[76a - 40 lines; 76b - 43 lines]

1a)[line 2]שיפהSHIFAH- rubbing with the palm of the hand on wheat kernels that are lying on a surface

b)[line 2]בעיטהBE'ITAH- pounding with (a) the fist; (b) the heel of the hand; or (c) the foot (RASHI KESAV YAD)

2)[line 3]כל המנחות באות עשר עשרKOL HA'MENACHOS BA'OS ESER ESER- all of the Menachos come as ten loaves (i.e. the Minchas Chalos Ma'afeh Sanur, the Minchas Rekikin Ma'afeh Sanur, the Minchas Machavas, the Minchas Marcheshes, the Minchas Chotei (according to the opinion that it is mixed with water — SHITAH MEKUBETZES #2), the Minchas Sotah (according to the opinion that it is mixed with water), the Minchas Soles (according to RASHI KESAV YAD here and RASHI to Menachos 59a DH Kol Heicha, 1st explanation. However, it is apparent from RASHI to Menachos 74b DH Minchas Soles and RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:10 that the Minchas Soles is not baked into ten Matzos, but rather the remainder of the flour is given to the Kohanim to bake in any fashion))

3)[line 5]חביתי כהן גדולCHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL (MINCHAS CHAVITIN)

(a)The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked (this is the ruling of the RAMBAM, but see Menachos 50b). Next, the rolls are folded without breaking them (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).

(b)Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13). They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach. The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin rolls was one Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions), a total of three Lugin for the entire Minchah.

(c)An ordinary Kohen, on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, must bring a Korban Minchah that is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day (Vayikra 6:13). His Korban is known as the Minchas Chinuch (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).

4)[line 7]נזירותNEZIRUS (SHALMEI NAZIR)

(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to:

1.cut his hair;

2.become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or

3.consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.

(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off his hair and burns it under the pot in which the Zero'a (right hind leg) of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (Sefer ha'Chinuch #377)

5)[line 10]אמטויי ואתוייAMTUYEI V'ASUYEI- [rubbing the palm of the hand] forward and backward [over the wheat kernels]

6)[line 17]אתיא חוקה חוקה מלחם הפניםASYA CHUKAH CHUKAH MI'LECHEM HA'PANIM- it is learned through a Gezeirah Shavah between the words "Chok" written with regard to the Lechem ha'Panim (Vayikra 24:9) and with regard to the Chavitei Kohen Gadol (Vayikra 6:15)

7)[line 23]יחיד המתנדב שמן נפסל שלא בשבת ושלא בטומאהYACHID HA'MISNADEV SHEMEN NIFSAL SHE'LO B'SHABBOS VESHE'LO V'TUM'AH- this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos (see the list above, entry #2), as follows:

1.Yachid refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are Korbenos Yachid. The Lechem ha'Panim is a Korban Tzibur.

2.ha'Misnadev refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are brought b'Nedavah, voluntarily. The Lechem ha'Panim is obligatory.

3.Shemen refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos require olive oil. The Lechem ha'Panim is mixed with water, not oil.

4.Nifsal refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are Nifsalin b'Linah (see Background to Menachos 72:21). The Lechem ha'Panim is not; it actually stays on the Shulchan ha'Zahav for eight days.

5.she'Lo b'Shabbos refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are not Dochin Shabbos. The Lechem ha'Panim is Docheh Shabbos.

6.she'Lo v'Tum'ah refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are not Dochin Tum'ah. The Lechem ha'Panim is Docheh Tum'ah.

8)[line 25]הקדש ולבונה מצה ועצםHEKDESH U'LEVONAH MATZAH V'ETZEM- this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Lechem ha'Panim and the other Menachos (see the list above, entry #2), as follows:

1.Hekdesh refers to the fact that both the Lechem ha'Panim and the other Menachos are Kodshei Kodashim and must be eaten in the Azarah. The Lachmei Todah are Kodshim Kalim and can be eaten in the entire city of Yerushalayim.

2.u'Levonah refers to the fact that both the Lechem ha'Panim and the other Menachos require Levonah. The Lachmei Todah do not require Levonah.

3.Matzah refers to the fact that both the Lechem ha'Panim and the other Menachos are exclusively Matzah. The Lachmei Todah contain ten loaves that are Chametz

4.v'Etzem refers to the fact that both the Lechem ha'Panim and the other Menachos are distinct Korbanos. The Lachmei Todah may only be brought along with a Korban Todah.

9)[line 26]דבר הלמד בגזירה שוה אינו חוזר ומלמד בבנין אבDAVAR HA'LAMED BI'GEZEIRAH SHAVAH CHOZER U'MELAMED B'VINYAN AV

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. They include Kal va'Chomer, Gezeirah Shavah, Binyan Av, Hekesh, etc.

(b)The Gemara (Zevachim 49b-50a) investigates whether a Halachah that is extrapolated from one of these methods can be used further to teach the same Halachah in a different subject using another (or the same) one of these methods.

10)[line 28]הדיוט שהתנדב חצאין לפיגול שלא בשבת ושלא בטומאהHEDYOT SHE'HISNADEV CHATZA'IN L'FIGUL SHE'LO B'SHABBOS VEHSE'LO V'TUM'AH- this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos (see the list above, entry #2), as follows:

1.Hedyot refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are Korbenos brought by a Hedyot, an ordinary individual of Kelal Yisrael. The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol.

2.she'Hisnadev refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are brought b'Nedavah, voluntarily. The Minchas Chavitin is obligatory.

3.Chatza'in refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are not required to be brought l'Chatza'in, one half at a time. The Minchas Chavitin is required to be brought one half at a time.

4.l'Figul refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are invalidated b'Figul (see Background to Menachos 54:14). The Minchas Chavitin cannot be invalidated by Pigul, since it has no Matir, and only Korbanos that have Matirin are invalidated by Pigul.

5.she'Lo b'Shabbos refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are not Dochin Shabbos. The Minchas Chavitin is Dochah Shabbos.

6.she'Lo v'Tum'ah refers to the fact that both the Lachmei Todah and the other Menachos are not Dochin Tum'ah. The Minchas Chavitin is Dochah Tum'ah.

11)[line 29]עשרון כלי הקדש ולבונה מצה ועצם הגשה ואישיםISARON KLI HEKDESH U'LEVONAH MATZAH V'ETZEM HAGASHAH V'ISHIM- this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos (see the list above, entry #2), as follows:

1.Isaron refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos consist of one Isaron of fine flour. The Lachmei Todah are made from two Esronim of fine flour.

2.Keli refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos are required to be placed in a Keli Shares, a consecrated utensil. They are consecrated once they enter the Keli. The Lachmei Todah are not required to be put into a Keli Shares. They are consecrated when the Korban Todah is slaughtered.

3.Hekdesh refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos are Kodshei Kodashim. The Lachmei Todah are Kodshim Kalim.

4.u'Levonah refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos require Levonah. The Lachmei Todah do not require Levonah.

5.Matzah refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos are exclusively Matzah. The Lachmei Todah contain ten loaves that are Chametz

6.v'Etzem refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos are distinct Korbanos. The Lachmei Todah may only be brought along with a Korban Todah.

7.Hagashah refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos require Hagashah, where the owner brings the Minchah to a Kohen who touches the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach with the utensil that contains the Minchah. The Lachmei Todah do not require Hagashah.

8.v'Ishim refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chavitin and the other Menachos have parts of them (or all of them) that are burned on the Ishim, the fires of the Mizbe'ach. No part of the Lachmei Todah is burned on the Mizbe'ach.

12)[line 35]"[וּבְשַׂר זֶבַח תּוֹדַת] שְׁלָמָיו...""[U'VESAR ZEVACH TODAS] SHELAMAV..."- "[And the flesh of] his [Korban that is slaughtered as the type of] Shelamim [known as a Todah (thanksgiving offering)...]" (Vayikra 7:15)

13)[line 36]לרבות שלמי נזירL'RABOS SHALMEI NAZIR- the verse of the previous entry teaches that the loaves brought with the Shalmei Nazir are made from ten Kabin Yerushalmiyos, like the Lachmei Todah, and that they are also ten in number for each type, like the Lachmei Todah (RASHI)

14)[line 37]והא בעי אפרושי תרומה מינייהוV'HA BA'I AFRUSHEI TERUMAH MINAIHU- but it is required that the Lachmei Todah have a "Terumah" (one loaf out of ten, from each of the four types of Lechamim) taken from them [and when one bakes only one loaf of each of the four types, it is impossible to fulfill this Halachah]

15)[line 38]"[וְהִקְרִיב מִמֶּנּוּ] אֶחָד [מִכָּל קָרְבָּן...]""[V'HIKRIV MIMENU] ECHAD [MI'KOL KORBAN...]"- "[And he shall offer from it] one [of each Korban of Lechamim...]" (Vayikra 7:14)

16)[line 38]שלא יטול פרוסSHE'LO YITOL PARUS- he may not offer a loaf that is broken (i.e. a piece of a loaf)

17)[line 39]דאפרשינהו בלישהD'AFRESHINHU B'LISHAH- [the case where it is possible to offer a Korban Todah where one bakes only one loaf of each of the four types is a case where one] separated the Terumah from the dough [before the baking and then baked each of the Terumah loaves to give to the Kohen]

18a)[line 39]שריבה במדת חלתןSHE'RIBAH B'MIDAS CHALASAN- (a) he increased the size of the loaves, resulting in seven or eight instead of ten (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) he increased the number of loaves (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

b)[line 39]שמיעט במדת חלתןSHE'MI'ET B'MIDAS CHALASAN- (a) he decreased the size of the loaves, resulting in twelve or thirteen instead of ten (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) he decreased the number of loaves (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

76b----------------------------------------76b

19a)[line 23]שריבה במדת עשרונןSHE'RIBAH B'MIDAS ESRONAN- (a) he (the Kohen) filled the Isaron measure to a heaping measure ("Gadush") (RASHI); (b) he used an Isaron measure that was actually larger than an Isaron (RASHI KESAV YAD, 1st explanation); (c) he measured out more than an Isaron (RASHI KESAV YAD, 2nd explanation)

b)[line 24]שמיעט במדת עשרוןSHE'MI'ET B'MIDAS ISARON- he leveled the Isaron measure to such an extent that he actually diminished the flour to an amount less than an Isaron

20a)[line 24]ריבה במדת סאין שלהןRIBAH B'MIDAS SE'IN SHELAHEN- they (the reapers) reaped more Se'in of grain than the amount specified for the Menachos of the Shtei ha'Lechem (three Se'in) or the Minchas ha'Omer (three Se'in); or the Kohanim separated more flour than the amount specified for the Lechem ha'Panim (twenty-four Se'in)

b)[line 25]מיעט במדת סאין שלהןMI'ET B'MIDAS SE'IN SHELAHEN- they reaped or separated less Se'in than the amounts specified

21)[line 26]כשרותKESHEIROS- they (the Shtei ha'Lechem, Minchas ha'Omer and the Lechem ha'Panim) are valid [as long as the amount of Esronim that are needed are exact measures]

22)[line 26]מנופהMENUPAH- sifted

23)[line 27]נפהNAPAH- sieves

24)[line 29]לא היה להן קצבהLO HAYAH LAHEN KITZVAH- there was no specific amount [of times that the Lechem ha'Panim needed to be sifted, as long as it was sifted to the required fineness] (RASHI KESAV YAD)

25)[line 29]סולת מנופה כל צרכהSOLES MENUPAH KOL TZORKAH- fine flour sifted to the required fineness

26)[line 30]"וְלָקַחְתָּ סֹלֶת וְאָפִיתָ אֹתָהּ...""V'LAKACHTA SOLES V'AFISA OSAH..."- "And you shall take / buy fine flour and you shall bake it..." (Vayikra 24:5)

27)[line 32]בדקה בגסה בדקה בגסהB'DAKAH B'GASAH B'DAKAH B'GASAH- in a fine sifter then a coarse sifter then a fine sifter then a coarse sifter

28)[line 32]ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר...REBBI SHIMON BEN ELAZAR OMER...- (a) this is an opposing opinion to the above; rather than fine, coarse, fine, coarse, the flour was sifted in thirteen successively finer sifters (RASHI, RABEINU ELCHANAN cited by the SHITAH MEKUBETZES #5); (b) this is an explanation of the above; even though the flour was sifted in succession with fine and coarse sifters, each successive fine or coarse sifter was slightly finer than the fine or coarse sifter that preceded it (RASHI KESAV YAD)

29)[line 35]קולטת סוביןKOLETES SUBIN- it collects bran

30)[line 38]חיסחוןCHISACHON- savings, economy

31)[line 39]התורה חסה על ממונן של ישראלHA'TORAH CHASAH AL MAMONAN SHEL YISRAEL- HaSh-m (lit. the Torah) cares for the money of Yisrael

32)[line 40]"... וְהִשְׁקִיתָ אֶת הָעֵדָה וְאֶת בְּעִירָם""... V'HISHKISA ES HA'EDAH V'ES BE'IRAM"- "... and you shall provide water for the community and for their animals" (Bamidbar 20:8).

PEREK #8 HA'TODAH HAYESAH VA'AH

33)[line 42]חמש סאין ירושלמיות / שש מדבריות / איפות / עשרוןCHAMESH SE'IN YERUSHALMIYOS / SHESH MIDBARIYOS / EIFOS / ISARON (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in = 10 Isaron

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Eifah = 21.6, 24.9 or 43.2 liters, according to the various opinions; 1 Isaron = 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing opinions.

(c)A Se'ah Midbaris is the measure of a Se'ah in Midbar Sinai [when it held five Kav]. A Se'ah Yerushalmis is the measure of a Se'ah in Yerushalayim, where the leaders of the generation added a Kav (1/6 of the ensuing total, or 1/5 of the original amount) to the Se'ah Midbaris.

34)[last line]עשרה לחמץ ועשרה למצהASARAH L'CHAMETZ V'ASARAH L'MATZAH- ten [Esronos] for [the ten loaves of bread that are] Chametz and ten [Esronos] for [the thirty loaves that are] Matzah

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