[9a - 35 lines; 9b - 32 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 9a DH Karmu b'Tanur ד"ה קרמו בתנור:
"Shtei ha'Lechem Ein Ne'echalin, Lo Pachos..." שתי לחם אין נאכלין לא פחות (Source: Erchin 8b)
 Gemara 9b [line 7]:
The words "Afilu l'Gabei Mizbe'ach" אפילו לגבי מזבח
should be "Afilu Al Gabei Mizbe'ach" אפילו על גבי מזבח (Mar'eh Kohen; this is also the way it is quoted in Rashi and Rabeinu Gershom)
 Rashi 9b DH Ika d'Mosiv ד"ה איכא דמותיב:
The words "she'Paka me'Al Gabei ha'Mizbe'ach" שפקע מעל גבי המזבח
should be "she'Paka Al Gabei ha'Mizbe'ach" שפקע על גבי המזבח (Rashash)
 Rashi DH Im Kvar Karvah ד"ה כבר קרבה:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #14
 Rashi DH Kvar Karev ד"ה כבר קרב:
The word "Nami" נמי is apparently unnecessary
1a)[line 1]"... מסלתה ומשמנה על כל לבונתה...""… MI'SOLTAH UMI'SHAMNAH AL KOL LEVONASAH..."- "[And he shall bring it to the sons of Aharon, the Kohanim; and he shall take from it his handful] of its flour, and of its oil, with all its frankincense; [and the Kohen shall burn the memorial part of it upon the altar, to be a pleasing fire-offering to HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 2:2).
b)[line 1]מסלתה ומשמנה על כל לבונתהMI'SOLTAH UMI'SHAMNAH AL KOL LEVONASAH (MENACHOS)
(a)The Torah records five types of Minchas Nedavah, voluntary flour offerings (Vayikra 2:1-13). They are:
5.Minchas Marcheshes (see Background to Menachos 72:25-26).
(b)All of these Menachos require one Log of olive oil and a Kometz (a handful) of Levonah. The oil is used in the kneading and the baking of the flour. A Kometz of the Minchah itself (separated in a process called Kemitzah - see Background to Menachos 2:1:I:b) and the Kometz of Levonah are burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash by male Kohanim (since they have the status of Kodshei ha'Kodashim).
(c)Levonah is frankincense (or oliban); a gum resin from trees of present-day Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned.
2)[line 5]עולת העוףOLAS HA'OF
The offering of the Olas ha'Of consists of four procedures:
1.MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 97:9) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines — Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire. (See Background to Chulin 123:17 for more information.)
3)[line 6]מיצה דמןMITZAH DAMAN (BIRD OFFERINGS: MITZUY)
Mitzuy is one of the actions performed when sacrificing the Olas ha'Of (see previous entry) or the Chatas ha'Of (see Background to Me'ilah 8:1). During the sacrifice of the Olas ha'Of, the Kohen only performs Mitzuy with its blood (above the Chut ha'Sikra, the red line that divides the Mizbe'ach in half). During the sacrifice of the Chatas ha'Of, the Kohen first performs Hazayah (sprinkling the blood on the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra), and then Mitzuy.
4)[line 10]שיריים מעכביןSHIRAYIM ME'AKVIM- Mitzuy of the blood left over after Hazayah is performed is an intrinsic part of the offering of the Korban Chatas ha'Of; if the Mitzuy is not performed, then the Chatas ha'Of is invalid and atonement is not achieved
5)[line 14]עד שתצא לבית הדשןAD SHE'TETZEI L'VEIS HA'DASHEN - until the Terumas ha'Deshen is performed on its ashes, and they are placed beside the Mizbe'ach (BEIS HA'DESHEN)
(a)There are four places associated with the Beis ha'Mikdash that are called "Beis ha'Deshen" (ash-pile):
1.The first Beis ha'Deshen, also known as Mekom ha'Deshen, was located southeast of the outer Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approximately 22.8, 24 or 28.8 cm, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) from the ramp and 10 Amos north (approximately 4.56, 4.8 or 5.76 meters) of the foot of the ramp. The Terumas ha'Deshen (a shovel-full of ashes lifted from the bonfire of the outer Mizbe'ach) and ashes from the Menorah and the inner Mizbe'ach were deposited there every morning. Additionally, when a bird was brought as an Olas ha'Of, the Kohen cut out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines — Zevachim 65a) and threw them onto this Beis ha'Deshen.
2.The second Beis ha'Deshen was located immediately to the east of the outer Mizbe'ach. It was used for burning the parts of certain Korbanos that became Pesulim, where the Pesul occurred before the Zerikas ha'Dam. These parts were the meat and the Eimurim of Kodshei ha'Kodashim, the Eimurim of the Kodshim Kalim, and the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (the bulls and goats, the remains of which were burned) (Pesachim 24a, Zevachim 104b).
3.The third Beis ha'Deshen was located on Har ha'Bayis and was used for burning the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim that became Pesulim, where the Pesul occurred after the Zerikas ha'Dam (according to Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuha, Zevachim 104b) or after they were taken out of the Azarah (according to Tani Levi, Zevachim ibid.).
4.The fourth Beis ha'Deshen was also called the Shefech ha'Deshen. Most of the ashes from the sacrifices burned on the outer Mizb'ach were cleared away to the Tapu'ach, a large pile of ashes in the middle of the Mizbe'ach. The Torah states that when this pile becomes excessively large, the ashes must be cleared away to the Shefech ha'Deshen, the ritually clean place outside the camp in the desert or outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 4:12, 6:4). The Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim that did not become Pesulim during their Avodah were also burned in this Beis ha'Deshen.
(b)The Beis ha'Deshen mentioned in our Gemara is the one called the Mekom ha'Deshen (see above, a:1).
6a)[line 14]פרים הנשרפיםPARIM HA'NISRAFIM
(a)The Torah requires that on certain occasions a bull be brought as a Korban Chatas, the blood of which is brought into the Heichal and is sprinkled on the Paroches and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) was poured on the western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach. The remains of these bulls are entirely burned ("Nisrafim") in the place outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (see previous entry, a:4).
(b)These bulls are:
1.the bull offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim, the blood of which is also sprinkled in the Kodshei Kodashim (Vayikra 16:27, see Background to Menachos 92:19);
2.the bull brought by the Kohen Gadol if he sinned b'Shogeg (Par Kohen Gadol) (Vayikra 4:12, see Background to Shevuos 14:13:b-d);
3.the bull brought by the Sanhedrin if they erred in a Halachic ruling and caused the people to sin b'Shogeg (Par He'elem Davar) (Vayikra 4:21, see Background to Kerisus 26:7).
b)[line 14]שעירים הנשרפיםSE'IRIM HA'NISRAFIN
(a)The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) must bring a Korban if they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act of idolatry that carries a Chiyuv Kares and the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based on this ruling. The sages bring a young bull as an Olah and a male goat as a Chatas on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied on the Beis Din ha'Gadol. The goats are called Se'irei Avodas Kochavim or Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b)The blood of the goats is sprinkled in the Heichal on the Paroches and the Mizbach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) was poured on the western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach. The remains of the goats are burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Bamidbar 15:22-26).
7)[line 16]מועלין בהן בבית הדשןMO'ALIN BAHEN B'VEIS HA'DESHEN- and one transgresses the prohibition of Me'ilah if one benefits from them even when they are being burned on the Beis ha'Deshen (this is not the same Beis ha'Deshen mentioned previously (line 14); rather, this is the ritually clean place outside of the camp (or outside of Yerushalayim) where the ashes from the Korbanos are deposited, mentioned in Vayikra 4:12 and 6:4; see above, entry #5:a:4)
8)[line 16]עד שיתיך הבשרAD SHE'YATICH HA'BASAR- (a) until the flesh is burned into small lumps; (b) according to the Girsa "AD SHE'YUTACH HA'BASAR" - until the flesh becomes hollowed out by the fire. (This is the Girsa of the Rambam according to the Tosfos Yom Tov.)
9)[line 20]וזבחי שלמי ציבורV'ZIVCHEI SHALMEI TZIBUR (SHNEI KIVSEI ATZERES)
The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17) that consists of two loaves of bread that are Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (see next entry). In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)
10)[line 22]שתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a)The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Etzba'os (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10). It was baked from "Chadash," the newly grown wheat. (Vayikra 23:17)
(b)In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Menachos 93:39) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chazeh and Shok (the chest and the two upper sections of the right hind leg, until the hip joint) of both sheep.
(c)Until the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered, there is a prohibition to offer Menachos of Chadash in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which is removed after they are offered (Menachos 68b).
11)[line 23]קרמו בתנורKARMU B'TANUR- they formed a crust in the oven
12)[line 25]לחם הפניםLECHEM HA'PANIM
(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Shulchan ha'Zahav (Golden Table) of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Shulchan every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
(b)Each loaf of the Lechem ha'Panim was ten Tefachim long, and its length was laid along the width of the Shulchan. The Tana'im argue (Menachos 96a) as to whether the measurements of the Shulchan (two Amos long by one Amah wide by one and one half Amos high — Shemos 25:23) were measured with five-Tefach Amos or six-Tefach Amos. As such, the extra length of the loaves was either four Tefachim or five Tefachim, where four Tefachim necessitated folding two Tefachim on each side of each loaf, and five Tefachim necessitated folding two and one half Tefachim on each side of each loaf (see Graphics to Menachos 94b for pictures and discussion of the Lechem ha'Panim).
13)[line 27]קרבו הבזיכיןKARVU HA'BAZICHIN (BAZICHIN)
The Lechem ha'Panim (see previous entry) were arranged in two stacks, six loaves to each stack. Alongside each stack was placed a Kometz of Levonah (see above, entry #1b:c) in a bowl (Bazach). Only the Levonah was burned; the bread was eaten by the Kohanim.
14)[line 31]תפוח שעל גבי המזבחTAPU'ACH SHE'AL GABEI HA'MIZBE'ACH- the rounded mound of ash from the Korbanos that was in the center of the Mizbe'ach. The abundance of ash was grandeur for the Mizbe'ach. When there was too much ash, it was taken out of the city (see above, entry #5:a:4).
15)[line 32]תרומת הדשןTERUMAS HA'DESHEN
(a)Every morning a Kohen must remove some of the ashes from the consumed sacrifices and place them southeast of the Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approximately equal to 22.8, 24 or 28.8 cm, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) from the ramp and 10 Amos (4.56, 4.8 or 5.76 m) from the foot of the ramp, as described in Vayikra 6:3.
(b)It is forbidden to derive benefit from these ashes even after they are placed at the side of the ramp. Generally, after the completion of a Mitzvah that is performed with a particular object, it becomes permitted to derive benefit from the object (if it was previously forbidden). The Torah specifies that with regard to Terumas ha'Deshen, however, even though its Mitzvah has been completed once the ashes are placed on the floor of the Azarah, they remain Asur b'Hana'ah.
16)[line 1]כולן שפקעו מעל גבי המזבחKULAN SHE'PAK'U ME'AL GABEI HA'MIZBE'ACH- all of them that flew off of the Mizbe'ach
17)[line 5]אית ביה מששאIS BEI MESHASHA- it has substance
18)[line 15]מה שנהנהMAH SHE'NEHENEH- the value of what he benefited
19)[line 15]יפלו לנדבהYIPLU L'NEDAVAH (KAYITZ HA'MIZBE'ACH)
(a)In many places the Gemara states that when certain items are sold (e.g. Kodshim that became unfit to offer on the Mizbe'ach) their value is designated as a Nedavah ("v'Yiplu Demeihem l'Nedavah"), a contribution towards a Korban. In our Sugya, Rav rules that the Keren and Chomesh payments of the person who benefited from the meat of Kodshei Kodashim before Zerikas ha'Dam or Eimurei Kodshim Kalim after Zerikas ha'Dam are also designated as a Nedavah.
(b)This money is used to purchase Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos). A person may also volunteer money as a Nidvas Tzibur. In both cases, the money is placed in one of the six Shofaros (collection boxes) that are kept in the Mikdash and is used to buy Korbenos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" to be sacrificed as Korbenos Olah (burnt offerings) when the Mizbe'ach is not otherwise in use (Shekalim 6b).
(c)RASHI (Sukah 56a DH Kayitz) explains that these offerings are called "Kayitz," because they were like a "dessert" to the Mizbe'ach ("Kayitz" refers to cut figs, a common dessert food).
20)[line 16]דבר שכולו למזבחDAVAR SHE'KULO L'MIZBE'ACH- (lit. something that is entirely for the Mizbe'ach) Ketores, the special incense of the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Background to Kerisus 2:8), that is entirely burned
21)[line 20]יוסיף ויביא חטאתוYOSIF V'YAVI CHATASO- he should add the Keren and Chomesh to the remainder of the money that was set aside for his Chatas, and bring a Korban Chatas from the total
22)[line 23]הנהנה מקדשי קדשים לפני זריקת דמיםHA'NEHENEH MI'KODSHEI KODASHIM LIFNEI ZERIKAS DAMIM- "Yosif v'Yavi..." is not mentioned here, since he was Mo'el in a Korban which is still standing before us and he does not have to bring another one in its place. (The Beraisa, however, which refers to a case where he was Mo'el in the money set aside to buy a Korban, mentioned this term.)
23)[last line]כל חטאת שכיפרו בעליה תמותKOL CHATAS SHE'KIPRU BE'ALEHA TAMUS- any Korban Chatas, the owner of which received atonement with a different Korban, is left to die (see Background to Me'ilah 3:1)