BELILAH AND MESHICHAH
(Mishnah - Rebbi): Belilah is done after the Minchah is baked into Chalos. Chachamim say, it is while it is Soles.
(Beraisa): "Soles Belulah" teaches that Belilah is done while it is Soles;
Rebbi says, Belilah is done when it is Chalos - "Chalos (Matzos) Belulos."
Chachamim: Regarding Lachmei Todah it also says "Chalos Belulos", even though Belilah cannot be done when they are Chalos. It must be while it is Soles!
First oil is put in the Kli, then the Soles, and then more oil. We mix, knead, bake them, break up the Chalos and put on oil (Yetzikah), and do Kemitzah.
Rebbi says, Belilah is done when they are Chalos;
Oil is put in the Kli, and then the Soles. We knead, bake them, break up the Chalos and put on oil, mix, put on more oil, and do Kemitzah.
Question: Why do Chachamim say that it is impossible to do Belilah with Chalos?
Answer (R. Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak): Only a quarter (Rashi Kesav Yad - of the half-Log for all the Lachmei Todah; Rashi - a quarter Log) of oil is not enough to mix with the Chalos Matzos. (They are made from over three Esronim of Soles, about 100 times the volume of the oil. Baked Chalos are dry and absorb much oil.)
(Mishnah): Chalos require Belilah. Rekikim require Meshichah.
(Beraisa): Chalos require Belilah. Rekikim do not require Belilah;
Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that Rekikim require Belilah!
Chalos do not require Meshichah, yet they require Belilah. Rekikim require Meshichah, all the more so they should require Belilah!
Rejection: "Chalos (are) Belulos", but Rekikim are not Belulos.
Rekikim require Meshichah. Chalos do not require Meshichah;
Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that Chalos require Meshichah!
Rekikim do not require Belilah, yet they require Meshichah. Chalos require Belilah, all the more so they should require Meshichah!
Rejection: "Rekikim (are) Meshuchos", but Chalos are not Meshuchos.
Question: How does "Chalos Belulos" teach that Rekikim are not Belulos, and how does "Rekikim Meshuchos" teach that Chalos are not Meshuchos?
Answer (Rava): In many places the Torah says "Chalos Belulos" and "Rekikim Meshuchos." If Rekikim required Belilah (or if Chalos required Meshichah), at least once the Torah should have said 'Rekikim Belulos' (or 'Chalos Meshuchos').
(Mishnah): Meshichah is done like 'Chai'. The rest of the oil is eaten...
Question: What is the meaning of like 'Chai'?
Answer: It is like the Greek letter 'Chai' ('X'; Tosfos brings other opinions).
(Beraisa): If a Minchah is half Rekikim and half Chalos (R. Shimon (63a) permits this), one brings a Log of oil. Half is mixed with the Chalos, and half is used for Meshichah of the Rekikim.
Meshichah is done on the entire Rekikim. The leftover oil is added to the oil used for the Chalos;
R. Shimon ben Yehudah citing R. Shimon says, Meshichah is like 'Chai'. The leftover oil is eaten by Kohanim.
(Beraisa): If a Minchah is entirely Rekikim, one brings a Log of oil. He keeps doing Meshichah until all the oil is consumed;
R. Shimon ben Yehudah citing R. Shimon says, Meshichah is like 'Chai'. The rest is eaten by Kohanim.
WHICH MENACHOS REQUIRE PETISAH
(Mishnah): All Menachos that are made in a Kli require Petisah (breaking it into pieces).
(Gemara) Question: What does 'made in a Kli' exclude?
Answer (Rav Papa): It excludes Shtei ha'Lechem and Lechem ha'Panim.
(Beraisa): "Pasos Osah Pitim... Minchah" includes all Menachos for the law of Petisah;
Suggestion: Perhaps we include even Shtei ha'Lechem and Lechem ha'Panim!
Rejection: It says "Osah". (Only it requires Petisah.)
"V'Yatzakta (Aleha) Shemen Minchah" include all Menachos for the law of Yetzikah;
Suggestion: Perhaps we include Ma'afe Tanur!
Rejection: It says "Aleha" (only on it).
Suggestion: Perhaps we exclude only (one kind of Ma'afe Tanur, e.g.) Rekikim!
Rejection: "Hi" is another exclusion.
Question: How do we know to exclude Ma'afe Tanur? Perhaps we exclude Minchas Kohanim instead!
Answer (Rabah): One exclusion would suffice for Minchas Kohanim. Since there are two, we use them for the two kinds of Ma'afe Tanur.
(Mishnah): To do Petisah of Minchas Yisrael, each Chalah is folded into two, then into four, and it is broken (into four parts);
Minchas Kohen is folded into two and then four, but it is not broken.
Chavitei Kohen Gadol are not folded.
R. Shimon says, Petisah does not apply to Minchas Kohanim and Chavitim, for Kemitzah is not done;
Whenever there is no Kemitzah, there is no Petisah. (Rashba - R. Shimon expounds based on reasoning. Petisah is only for the sake of Kemitzah.)
Petisah of any Minchah is until the pieces are the size of olives.
(Gemara - Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "Pasos" teaches that each Chalah is broken into only two pieces!
Rejection: "Pitim" (teaches another two).
Suggestion: Perhaps "Pitim" teaches that it should be crumbled!
Rejection: "Osah" teaches that it (a Chalah) is broken into pieces, but the pieces are not broken into pieces!
Resolution: It is folded into two, then into four, and it is broken.
(Continuation of Beraisa): Minchas Kohen and Chavitim are folded...
Contradiction (Mishnah): Chavitim are not folded.
Resolution (Rava): They are folded in half, but they are not folded into four.
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): Petisah does not apply to Minchas Kohanim and Chavitim...
(Rav Yosef): If Chavitza (Rashi - a food cooked with bread crumbs; Tosfos - bread crumbs stuck together via a liquid) contains pieces the size of an olive, its Berachah is ha'Motzi;
If all the pieces are less than a k'Zayis, one blesses Borei Minei Mezonos.
Rav Yosef: I learn from a Beraisa:
(Beraisa): If a Kohen (Rashi Kesav Yad - Yisrael) was offering a Minchah for the first time (in his life; alternatively, the first time this year, i.e. from Chodosh), he blesses Shehecheyanu;
If he eats it, he blesses ha'Motzi.
(Mishnah): Petisah of any Minchah is until the pieces are the size of olives.
Question (Abaye): Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael says that they are broken very finely, like flour. Surely, Kohanim would bless ha'Motzi!
Suggestion: Perhaps they do not bless ha'Motzi!
Rejection (Beraisa #1): If one gathered (altogether) a k'Zayis of bread crumbs (Tosfos - of the five grains) and ate it (on Pesach):
If they are Matzah, he is Yotzei (to eat Lechem Oni on the first night);
If they are Chametz, he is Chayav Kares.
Answer #1: The case is, he combined them into one mass.
Objection (Seifa): This is when he ate them within Kdei Achilas Pras (the time to eat half a loaf).
If he combined them into one mass, it should say 'ate it'!
Answer #2: The case is, (a k'Zayis of) the loaf (from which the crumbs came) is still intact. (Since it retains its importance and its Berachah, its crumbs retain their Berachah.)
Question: What was the conclusion?
Answer (Rav Sheshes): (One blesses ha'Motzi) even on crumbs less than a k'Zayis.
(Rava): This is only if they still look like bread.