[43a - 52 lines; 43b - 51 lines]

1)[line 1] BEN ARBA'IM YOM- (a) from a 40-day-old [baby] (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) that has been left to stand for 40 days (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) [from a child] that has been left to stand for 40 days (RABEINU GERSHOM)

2)[line 1] V'SARI LAH B'GAVAIHU- and he soaks it (the dyed Techeles string) together with them

3)[line 1] ME'URTA V'AD L'TZAFRA- from night until morning

4)[line 2] IFRAD CHAZUSEI- [if] its appearance becomes ruined (lit. "separates")

5)[line 4] CHAMIRA ARKESA D'SA'AREI- hardened sourdough of barley

6)[line 5] V'AFYA LAH B'GAVEI- and bakes it (the dyed Techeles string) together with it

7a)[line 5] ISHTANA'I L'MA'ALYUSA- if it changes for the better (if the blue of the Techeles becomes a stronger blue)

b)[line 6]LIGERI'USA- [if it changes] for the worse (if the blue of the Techeles fades)

8)[line 6] V'SIMANACH SHINUY SHEKER SHINUY EMES- and your sign (mnemonic) to remember [which type of change indicates valid Techeles and which type of change indicates invalid Techeles] is the phrase, "Change of a lie, change of truth" (when a person lies, thereby detracting from the facts, it is obviously a negative, detrimental change, and, similarly, a detrimental change in the Techeles (i.e. a weakening or detracting of the color) is invalid; however, when a person changes what he said by adding more facts, he strengthens and upholds his words, and, similarly, a change in the Techeles that strengthens the color is a sign that the Techeles is valid)

9)[line 8]A'TE'IMAH- (a) [when the Beraisa (end of Daf 42b) said that the authenticity of Techeles cannot be verified through experimental analysis,] it was referring to [verifying whether or not the wool containing the Techeles was dyed in] a process of sampling. That is, the Beraisa agrees that a dyed string can be analyzed to determine whether it is dyed with Techeles or with a substitute such as Kala Ilan. When the Beraisa said that Techeles cannot be checked, it meant that there is no way to check the dyed string to determine whether the string was dyed with Techeles for the sake of the Mitzvah, or whether the string was dyed with Techeles as a sample to check the quality of the Techeles (such a sample is Pasul, as the Gemara earlier (Daf 42b) teaches). (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) [when the Beraisa (end of Daf 42b) said that the authenticity of Techeles cannot be verified through experimental analysis,] it was referring to [a prohibition against] sampling. That is , the Beraisa agrees that a dyed string can be analyzed to determine whether it is dyed with Techeles or with a substitute such as Kala Ilan. When the Beraisa said that Techeles cannot be checked, it meant that one may not put wool into the vat of Techeles in order to check the quality of the Techeles. Rather, one must remove a small amount of Techeles (such as with an eggshell) and then dye the sample wool with it. (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

10)[line 8] MAR MI'MOSHKI- Mar (the name of a Chacham) from Moshki (the name of a place named for the Moschi, a people whose territory formed the southern part of Colchis - Kidushin 72a)

11)[line 9] BADKUHA BED'RAV YITZCHAK- he checked it with the method of Rav Yitzchak

12)[line 13] SHEMU'ASA A'HADADEI ITMAR- the teachings (of Rav Yitzchak and of Rav Ada) were said complementary to each other (that is, they are not arguing about the method to check Techeles; rather, Rav Ada is giving an additional test to that of Rav Yitzchak, to be performed in the event that Rav Yitzchak's test causes the color to fade)

13)[line 18] SHALCHU MI'TAM- the Chachamim sent [this teaching] from there (from Eretz Yisrael to Bavel)

14)[line 19] DAYIK V'ZAVIN- he was particular to buy [Techeles only from an expert]

15)[line 19] K'CHUMREI MASNISA- like the stringency of the Beraisa [that says that Techeles used as a sample to check the quality of the rest is invalid]

16)[line 20] HACHI AVID KAMA'EI D'KAMACH- this is how those who preceded you (literally, "those who were before those before you") conducted themselves

17)[line 21] V'ATZLACH ISKAIHU- and all of their endeavors were successful

18)[line 21] TALIS METZUYETZES- a garment with Tzitzis attached to it

19)[line 22] HAREI HI B'CHEZKASAH- it may remain in its present state (we assume that it was made by a Jew in the proper manner)

20)[line 23]TAGAR- a merchant

21)[line 25] AD SHE'YATIR TZITZIYOSEHA- until he removes its Tzitzis

22)[line 26] HACHA TARGIMU- here (in Bavel) they explain it

23)[line 26] MISHUM ZONAH- (lit. because of a harlot) (a) Perhaps a Jewish harlot might see the Nochri wearing the garment with Tzitzis and mistakenly think that the wearer is Jewish and she will marry him, thereby transgressing the prohibition against marrying a Nochri (Devarim 7:3) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) Perhaps the Nochri might give the Tzitzis to a Nochri harlot, and she will falsely accuse a certain Jew of sinning with her, producing the garment with Tzitzis as proof (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

24)[line 27] YISLAVEH IMO- a Jew might accompany him (the Nochri with the Tzitzis) and travel with him, thinking that he is really a Jew (and the Nochri might then kill the unsuspecting Jew)

25)[line 28] RAMI TECHEILTA L'FARZUMA D'INSHEI VEISEI- placed Tzitzis on the cloak of his wife

26)[line 29] U'MEVARECH KOL TZAFRA- and he would recite a blessing [upon donning his Tzitzis] every morning

27)[line 30]MID'RAMI- from that fact that he placed Tzitzis [on his wife's cloak]

28)[line 30] / MITZVAS ASEH SHE'LO HA'ZEMAN GERAMA / MITZVAS ASEH SHEHA'ZEMAN GERAMA

(a)Mitzvos which must be performed at a specific time of the day are called Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zeman Geraman. Some examples are Sukah, Lulav, Shofar and Tzitzis. Women are exempt from these Mitzvos, with the exception of Kidush on Friday night, Matzah on Pesach night, the Korban Pesach, Hakhel and Simchah on Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos.

(b)From the fact that Rav Yehudah instructed his wife to wear Tzitzis, it is evident that Rav Yehudah maintained that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis is not a Mitzvah that must be performed at a specific time.

29)[line 34] INISH TZENI'A- he was a modest man

30)[line 34] V'LO SHARI LEI LI'GELIMEI- and he did not remove his cloak (except at night)

31)[line 35] KI MESHANI- when he would change

32a)[line 35] KESUS LAILAH- night clothes

b)[line 36] KESUS YOM- day clothes

33)[line 42] ?!MAN LICHAYEIV?!- Who, then, is obligated?!

34)[line 45]ISHTERI- it is permitted

35)[line 46]NEHI- even though

36)[line 47] B'IDAN AVODAH- at the time of the service [in the Beis ha'Mikdash]

37)[line 49] KESUS SUMA- the garment of a blind man

38)[line 51] SHE'YESHNAH BI'RE'IYAH ETZEL ACHERIM- because it (the blind man's garment) is included in the sight of other people; that is, other people are able to see his Tzitzis

43b----------------------------------------43b

39)[line 2]"[ ;] [ .]""[GEDILIM TA'ASEH LACH;] AL ARBA KANFOS KESUSCHA [ASHER TECHASEH BAH.]"- "[You shall make for yourselves twisted threads (Tzitzis);] on the four corners of your garment [with which you cover yourself.]" (Devarim 22:12)

40)[line 14] HA'TELUYAH VO- that depends on it

41)[line 15]MISHE'YAKIR- from the time that one can distinguish

42)[line 21] KEIVAN SHE'NISHCHAYEIV ADAM B'MITZVAH ZU- (a) when one becomes obligated to fulfill this Mitzvah (of Tzitzis) - that is, at daybreak, he becomes obligated to fulfill all of the other Mitzvos that must be fulfilled during daytime (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) when one becomes obligated to fulfill this Mitzvah (of Tzitzis) - that is, upon reaching the age of Bar Mitzvah, he becomes obligated to fulfill all of the other Mitzvos (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

43)[line 25]SHEKULAH- equal

44)[line 31] CHAVIVIN YISRAEL- beloved are the Jewish people

45)[line 31]SHE'SIBEVAN- for He surrounded them

46)[line 34]" .""SHEVA BA'YOM HILALTICHA AL MISHPETEI TZIDKECHA."- "Seven times in the day I praise You for Your righteous statutes." (Tehilim 119:164)

47)[line 35]ARUM- naked

48)[line 39] HA'KOL B'CHIZUK- he stands with the assurance that he will not sin in any way

49)[line 39]"... .""... VEHA'CHUT HA'MESHULASH LO VIM'HERAH YINASEK."- "... and the three-ply cord will not quickly be broken." (Koheles 4:12)

50)[line 40]" ' , .""CHONEH MAL'ACH HASH-M SAVIV LI'YERE'AV, VA'YECHALTZEM."- "The angel of HaSh-m encamps around those who fear Him, and saves them." (Tehilim 34:8)

51)[line 42]"... , .""V'SACHAS RAGLAV K'MA'ASEI LIVNAS HA'SAPIR, UCH'ETZEM HA'SHAMAYIM LA'TOHAR."- "... and beneath His feet were the like of sapphire brickwork, and like the very heavens for purity." (Shemos 24:10)

52)[line 43]"... ...""... K'MAR'EH EVEN SAPIR DEMUS KISEI ..."- "... like the appearance of a sapphire stone, the likeness of a throne ..." (Yechezkel 1:26)

53)[line 44] ONSHO SHEL LAVAN- the punishment for not wearing white Tzitzis strings

54)[line 46] CHOSAM SHEL TIT- a seal made of clay (used to stamp animals and slaves for identification purposes)

55)[line 48]", , ' ...""V'ATAH, YISRAEL, MAH HASH-M ELOCKECHA SHO'EL M'IMACH ..."- "And now, Yisrael, what does Hash-m your G-d ask of you ..." (Devarim 10:14). - Rebbi Meir reads the word "Mah" as "Me'ah," so that the verse is saying, "And now, Yisrael, one hundred [blessings each day] does Hash-m, your G-d, ask of you ..."

56)[line 48] B'SHABATA UV'YOMEI TAVEI- on Shabbos and festivals (when a short Shemoneh Esreh is said, and thus one will fall short of the 100-blessing quota)

57)[line 49] TARACH U'MEMALEI LEHU- he troubled himself to fulfill them [the quota of 100 blessings]

58)[line 49] B'ISPARMAKEI U'MEFGADEI- with aromatic spices and sweets (for which blessings are recited)

59)[line 50]BUR- an ignoramus

60)[last line] ?KULEI HAI NAMI?- (a) even this much as well [you are praising yourself as being learned and not an ignoramus]? (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) even this much as well [you are thanking HaSh-m? There is no reason to say a blessing for not making you an ignoramus, because an ignoramus is still obligated to keep all of the Mitzvos] (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

61)[last line] HAINU ISHAH- (a) [an Eved] is the same as a woman (for a woman is subservient to her husband) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) [an Eved] is the same as a woman (because both are obligated to the same degree to keep the Mitzvos) (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

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