hebrew
1)

What does the Torah mean by "k'Sachir k'Soshav Yihyeh Imach"?

1.

Rashi: Conduct with him like other hired workers who work in the field, or craftsmen.

2.

Ramban #1: A Sachir is a hired worker, a Toshav 1 - refers to someone who comes to sojourn with you, and who tends to voluntarily work for you like a Sachir. 2

3.

Ramban #2 (citing the Toras Kohanim): 'Just as a Sachir, is paid day by day (Devarim 24:15), so too, should you pay him (the Eved Ivri) day by day 3 ; and just as a Toshav "(Do for him) whatever is beneficial for him; Do not taunt him!" (Devarim 24:17), so too, should you do for him'. "Yihyeh Imach", 'Imach be'Ma'achal, Imach be'Mishtah, Imach bi'Kesus Nekiyah (fine clothes)'. 4

4.

Seforno: It means that you should treat him like a Sachir (a hired worker) - if he is acquired for six years, you should treat him like a short-term Sachir (for one year), whereas if he is acquired until the Yovel, you should treat him like a long-term Sachir (a Toshav [for many years]).


1

Both a Sachir and a Toshav are free men, who are not made to work as slaves.

2

Ramban: Like Ya'akov worked for Lavan (See Bereishis 29:15).

3

Refer to 35:40:151:1-3 and the note there.

4

Ramban (Ibid. 24:17).

2)

Bearing in mind that an Eved Ivri works for six years (as we learned at the beginning of Mishpatim), what does the Pasuk mean when it writes "Ad Sh'nas ha'Yovel Ya'avod Imach"?

1.

Rashi: The Pasuk means that, should the Yovel fall in the middle of the six years, he is sent home. 1


1

See Sifsei Chachamim.

3)

Toras Kohanim learns from our verse just as a Sachir, is paid the same day, so an Eved Ivri. The master already paid for all his labor when he bought him!

1.

Korban Aharon (on Toras Kohanim 5:7:3): Rashi (conduct with him like other hired workers who work in the field, or craftsmen) answered this. 1 If one employs an Eved Ivri for work he is not obligated to do, e.g. in the field or work of a craftsman, one must pay him each day, like other hired workers.

2.

Korban Aharon citing R. Hillel (on Toras Kohanim): When you send him free and give Ha'anakah (gifts), give them the same day, like one must pay a worker the same day. This is difficult.

3.

Korban Aharon: Perhaps the money that one pays to buy an Eved Ivri, he must pay it that day.


1

Rashi is ambiguous. Perhaps Rashi teaches that one may demand from an Eved Ivri to work like other hired workers who work in the field, or craftsmen! (PF)

4)

Toras Kohanim learns from "Yihyeh Imach" that your Eved Ivri eats and drinks [the same food] as you. The Gemara expounds this from "Ki Tov Lo Imach" (Devarim 15:16)!

1.

Moshav Zekenim citing R. Avraham and R. Eliezer mi'Mitz: The text of Toras Kohanim is correct. Ki Tov Lo Imach is not a command, and it discusses a Nirtza!

2.

Moshav Zekenim citing his Rebbi: The Mechilta (of R. Yishmael, Nezikin 2 DH Ahavti) expounds [like the Gemara] from "Ki Tov Lo Imach." 1


1

He did not answer the objection of R. Avraham and R. Eliezer mi'Mitz (refer to 25:40:152:1)! Perhaps he brings the Mechilta to show that some truly expound from there. Often the Gemara is not precise, and cites a verse that seems to teach a law, but the Mechilta would not do so! (PF)

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