוקח ביותר ומוכר בפחותLOKE'ACH B'YOSER U'MOCHER B'FACHOS- he buys [from Jews] at a more expensive price and sells [to them] at a cheaper price

4)[line 27]האומןHA'UMAN- the craftsman

5)[line 27]לבקרוL'VAKRO- to test it out

6)[line 31]בזבינא דרמי על אפיהZEVINA D'RAMI AL APEI- a difficult item to sell

7)[line 36]בזבינא חריפאZEVINA CHARIFA- a bargain, something easy to sell

31b----------------------------------------31b

8)[line 1]בזבינא מיצעאZEVINA MITZ'A- an average deal

9)[line 3]התגרHA'TAGAR- the merchant

10)[line 5]טובת הנאהTOVAS HANA'AH

(a)The words "Tovas Hana'ah" denote the trivial benefit (in terms of pleasure or compensation) that a person receives in return for giving away an object or goods to which he has only very limited rights.

(b)A common example of this is selecting a particular individual to be the recipient of a gift that he is obligated to bestow to others. For example, Terumah must be given to a Kohen, and Ma'aser to a Levi. The Tovas Hana'ah of a Yisrael who separates Terumah or Ma'aser from his produce is the right to give the Terumah or Ma'aser to the Kohen or Levi of his choice.

(c)Another example is selling an object to which one will not have full rights until a later date, or to which one may never gain full rights. For example, a woman only receives a Kesuvah from her husband if the husband dies before her or divorces her. She may sell her rights to collect the Kesuvah for Tovas Hana'ah. Since the possibility exists that she will die before her husband and the purchaser will not receive the Kesuvah, the Tovas Hana'ah of the Kesuvah is worth much less than the Kesuvah itself.

11)[line 7]כנושא שכרNOSEI SACHAR

One of the "Four Watchmen" listed in Bava Metzia, the Nosei Sachar, or Shomer Sachar, is one who is paid to watch an article. He is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah (negligence) or theft, but is not liable in a case of Ones (an unavoidable accident).

12)[line 7]ספסיראSAFSIRA- an agent

13)[line 13]אבבא דביתיהA'BAVA D'VEISEI- at the door of his house

14)[line 20]"[גם את הארי גם הדוב הכה עבדך] והיה הפלשתי הערל הזה [כאחד מהם כי חרף מערכת אלקים חיים]""[GAM ES HA'ARI GAM HA'DOV HIKAH AVDECHA,] V'HAYAH HA'PELISHTI HE'AREL HA'ZEH [K'ACHAD MEHEM, KI CHEREF MA'ARCHOS ELOKIM CHAYIM]" - "[Both a lion and a bear your servant smote;] and this uncircumcised Philistine [is no better than them, for he blasphemed the ranks of the living G-d.]" (Shmuel I 17:36) (DAVID PREPARES TO FIGHT GOLYAS)

See Background to Ta'anis 4:19.

15)[line 20]"[אל תגידו בגת אל תבשרו בחוצת אשקלון] פן תשמחנה בנות פלשתים פן תעלזנה בנות הערלים""[AL TAGIDU B'GAS, AL TEVASRU B'CHUTZOS ASHKELON;] PEN TISMACHNAH BENOS PELISHTIM, PEN TA'ALOZNAH BENOS HA'ARELIM" - "[Don't tell it in Gas, don't spread the news in Ashkelon;] lest the daughters of the Pelishtim rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised are jubilant." (Shmuel I 1:20) (DAVID EULOGIZES SHAUL AND YONASON)

(a)Following the death of Shaul and his three sons, David eulogized Shaul and Shaul's son, Yonasan, his close friend, and bemoans the defeat of the army of Yisrael at the hands of the Pelishtim.

16 [line 21] "תעלוזנה" "TA'ALOZNAH" - rejoice

16)[line 23]שלש עשרה בריתותSHELOSH ESREH BERISOS - the word Bris (covenant) appears 13 times when HaSh-m commands Avraham to perform Bris Milah - Bereishis 17:2-21, representing a very strong bond between HaSh-m and Benei Yisrael

18 [line 32] כשנתרשל KESHE'NISRASHEL - when he was lax

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