THOSE WHO REST ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): If one is Mudar Hana'ah from those who cease on Shabbos or from those who eat garlic, he may not benefit from Yisraelim nor from Kusim;
If he vowed from those who ascend to Yerushalayim on the festivals, he may benefit from Kusim, but not from Yisraelim.
(Gemara) Question: What does it mean, those who cease on Shabbos?
Suggestion: It means those who do not work on Shabbos.
Rejection: If so, why does it say only that he may not benefit from Kusim? He may not benefit even from Nochrim who do not work on Shabbos!
Answer #1: Rather, it means those who are commanded to keep Shabbos.
Objection (Seifa): If he vowed 'from those who ascend to Yerushalayim', he may benefit from Kusim.'
Kusim are also commanded about this!
Answer #2 (Abaye): The Mishnah discusses those who are commanded and observe.
Regarding Shabbos and eating garlic, Yisraelim and Kusim are commanded and observe. (Ezra decreed to eat garlic on Shabbos night.) A Nochri who observes is not commanded;
Regarding ascending to Yerushalayim, Yisraelim and Kusim are commanded. Yisraelim observe the Mitzvah, but Kusim do not.
WHO IS CONSIDERED A YISRAEL?
(Mishnah): If one is Mudar Hana'ah from Bnei Noach, he may benefit from Yisraelim, but not from Nochrim.
(Gemara) Question: Yisraelim are also Bnei Noach!
Answer: Since Avraham was made Kodesh, Yisraelim are called by his name, not by Noach's.
(Mishnah): If one is Mudar Hana'ah from the seed of Avraham, he may benefit from Nochrim, but not from Yisraelim.
(Gemara) Question: Why are all Nochrim permitted? He should be forbidden to benefit from the seed of Yishmael!
Answer: Hash-m told Avraham "Your seed will be called in Yitzchak."
Question: Why is he permitted to the seed of Esav?
Answer: "In Yitzchak", not all of Yitzchak.
ONE WHO IS MUDAR HANA'AH FROM YISRAELIM
(Mishnah): If one is Mudar Hana'ah from Yisraelim, when he buys from a Yisrael, he must pay more than the standard price. When he sells to a Yisrael, he must sell for less than the standard price;
If one vowed that Yisraelim will not benefit from himself, when he buys from (or sells to) a Yisrael, he must pay less (receive more) than the standard price;
People will not buy from or sell to him.
If one vowed not to benefit from nor give benefit to Yisrael, he can do commerce only with Nochrim.
(Gemara - Shmuel): If one took a Kli from a craftsman to inspect it (to see if he wants to buy it), and it was lost or ruined b'Ones (through circumstances beyond his control), he must pay for it.
This shows that he holds that a buyer benefits from a sale (and therefore he is considered a borrower).
Question (Mishnah): If one is Mudar Hana'ah from Yisraelim, when he sells to a Yisrael, he must sell for less.
Inference: He may not sell for the exact value.
If the buyer benefits from a sale, this should be permitted!
Answer: The Mishnah discusses an item that is hard to sell. The seller is happy to sell it.
Question #1: If so, the one who vowed should be allowed to buy for the exact value! (The Mishnah says that he must pay more!)
Question #2 (Seifa): If he vowed that Yisraelim will not benefit from him, he must sell for a higher price.
If the item is hard to sell, he should be allowed to sell for the exact value!
Answer #1 (to question #2): The Seifa discusses an item in great demand.
Objection: If so, why must he buy for less than the value? He should be allowed to buy for the exact value!
Answer (to Question 1 and Answer #2 to Question 2): The Mishnah discusses a standard item. Shmuel discussed an item in great demand.
Support (for Shmuel - Beraisa): A man took Kelim from a merchant to send to his father-in-law's house. He stipulated: if they want them, I will pay their full value. If not, I will pay you what it was worth to me to show them that I wanted to give them such gifts;
If the Kelim were lost or damaged b'Ones on the way to his father-in-law, the buyer must pay. If they were lost on the way back, he is exempt, since he is like a paid watchman.
A retailer took wine to sell; he did not sell it. An Ones occurred on the way to return it. Rav Nachman ruled that he must pay.
Question (Rava - Beraisa): On the way, the buyer is liable. On the way back, he is exempt.
Answer (Rav Nachman): For a retailer, on the way back is like on the way, since the retailer is always looking to sell it, even at the door of his supplier!
THE GREATNESS OF CIRCUMCISION
(Mishnah): If a man vowed not to benefit from Areilim (uncircumcised people), he may benefit from an Arel Yisrael but not from a Mahul (circumcised) Nochri;
If he said 'I will not benefit from Mahulim', he may not benefit from an Arel Yisrael, but he may benefit a circumcised Nochri;
Only Nochrim are called Areilim. It says "all the nations are Areilim. All of Yisrael have Arel hearts", and "this Arel Pelishti", and "Benos Pelishtim... Benos ha'Areilim".
R. Eliezer ben Azaryah says, the foreskin is repulsive. The wicked are debased through it - "All the nations are Areilim".
R. Yishmael says, circumcision is great. Thirteen covenants were made over it.
R. Yosi says, circumcision is great. It overrides the severe Isur of Shabbos.
R. Yehoshua ben Korchah says, circumcision is great. Moshe was about to be killed for a short delay in performing it!
R. Nechemyah says, circumcision is great. It overrides the Isur of cutting off Tzara'as.
Rebbi says, circumcision is great. In spite of all his Mitzvos, Avraham was not called complete until he circumcised himself - "Walk in front of Me and be perfect."
Also - circumcision is great, for Hash-m made the world just for it - "If not for Berisi (My covenant) day and night, I would not have made Shamayim and earth."
(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): Circumcision is great. All of Moshe's merits did not protect him when he slackened from circumcising (his son) - "Hash-m sought to kill him";
(Rebbi): Do not say that Moshe slackened! Rather, he was pondering.
If I circumcise my son, then take him with me to Mitzrayim, this will endanger him, like we find regarding Shechem - "on the third day, when they were in pain..."
Suggestion: Perhaps I should circumcise him immediately, and wait three days.
Rejection: Hash-m told me to return to Mitzrayim (right away)!
Question: If so, why was he punished?