[31a - 30 lines; 31b - 29 lines]

1)[line 1]שידהSHIDAH (KELEI ETZ: TUM'AH)

(a)The Torah states that wooden utensils can become Tamei if they are touched by a person or object that is an Av ha'Tum'ah, of if they are under the same Ohel as a dead person (Vayikra 11:32, Bamidbar 31:20). However, since the Torah compares a wooden object that becomes Tamei to a sack ("Sak"), the wooden object must have certain qualities in common with a sack in order to become Tamei.

(b)Among these qualities are:

1.The object must have a receptacle, i.e. an area in which it can contain other objects, as opposed to a flat board.

2.It must not be large enough to hold forty Se'ah of liquids (or sixty Se'ah of solids), for if it is that large it cannot be transported when filled, as opposed to a sack, which is made to be transported either empty or full.

3.It must be an object that is sometimes transported, and not one that is always stationary. If it is left stationary, it is called a "Kli he'Asuy l'Nachas" and is not Mekabel Tum'ah.

(c)A Shidah is defined as: 1. a woman's carriage that is closed on all sides (RASHI to Eruvin 30b); 2. a large chest that is used as a bench in a woman's carriage (RASHI to Eruvin 14b); 3. a cabinet (RAMBAM Peirush ha'Mishnayos Kelim 15:1). Beis Shamai (Kelim 18:1; the entire Mishnah is quoted in our Gemara) rules that in order to determine whether a Shidah is forty Se'ah or not, the interior volume is measured. Beis Hillel rules that the exterior volume is measured. Other Tana'im argue as to whether the volume of the legs and the space between the legs is measured as well.

2a)[line 1]נמדדת מבפניםNIMDEDES MI'BIFNIM- the interior volume is measured

b)[line 2]מבחוץMIBA'CHUTZ- [the volume of the] exterior

3a)[line 3]עובי הרגליםOVI HA'RAGLAYIM- the volume of the legs

b)[line 3]עובי הלבזבזיןOVI HA'LEVAZBEZIN- the volume of the decorative railings

4)[line 7]ביניהן נמדדBEINEIHEN NIMDAD- the volume between the legs is measured

5)[line 9]שמן תחלה לעולםSHEMEN TECHILAH L'OLAM (TUM'AS OCHLIN U'MASHKIN)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Velad ha'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah, a Sheni makes a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni. Our Gemara brings three opinions of Tana'im who may or may not include all of the seven Halachic liquids in this decree. The seven Halachic liquids are listed below, (f).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa. Even mid'Rabanan, there is no such thing as Shelishi L'Tum'ah with regard to Chulin. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi L'Tum'ah. (Also, if someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called "Pasul."

(f)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah.

(g)In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.

6)[line 9]דבשDEVASH- bee's honey

7)[line 12]טבל בחוליןTEVEL B'CHULIN- untithed produce that became mixed with tithed produce. Tithing from the mixture will not be effective to remove the Isur of Tevel, since the tithed part is exempt from tithing, even mid'Rabanan, and it is prohibited to tithed from exempt produce. (RASHI)

8)[line 14]ועשר עליוV'ASER ALAV- and tithe the untithed part of your mixture using the produce that you buy from the marketplace

9)[line 15]ברובא בטלB'RUBA BATEL (BITUL B'ROV)

(a)When a forbidden object (Isur) is mixed with a permitted object (Heter), the mixture becomes prohibited mid'Oraisa if most of the mixture is Isur, but is permitted if most of the mixture is Heter because of "Bitul b'Rov" (Beitzah 3b). Mid'Rabanan, sometimes the mixture is prohibited even if most of it is Heter. RASHI explains that our Gemara illustrates one of these instances.

(b)The Rabanan decreed that when even the smallest amount of Tevel (untithed produce) falls into tithed produce, it prohibits the mixture from being eaten, until Terumah is separated for the sake of the untithed produce.

10)[line 16]הוה ליה כתורם מן הפטור על הפטורHAVAH LEI K'TOREM MIN HA'PATUR AL HA'PATUR- and it is like he is tithing exempt produce for the sake of exempt produce

11)[line 17]קח מן העובד כוכביםKACH MIN HA'OVED KOCHAVIM- buy produce from a Nochri (which is exempt from tithing mid'Oraisa but is obligated mid'Rabanan according to the opinion that when a Nochri buys land in Eretz Yisrael, the obligation to separate Terumos and Ma'asros is removed mid'Oraisa - RASHI)

12)[line 18]להפקיע מיד מעשרL'HAFKI'A MI'YAD MA'ASER- to remove the obligation to separate Terumos and Ma'asros

13)[last line]קשי בה ר' חנינא מסוראKASHI VAH REBBI CHANINA MI'SURA- Rebbi Chanina mi'Sura had a difficulty with this (the ruling of Rav Papa that the Halachah follows the narrative of Rebbi Shimon Shezuri)

31b----------------------------------------31b

14)[line 1]מי קאמר במשנתינו?MI KA'AMAR B'MISHNASEINU?- Did he (Ravin bar Chinena Amar Ula Amar Rebbi Chanina) say [that the Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon Shezuri only] in our Mishnah?

15)[line 3]קרע הבא בשני שיטין יתפורKERA HA'BA BI'SHNEI SHITIN YISPOR- a rip that goes through two lines of writing

16)[line 6]בעתיקתאB'ATIKTA- old [parchment]

b)[line 7]חדתתאCHADTASA- new [parchment]

17)[line 9]אפיצןAFITZAN- that was tanned using Afatzim (O.F. gales - gall nuts, found on oak leaves)

18)[line 10]גידיןGIDIN- string made of sinews

b)[line 10]גרדיןGERADIN- (O.F. fernjes - fringes) string made from fibers

19)[line 13]שתים שתיםSHTAYIM SHTAYIM- two words to a line

20)[line 14]שתים ושלש ואחתSHTAYIM V'SHALOSH V'ACHAS- subsequent lines of two words, three words and one word, etc.

21)[line 15]כל שכן, שעשאה כשירהKOL SHE'KEN, SHE'ASA'AH K'SHIRAH- [this is] all the more so [valid], since he wrote it like the poetry sections of the Torah

22)[line 16]עשאה כשירהASA'AH KA'SHIRAH- he wrote the normal sections of a Sefer Torah like the poetry sections of the Torah

23)[line 16]שירה כמותהSHIRAH KEMOSAH- he wrote the poetry sections like it (like the normal sections)

24)[line 21]כקובהK'KUBAH- like a tent, i.e. subsequent lines of one word, two words, and three words

25)[line 22]כזנבK'ZANAV- like a tail, subsequent lines of three words, two words and one word

26)[line 22]"על הארץ""AL HA'ARETZ"- "on the earth" (Devarim 11:21) the last two words of a Mezuzah

27)[line 23]בשיטה אחרונהB'SHITAH ACHORANAH- [alone] on the last line

28a)[line 23]בסוף שיטהB'SOF SHITAH- at the end of the line (the left side of the Mezuzah)

b)[line 24]בתחלת שיטהBI'TECHILAS SHITAH- at the beginning of the line (the right side of the Mezuzah)

29)[line 24]"[כִּי] כִגְבֹהַּ שָׁמַיִם עַל-הָאָרֶץ, [גָּבַר חַסְדּוֹ עַל-יְרֵאָיו.]""[KI] CHI'GEVO'AH SHAMAYIM AL HA'ARETZ..."- "[For] as the sky is high above the earth, [so great is His loving kindness towards those who fear Him.]" (Tehilim 103:11)

30)[line 25]כי היכי דמרחקא שמים מארץKI HEICHI D'MERACHAKA SHAMAYIM ME'ERETZ- just as the sky is far away from the earth

31)[line 27]דכריך לה מאחד כלפי שמעD'CHARICH LAH ME'ACHAD KELAPEI SHEMA- who was rolling (lit. folding) it up from the side of the Mezuzah that contained the word "Echad" (the left side) in the direction of the side of the Mezuzah that contained the word "Shema" (the right side)

32)[line 28]סתומותSETUMOS- "closed" sections of the Torah (see Insights to Menachos 32:1)

33)[last line]דוכסוסטוסDUCHSUSTUS- the inner half of the hide after it has been split in two

34)[last line]כמין דףK'MIN DAF- like a column (long, as opposed to the Parshiyos of Tefilin, which are written on a parchment that is much, much wider that it is long

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