KERISUS 5 (25 Av) - Dedicated by Mrs. G. Kornfeld in honor of the Yahrzeit of her mother, Mrs. Gisela Turkel (Golda bas Chaim Yitzchak Ozer), on 25 Av. Mrs. Turkel was an exceptional woman with an iron will who loved and respected the study of Torah.

[5a - 56 lines; 5b - 54 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 5a [line 52]:

"Ela Amar Rav Yehudah, d'Kinman Besem, Amai Maisi Machatziso..." אלא אמר רב יהודה דקנמן בשם אמאי מייתי מחציתו

(a) The term "Ela Amar Rav Yehudah" אלא אמר רב יהודה is unclear, since the Gemara is challenging Abaye and not Rav Yehudah!

(b) Rashi therefore emended the words (according to the Shitah Mekubetzes #26) to read:

"Ela Amar Abaye, Rav Yehudah Hachi Ka Kashya Lei..." אלא אמר אביי רב יהודה הכי קא קשיא ליה (which is similar to the Girsa of Rabeinu Gershom in his first Lashon)

(c) Rabeinu Gershom (in his second Lashon) suggests a simpler emendation, omitting the word Ela אלא so that the text reads "d'Amar Rav Yehudah" דאמר רב יהודה

[2] Gemara [last line]:

The words "Hevi'u ha'Ikarim v'Shalkum b'Mayim" הביאו העיקרין ושלקום במים should be "Hevi'u ha'Ikarim u'Shera'an b'Mayim" הביאו העיקרין ושראן במים (as is found in Rashi, Rabeinu Gershom, and the Rambam Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 1:2)

[3] Rashi 5a DH Ayin b'Ayin ד"ה עין בעין :

The words "she'Ein ha'Bosem Machri'a שאין הבשם מכריע

should be "she'Ein Machri'a ha'Bosem" שאין מכריע הבשם

[4] Rashi DH Ela Amar Rav Yehudah... ד"ה אלא אמר רב יהודה :

(a) Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #26 (see above, Girsa #1)

(b) "Hachi Garsinan, Ela Amar Rav Yehudah" הכי גרסינן אלא אמר רב יהודה - These words apply to the continuation of the Gemara (line 53), where our text reads "Shema Minah..." שמע מינה ; Rashi's Girsa is "Ela Amar Rav Yehudah..." אלא אמר רב יהודה

[5] Rashi DH ha'Ikarin ד"ה העיקרין :

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #27

[6] Gemara 5b [line 18]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #4

[7] Gemara [line 30]:

"Ela l'Olam Yehoyakim Kashish" אלא לעולם יהויקים קשיש

The word "Ela" is unnecessary and does not appear in Gemara Horayos 11b (RASHASH)

[8] Gemara [line 32]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #14

[9] Rashi 5b DH v'Chi Nes Echad Na'asah Bo וכי נס אחד נעשה בו :

The words "Aharon u'Vanav Kol Shiv'ah Yemei ha'Milu'im" אהרן ובניו כל שבעה ימי המלואים are the beginning of a new Dibur

[10] Rashi DH Zeh Li ד"ה זה לי:

The word "d'Kaimi" דקיימי

should be "Kaimi" קיימי


1)[line 4]ליחודי אכילה דכל חד וחדL'YICHUDEI ACHILAH D'CHOL CHAD V'CHAD- to assign an individual Lav to the Achilah (eating) of each one

2a)[line 5]לחםLECHEM- bread

b)[line 5]קליKALI- roasted grain

c)[line 5]כרמלKARMEL- fresh, soft grain

3)[line 5]האוכל לחםHA'OCHEL LECHEM (CHADASH)

Until the Minchas ha'Omer is offered on Pesach (see Background to Erchin 4:4a), it is prohibited to eat the new grain of the year (Chadash) (Kidushin 37a, Menachos 68b, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2). Once the Minchas ha'Omer is offered, this prohibition no longer applies. Until the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered (on Shavu'os; see Background to Erchin 11:24), there is a prohibition to offer Menachos of Chadash in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This prohibition is removed once the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered (Menachos ibid.).

4)[line 41]שמן המשחה שעשה משהSHEMEN HA'MISHCHAH SHE'ASAH MOSHE- the Shemen ha'Mishchah that Moshe Rabeinu made; see Background to Kerisus 2:7

5)[line 43]מפטם לחצייןMEFATEM L'CHATZAYIN- if one compounds it using only half-measures of its ingredients

6)[line 45]"ובמתכנתו לא תעשו כמהו"UV'MASKUNTO LO SA'ASU KAMOHU"- "You shall not duplicate it with a similar formula" (Shemos 30:32).

7)[line 46]כל עשייה דקטרתKOL ASIYAH D'KETORES- every offering of Ketores


See Background to Kerisus 2:7b.

9a)[line 50]בהכרעB'HACHRE'A- with a heaping measure

b)[line 50]עין בעיןAYIN B'AYIN- with an exact measure

10)[line 51]רחמנא כתב "בד בבד"RACHAMANA KASAV "BAD B'VAD"- the Torah wrote "weight for weight (measure for measure)" (Shemos 30:34)

11)[line 55]משלקו העיקריןMESHALKO HA'IKARIN- he boils it with the roots

12)[last line]קיפחוKIPCHO- he removed it


13)[line 26]"[וישלח ויביאהו והוא אדמוני עם יפה עינים וטוב ראי ויאמר ה'] קום משחהו כי זה הוא""[VA'YISHLACH VA'YEVI'EHU, V'HU ADMONI IM YEFEI EINAYIM V'TOV RO'I; VA'YOMER HASH-M:] KUM MASHCHEHU KI ZEH HU" - "[And he (Yishai) sent and brought him; he was ruddy, with beautiful eyes and good looking. And HaSh-m said:] Arise, anoint him, for he is the one" (Shmuel I 16:12) (THE ANOINTMENT OF DAVID)

(a)Following HaSh-m's rejection of King Shaul, He sent Shmuel to Yishai's house, to anoint one of his sons as King of Israel. When Yishai brought his oldest son Eli'av before him, Shmuel, impressed by his regal appearance, declared that he must be HaSh-m's anointed one. HaSh-m informed him that He rejected him - on the basis of the Midah of anger, which may have lain dormant at this point in time, but which would materialize later when David came to visit his brothers in their barracks.

(b)One by one, HaSh-m rejected all of Yishai's sons, until the only one that remained was his youngest son, the shepherd David. For reasons not specified in the Pasuk, David was an outcast, and so it did not even enter Yishai's mind to present David as a possible candidate for the Throne. It was Shmuel who insisted that he had the youth brought before him. After praising his appearance, the Pasuk concludes with HaSh-m's instructions "Arise and anoint him...." Shmuel promptly took out the horn with oil and anointed David, and returned to his home in Ramah.

(c)From that moment on, the spirit of HaSh-m enveloped David, even as it departed from Shaul ha'Melech, leaving him with a Ru'ach Ra'ah (an evil spirit) in its place.

14)[line 28]באפרסמא דכיאB'AFARSEMA DACHYA- with pure balsam oil

15)[line 29]מי קשישMI KASHISH- and was he older?

16)[line 29]"ובני יאשיה הבכור יוחנן השני יהויקים השלישי צדקיהו הרביעי שלום""U'VNEI YOSHIYAHU, HA'BECHOR YOCHANAN, HA'SHENI YEHOYAKIM, HA'SHELISHI TZIDKIYAHU HA'REVI'I SHALUM" - "The sons of Yoshiyahu: the firstborn was Yochanan, the second Yehoyakim, the third, Tzidkiyahu, and the fourth, Shalum" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 3:14) (YOSHIYAHU'S THREE SONS)

(a)Although the verse lists four sons, Yoshiyah actually had three sons: Elyakim, Yochanan (also known as Yeho'achaz) and Shalum (also known as Matanyah). After Yoshiyah's death, the first son to rule was Yeho'achaz, who (unlike most other kings of Yisrael) was formally crowned, as a way of preventing his older brother Elyakim from claiming the throne. Pharaoh Necho (Pharaoh the lame), however, deposed him and exiled him to Egypt. In his place he crowned Elyakim, whose name he changed to Yehoyakim.

(b)Nevuchadnetzar (who had ousted from Pharaoh Necho the role of the most powerful king in the region) captured Yehoyakim, who died on the way to Bavel and was not buried. He was succeeded by his eighteen year-old son, Yechonyah, whose reign (like that of his nephew, Yeho'achaz, before him) lasted only three months. His reign came to an abrupt end when his ministers complained that a puppy was liable to turn out as wild as its father. So Nevuchadnetzar deposed him and took him to Bavel, together with a thousand of the elite members of the Torah world and with some of the precious vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash. There he incarcerated him (in fulfillment of Yeshayah's prophecy to Chizkiyahu), and appointed his uncle Matanyah as vassal king in his place.

17)[line 31]ההוא ממלא מקום אבותיוהוהH AHU MEMALEI MAKOM AVOSAV HAYAH- in that case, he filled the place of his father. Yehoram, the son of the righteous Yehoshafat, was righteous like his father (at least at the time that he became king; see next entry, and see Insights). That is why he was given the kingship. Yehoyakim, however, was evil, unlike his righteous father Yoshiyahu. That is why he was not made king after his father's passing, even though he was the firstborn son (see TOSFOS DH Memalei).

18)[line 31]"[ויתן להם אביהם מתנות רבות לכסף ולזהב ולמגדנות עם ערי מצרות ביהודה] ואת הממלכה נתן ליהורם כי הוא הבכור""[VA'YITEN LAHEM AVIHEM MATANOS RABOS L'KESEF UL'ZAHAV UL'MIGDANOS IM AREI METZUROS BI'YEHUDAH], V'ES HA'MAMLACHAH NASAN LI'YEHORAM KI HU HA'BECHOR" - "[And he (Yehoshafat) gave them [his other six sons] many gifts, silver, gold, and valuables, as well as fortified cities in Yehudah,] but the kingdom he handed to Yehoram, since he was the oldest" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 21:3) (A TZADIK JOINS FORCES WITH A RASHA)

(a)The Navi earlier related that because Yehoshafat (who was a Tzadik) joined forces with Achazyahu (a Rasha, the son and successor of the wicked Achav), his fleet of ships, which was set to travel to Tarshish, broke up and did not reach their destination. As a matter of fact, the friendship between Yehoshafat and Achazyahu was not a casual one, but one that was based on family ties, since Yehoshafat's son Yehoram was married to the sister of Achazyahu (son of Achav).

(b)This explains why Yehoram forsook the ways of his righteous father and chose instead to emulate his wicked father-in-law Achav and the other kings of Yisrael.

(c)Yehoram soon established himself, killing all his brothers and also some of the princes of Yisrael by the sword. In all likelihood, this was because they protested against his evil ways.

19)[line 35]"ולתשובת השנה שלח המלך נבוכדנאצר ויבאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה' וימלך את צדקיהו אחיו על יהודה וירושלם""[V'LI'TESHUVAS HA'SHANAH SHALACH HA'MELECH NEVUCHADNETZAR VA'YEVI'EHU BAVELAH IM KLEI CHEMDAS BEIS HASH-M,] VA'YAMLECH ES TZIDKIYAHU ACHIV AL YEHUDAH VI'YERUSHALAYIM" - "[And at the turn of the year, the king Nevuchadnetzar sent for him (Yehoyachin) and took him to Bavel together with the precious vessels from the house of HaSh-m, and he crowned his brother Tzidkiyahu king over Yehudah and Yerushalayim" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 36:10) (NEVUCHADNETZAR CROWNS TZIDKIYAHU)

(a)Yehoyakim's eighteen year-old son Yehoyachin had reigned for only three months when, at the behest of his ministers (who complained that a puppy was liable to turn out as wild as its father), Nevuchadnetzar deposed him and took him to Bavel, together with a thousand of the elite members of the Torah world and with some of the precious vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash. There he incarcerated him (in fulfillment of Yeshayah's prophecy to Chizkiyahu), and appointed his uncle Matanyah as vassal king in his place. Matanyah was the uncle of Yehoyachin, whose name Nevuchadnetzar changed to Tzidkiyahu (see below). He was destined to be the last king of Yehudah before the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash.

(b)According to one opinion in the Sugya, the "thing" in the verse in Melachim and the "precious vessels" in the verse in Divrei ha'Yamim both refer to the Aron ha'Kodesh, indicating that the Aron was exiled to Bavel.

(c)The reason why Nevuchadnetzar changed Matanyah's name to Tzidkiyahu was because he suspected that the Jewish king might rebel against him, and thus he warned him: "HaSh-m will take you to task (Matzdik Alecha Es ha'Din) if you dare rebel." Indeed, immediately after Nevuchadnetzar left Yerushalayim, Tzidkiyahu rebelled, breaking the oath that he had made to remain subservient to the king of Bavel.

20a)[line 41]כמין נזרKEMIN NEZER- (a) encircling the head like a crown (RASHI); (b) in the shape of a crown on the forehead (RAMBAM)

b)[line 41]כמין כי יוניKEMIN KI YEVANI- like the Greek letter "chi," which is shaped like an "x" (RASHI to Kerisus 5b, RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 1:9; see TOSFOS to Menachos 75a DH k'Min Ki for various opinions as to the exact shape)

21)[line 41]"[ולקחתם את ארון ה' ונתתם אתו אל העגלה] ואת כלי הזהב אשר השבתם לו אשם תשימו בארגז מצדו [ושלחתם אתו והלך]""[U'LEKACHTEM ES ARON HASH-M U'NESATEM OSO EL HA'AGALAH], V'ES KLEI HA'ZAHAV ASHER HASHEVOSEM LO ASHAM TASIMU B'ARGAZ MI'TZIDO [U'SHELACHTEM OSO V'HALACH]" - "[And you shall take the Aron of HaSh-m and place it on a wagon,] and the golden vessels (i.e. in the shape of mice) which you are returning to Him as a gift of atonement place next to it [and then send it and let it go]" (Shmuel I 6:8) (THE DAY THE PELISHTIM RETURNED THE ARON)

(a)During the seven months that the Pelishtim detained the Aron ha'Kodesh, it wrought havoc among their idols and caused plagues of mice that entered the people's stomachs wherever it went. So the Pelishti princes came up with a plan to send it back. To appease HaSh-m for having captured it and to pay homage to Him, they added a gift of five golden mice (corresponding to the five princes) and five golden Techorim (the innards that were stricken) in keeping with the plague that they were made to suffer on account of it.

(a)They then placed the Aron on a new wagon, to which they hitched two nursing cows that had never worn a yoke, and they placed the gift in a box next to the Aron. To convince themselves further that what had happened to them was indeed a Divine act, they placed the wagon on the road without a driver, and sent it off in the direction of Beis Shemesh. Miraculously, the cows led the wagon straight to Beis Shemesh, singing songs of praise all the way. They actually sang the praise of "Hodu la'Shem..." (from Divrei ha'Yamim, the verses recited every morning in Shacharis as part of Pesukei d'Zimrah).

22)[line 41]"ויאמר ללוים המבונים לכל ישראל הקדושים לה' תנו את ארון הקדש בבית אשר בנה שלמה בן דוד מלך ישראל [אין לכם משא בכתף עתה עבדו את ה' אלקיכם ואת עמו ישראל]""VA'YOMER LA'LEVIYIM HA'MEVINIM L'CHOL YISRAEL HA'KEDOSHIM LA'SH-M: TENU ES ARON HA'KODESH BA'BAYIS ASHER BANAH SHLOMO BEN DAVID MELECH YISRAEL, [EIN LACHEM MASA BA'KASEF. ATAH IVDU ES HASH-M ELOKEICHEM V'ES AMO YISRAEL]" - "And he said to the Leviyim (the Kohanim) who taught Torah to all of Yisrael: Place the Aron ha'Kodesh in the house that Shlomo, son of David, king of Yisrael, built [for you no longer need to carry it on your shoulders. Now go and serve HaSh-m your G-d and His people]" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:3) (YOSHIYAH AND THE ARON)

(a)Amon (the father of Yoshiyah) who continued the evil practices of his father Menasheh and hid away all of the Sifrei Torah. As a result, the Jewish people all but forgot the Torah. This was the state of the nation when the young eight year-old Yoshiyah became king of Yehudah.

(b)Eight years later, at the age of sixteen, Yoshiyah began to follow the ways of his great-grandfather, David ha'Melech. Four years later, at the age of twenty, he cleared Yehudah and Yerushalayim of idolatry, and he took the initiative to cleanse and prepare the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Avodah.

(c)When a Sefer Torah that Moshe Rabeinu had written was found in the Beis ha'Mikdash, Yoshiyah increased his efforts to serve HaSh-m with all his heart. He arranged for the entire nation to bring a Korban Pesach on Erev Pesach, in full accordance with the Halachic requirements.

(d)In this verse, Yoshiyah offered words of encouragement to the Leviyim and to the Kohanim, who were about to offer the first Korban Pesach in many years.

(e)Yoshiyah ordered the Kohanim to return the Sefer Torah to its proper place in the Aron ha'Kodesh in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. The Chachamim, however, interpret the verse in connection with the verse in Ki Savo: "HaSh-m will lead you and your king... to a nation whom you did not know...." To prevent the Sefer Torah from being taken into exile, Yoshiyah took the Aron ha'Kodesh from its place in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim and hid it somewhere underneath the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(f)According to the simple explanation, the king went on to remind the Kohanim that from now on there would be no need to carry the Aron on their shoulders, in which case they should concentrate on bringing the Korbanos, and he encouraged them to divide themselves into the 24 groups that David ha'Melech arranged and to help the rest of Yisrael bring the Korban Pesach in the proper manner.

(g)The nation indeed went on to bring the Korban Pesach, "the likes of which had not been seen since the days of Shmuel ha'Navi" (See Rashi, verse 18). Yoshiyah personally donated tens of thousands of animals for the occasion, lambs and kid-goats for the Pesach, and bulls for the Chagigah (as the verse goes on to explain).

23)[line 52]משכא שתאMASHCHA SHATA- if he will live the entire year

24)[line 52]דלא נשיב זיקאD'LO NASHIV ZIKA- where wind does not blow

25)[line 53]נעביד עיסקיNA'AVID ISKEI- conduct a business deal

26)[line 53]נירבי תרנגולאNIRBI TARNEGOLA- let him grow a chicken

27)[line 53]אי שמין ושפרIY SHAMIN U'SHEFAR- if it gets fat and good

28)[last line]בביתא דבהתאB'VEISA D'VAHASA- in a dark house