KERISUS 4 - Dedicated by Rabbi Dr. Eli Turkel of Raanana, l'Iluy Nishmas his mother, Golda bas Chaim Yitzchak Ozer (Mrs. Gisela Turkel) who passed away on 25 Av 5760. Mrs. Turkel accepted Hashem's Gezeiros with love; may she be a Melitzas Yosher for her offspring and for all of Klal Yisrael.

[4a - 60 lines; 4b - 63 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 4a [line 46]:

"Bein mi'Lav, u'Vein mi'Lav d'Chares" בין מלאו ובין מלאו דכרת

Rashi's text did not include these words; his Girsa is v'Lav mi'Kares ולאו מכרת. Rashi's text also did not include the words in parentheses.

[2] Rashi 4a DH Ela Amar Rav Sheshes...: : ד"ה אלא אמר רב ששת

The words "Ela Shel Shem Echad" אלא של שם אחד

should be "d'Lo Chashiv Ela Shel Shem Echad" דלא חשיב אלא של שם אחד

[3] Gemara 4b [line 1]:

The words "Alma Lo Ukmah" אלמא לא אוקמה

should be "Alamah Lo Ukmah" אלמה לא אוקמה (with the letter "Heh" instead of the letter "Alef")

[4] Gemara [line 18]:

"Aval Chulin Eima Lo" אבל חולין אימא לא

Rashi's Girsa is "Aval Chulin d'Asur Chelbo Eima Lo" אבל חולין דאסור חלבו אימא לא, which has the same connotation as our Girsa (see Rashi)

[5] Gemara [line 22]:

"mid'Hutar Besaran Ishteri Nami Chelban" מדהותר בשרן אישתרי נמי חלבן

Rashi's Girsa does not include the word "Besaran." Rabeinu Gershom's Girsa, however, does include this word (see Insights)

[6] Gemara [line 47]:

"Af Dam she'Damo Chaluk mi'Besaro" אף דם שדמו חלוק מבשרו

Rashi's Girsa is "Af Dam, Damo Chaluk mi'Besaro" אף דם דמו חלוק מבשרו

[7] Rashi 4b DH Dam Im'it mi'Me'ilah ד"ה דם אימעיט ממעילה:

The words "mi'Zarus Korban" מזרות קרבן

should be "Zarus mi'Korban" זרות מקרבן

[8] Rashi DH Af Dam ד"ה אף דם:

The words "Mafrido mil'Hitztaref" מפרידו מלהצטרף

should be "she'Mafrido mil'Hitztaref" שמפרידו מלהצטרף

[9] ibid. (at the end):

The words "(Isur) l'Tamei" איסור לטמא

should be "Isur Tamei" איסור טמא

[10] Rashi DH Yatz'u Sheratzim : ד"ה יצאו שרצים

"Hilkach Dam Nachash u'Vesaro Mitztarfin" הילכך דם נחש ובשרו מצטרפין

This is the correct Girsa (and not the Girsa "Sheretz"), but it is the beginning of a new Dibur ha'Maschil and belongs below, after the Dibur ha'Maschil "la'Achilah"


1)[line 6]חלבCHELEV

(a)Chelev refers to the fat of an animal that is offered on the Mizbe'ach. It consists of the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all the other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat on the kidneys along the flanks (Vayikra 3:4). The verse states, "Chukas Olam l'Doroseichem b'Chol Moshevoseichem, Kol Chelev v'Chol Dam Lo Socheilu" - "It shall be an everlasting statute for your generations throughout all your settlements, that you eat neither [forbidden] fat nor blood" (Vayikra 3:17).

(b)It is forbidden to eat the Chelev of a Kosher Behemah (farm animal), but it may be used for any other purpose. The Chelev of a Chayah (a Kosher non-farm animal), however, may even be eaten. "Shuman" refers to all the other fat of an animal that is permitted.

(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Chelev b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he sins b'Shogeg (unintentionally) he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid). If a person is in doubt whether the fat he ate was Chelev or Shuman, he must bring a Korban Asham Taluy.

2)[line 30]נתרבה באליהNISRABEH B'ALYAH- its Emurim offerings are larger (for even the Alyah, fat tail, of a sheep is offered when sacrificing sheep as Korbenos Shelamim or Chatas, while the Alyah of a goat is not offered — RASHI)

3)[line 31]למה מנה הכתוב אימורין בשורLAMAH MANAH HA'KASUV EMURIN B'SHOR- why does the verse enumerate the limbs of a bull offering that are offered? (That is, why does the verse specify that the Emurim of a Bechor are offered on the Mizbe'ach "whether the Bechor is an ox, sheep, or goat"?

4)[line 35]נתרבה בנסכיםNISRABEH B'NESACHIM- a larger quantity of Nesachim is brought with it

5)[line 38]נתרבה אצל עבודת כוכביםNISRABEH ETZEL AVODAS KOCHAVIM- it is brought when an individual worships Avodah Zarah b'Shogeg (inadvertently)

6)[line 43]יש בו צד ריבויYESH (BO) [BAHEN] TZAD RIBUY- they have in common the fact that more is brought on the Mizbe'ach when they are offered

7)[line 47]לאו מכרתLAV MI'KARES- they are arguing whether we learn the Lav from the Kares. The verse that specifies that one who eats Chelev is punished with Kares (Vayikra 7:23, 25) clearly states that it is referring to the Chelev of an animal that can be sacrificed to HaSh-m. The verse that tells us that one who eats Chelev transgresses a Lav does not limit the Lav to any particular animal. The argument between Rebbi Yishmael and the Rabanan is whether or not we automatically apply to the Lav the limitation of the verse that discusses Kares.

8)[line 55]ועשה אחת ועשה הנהV'ASAH ACHAS, V'ASAH HENAH- The verse states, "... Nefesh Ki Secheta vi'Shegagah mi'Kol Mitzvos HaSh-m Asher Lo Sa'asenah, v'Asah me'Achas me'Henah" - "If a person commits an inadvertent sin by violating the negative commandments of HaSh-m, and he does one of them" (Vayikra 4:2)

9)[line 57]שני שמות בהעלם אחת אמאי חייב?SHNEI SHEMOS B'HE'ELEM ACHAS, AMAI CHAYAV?- if one commits two transgressions with separate titles in a single moment of forgetfulness, why is he Chayav? Since the Beraisa says, "Chelev and Chelev which are two Shemos," the Gemara assumes that it is referring to two k'Zeisim of Chelev from separate parts of one animal (and not to two different Isurim).

10)[last line]מחייכו עלה במערבאMECHAICHU ALAH B'MA'ARAVA- in Eretz Yisrael they laughed at it. (The Gemara in Sanhedrin 17b says that this phrase is used to introduce a statement of Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina.)


11)[line 7]בשני תמחוייןB'SHNEI TAMCHUYIN- in two dishes, i.e. prepared in two different ways

12)[line 12]"חקת עולם [לדרתיכם בכל מושבתיכם כל חלב וכל דם לא תאכלו]""CHUKAS OLAM [L'DOROSEICHEM B'CHOL MOSHVOSEICHEM, KOL CHELEV V'CHOL DAM LO SOCHEILU.]"- "It shall be an everlasting statute [for your generations throughout all your settlements, that you eat neither [forbidden] fat nor blood.]" (Vayikra 3:17)

13)[line 32]מה חלב לוקה שתיםMAH CHELEV LOKEH SHETAYIM- just as one is given two sets of Malkus for eating Chelev (the Gemara is discussing Chelev and Dam of Kodshim)

14)[line 35]תרי קראי "כל חלב ..."TREI KERA'EI "KOL CHELEV ..."- two verses are written with regard to Chelev: "Kol Chelev" (Vayikra 3:17; this is the end of the verse, "Chukas Olam l'Doroseichem" — see above, entry #12)

15)[line 43]מעילהME'ILAH

(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.

(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim - Sanhedrin 83a) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.

(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Shogeg (unintentionally), the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah (as described in Vayikra 5:15-16) and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).

(d)There are some objects of Hekdesh to which the laws of Me'ilah do not apply ("Lo Mo'alin"), but which the Chachamim prohibited to use ("Lo Nehenin"). They are classified in the category of "Lo Nehenim v'Lo Mo'alin."

16)[line 46]שחלבו חלוק מבשרוSHE'CHELBO CHALUK M'BESARO- its fat (Chelev) is differentiated from its flesh, as it does not have the same Halachic status as its flesh

17)[line 47]אף דם שדמו חלוק מבשרוAF DAM, DAMO CHALUK MI'BESARO- so, too, with regard to blood, its blood is differentiated from its flesh. This is Rashi's Girsa (see Girsa section). He explains that even though the blood of a non-Kosher animal should be Asur because of both the prohibition of Dam and the prohibition of eating a non-Kosher animal, nevertheless a half-k'Zayis of blood does not combine with the a half-k'Zayis of the meat of a non-Kosher animal to make the person who eats it Chayav Malkus for eating a non-Kosher animal.

18a)[line 56]לדם התמציתL'DAM HA'TAMTZIS- for the blood that drips (from a major artery) after the main flow has subsided upon an animal's death

b)[line 58]דם קדשים שהנפש יוצא בוDAM KODSHIM SHEHA'NEFESH YOTZEI BO- the blood of Kodshim with which the life force of the animal leaves; this refers to the blood that spurts out upon the animal's slaughter (which is used for the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Korban)

c)[line 60]דם איבריןDAM EIVARIN- for the blood that is contained in the limbs and does not drain out with the rest of the blood

19)[line 61]מעשרMA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption — see Background to Bechoros 50:13:e) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

20a)[line 61]תירושTIROSH- and wine

b)[line 61]יצהרYITZHAR- and oil