SHECHITAH ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): If one slaughters on Shabbos or Yom Kipur, even though he is Chayav Misah, the Shechitah is Kosher.
(Gemara - Rav): The meat may not be eaten that same day.
(Rabanan): (He holds that) the Mishnah is like R. Yehudah.
Question: Like which teaching of R. Yehudah is the Mishnah?
Answer #1 (R. Aba): It is like his teaching that food for Shabbos must be prepared before Shabbos.
(Mishnah): We may cut gourds in front of animals, and a carcass in front of dogs (on Shabbos);
R. Yehudah says, if the animal was not dead when Shabbos began, we may not cut the carcass, since it was not prepared.
Since it was not prepared from before Shabbos, it is forbidden. Also in our Mishnah, the animal was not prepared.
Question (Abaye): The cases are different!
In that Mishnah, when Shabbos began, the animal was destined for people (to eat). After it died, it became destined for animal consumption;
In our Mishnah, the animal was destined for people when Shabbos began, and also after it was slaughtered!
Answer (R. Aba): A live animal is not destined for people, rather to have offspring!
Question (Abaye): If so, why does R. Yehudah permit slaughtering animals on Yom Tov?
Correction (R. Aba): A live animal is destined for people or to have offspring.
If it is slaughtered, this clarifies that is was destined for people. If it is not slaughtered, this shows that it was destined to have offspring.
Question: R. Yehudah does not rely on Breirah (to say that that later events can retroactively clarify things)!
Question: What is the source that R. Yehudah does not rely on Breirah?
Suggestion: We learn from the following Beraisa.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): If one buys (100 Lugim of) wine from Kusim (and cannot separate Ma'aseros before drinking) he says 'the two Lugim that I will later separate (to be Terumah) are Terumah. The 10 Lugim (that I will separate) are Ma'aser Rishon. The nine Lugim are Ma'aser Sheni.' He (Rashi - redeems the Ma'aser Sheni and) may drink immediately;
R. Yehudah, R. Yosi and R. Shimon say, he must separate the Ma'aseros before drinking.
Rejection: Normally, R. Yehudah relies on Breirah. There, he does not rely on Breirah for a reason;
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah, R. Yosi and R. Shimon, to R. Meir): Aren't you concerned lest the barrel break (and he will never separate the Ma'aseros)?
R. Meir: Until it breaks, we are not concerned.
Answer (to Question 1): Rather, we learn from the following Beraisa.
(Beraisa - Ayo): R. Yehudah says, one cannot make Eruvim in two places on condition (i.e. if a Chacham comes in the west, and another in the east, I will decide which Eruv should be valid);
He can say 'if a Chacham comes in the west, my Eruv is in the west. If he comes in the east, my Eruv is in the east.'
Objection: He cannot make Eruvim in two places on condition because we do not rely on Breirah. For the same reason, also the latter case (when one Chacham comes) should not work!
Answer (R. Yochanan): The case is, the Chachamim already came (before he stipulated. Since it is already determined which Eruv is valid (even though the one making the Eruv does not know which), this does not require Breirah.
THE MEAT IS NOLAD
Answer #2 (to question 1:d - Rav Yosef): The Mishnah is like R. Yehudah's teaching regarding Kelim.
(Mishnah): If a Kli may be moved on Shabbos, and a piece broke off, the piece may be moved only if it has a use;
For example, a piece of a kneading trough may be used to cover a barrel. A piece of glass may be used to cover a flask.
R. Yehudah says, the piece must have a use similar to its original usage;
For example, if a piece of a kneading trough can hold porridge, or a piece of glass can hold oil, they may be moved;
If they are fitting only for unrelated uses, since they were not prepared for the new task when Shabbos began, they are Nolad. They may not be moved.
(Culmination of answer): The same applies to an animal slaughtered on Shabbos (it was not fit to be eaten when Shabbos began, it is Nolad)!
Objection (Abaye): The cases are different! There, it was a Kli and now it is a fragment. Here, it was a food, and still it is a food. R. Yehudah permits this (Rashba - even when there is no permitted way to cause the change);
(Mishnah): We may not squeeze fruit on Shabbos to extract the juice. If the juice came out by b
R. Yehudah says, if the owner planned to eat the fruit, what flows from it is permitted. If he planned to extract the juice, what flows from it is forbidden.
Answer: Shmuel taught that R. Yehudah admits regarding olives and grapes. (What flows from them is forbidden, even if he planned to eat them.)
Because people normally squeeze them, he is happy that liquid flows from them. (If we permit the juice,) he may come to squeeze them (on Shabbos);
Similarly, one plans to slaughter an animal. We should forbid the meat if it is slaughtered, lest he come to slaughter!
Rejection: Rav Yosef answered how Rav understands the Mishnah like R. Yehudah. Rav holds that R. Yehudah argues even regarding olives and grapes!
MUKTZAH DUE TO A PROHIBITION
Answer #3 (to question 1:d - Rav Sheshes brei d'Rav Idi): The Mishnah is like R. Yehudah's opinion regarding lamps.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): On Shabbos, we may move a new lamp (one that has not yet been used), but not a used lamp.
Objection: This shows that R. Yehudah forbids something that is Muktzah because one is disgusted by it (a used earthenware lamp). We have no source that he forbids something Muktzah (even when it has a permitted use) because it was forbidden to move it when Shabbos began!
Answer: We do have a source!
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): We may move any metal lamp (even a used lamp), except one that was lit when Shabbos began.
Rejection: There, he lit the lamp before Shabbos began. His actions prove that he does not intend to move it. We cannot learn to an animal that was slaughtered, for (before Shabbos) he did nothing to forbid the animal!