[14a - 24 lines; 14b - 40 lines]


(a)There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah in Shabbos 73a.

(b)Shechitah, slaughtering an animal, is one of the Avos Melachos prohibited on Shabbos.

(c)A person who transgresses one of the Avos or Toldos of Shabbos and was unaware that the act was a Melachah, or he was unaware that the day was Shabbos, needs to bring a Korban Chatas to atone for the sin. If he had full intent to do the Melachah, he may be liable to Kares (his life is cut short and/or his children will die out) or Sekilah (Halachic stoning). Kares applies if he was not warned, and two witnesses did not see the act. Sekilah applies if he did the Melachah after receiving a proper warning not to do it, and two witnesses saw him do it.

2)[line 4]אסורה באכילה ליומאASURAH B'ACHILAH L'YOMA- it may not be eaten on that day

3)[line 4]ונסבין חבריא למימרNASVIN CHEVRAYA L'MEIMAR- the scholars of the Yeshiva thought to say

4)[line 6]רבי יהודה דהכנהREBBI YEHUDAH D'HACHANAH- Rebbi Yehudah's ruling regarding Hachanah, the requirement that an object be designated for use before Shabbos in order to be permitted to be used on Shabbos

5)[line 6]מחתכין את הדילועיןMECHATCHIN ES HA'DILU'IN- we may slice gourds

6)[line 9]אינה מן המוכןEINAH MIN HA'MUCHAN - it is not designated for use (MUKTZAH: MUCHAN L'ADAM)

(a)MUKTZAH - The word Muktzah literally means "set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use]." The term is used to describe items that are set aside not to be used right now, such as wood stacked in a barn. In a broader sense, the word Muktzah includes anything that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov), for whatever reason it may be.

(b)THE ARGUMENT OF THE TANA'IM - Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to whether one may move or use on Shabbos items that fit into certain categories of Muktzah. There are at least six different categories of Muktzah over which Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree [1. Hiktzehu mi'Da'ato; 2. Nolad; 3. Muktzah Machmas Isur (also known as Migo d'Iskatza'i); 4. Muktzah Machmas Mi'us; 5. Keli she'Melachto Eino Ela l'Isur; 6. Muchan l'Adam Eino Muchan l'Kelavim.] On Shabbos, objects that fit into one of these categories may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah. There are other categories of Muktzah that may not be moved according to both Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon [such as 1. Muktzah Machmas Gufo; 2. Huktzah l'Mitzvaso; 3. Davar she'Eino Ra'uy she'Decha'o b'Yadayim; 4. Davar he'Asur Bein ha'Shemashos she'Lo Chashav she'Yavo l'Yedei Heter b'Shabbos; 5. Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis.]

(c ) MUCHAN L'ADAM EINO MUCHAN L'KELAVIM is the type of Muktzah that our Sugya is discussing. It is important to note that there are two distinct types of Muktzah which may be included in this expression: (1) If the laws of Shabbos or Yom Tov prevent man from using an object. For example, on Shabbos, a live animal is not fit for human use since it is forbidden to slaughter an animal on Shabbos. Even though live animals are sometimes fed to dogs, since this animal is not fit for humans at present it is Muktzah (even according to Rebbi Shimon) and may not be fed to dogs. (2) If something happens to an object on Shabbos that makes it unfit for man, it may not even be fed to dogs, according to Rebbi Yehudah. (This is a form of Nolad). For example, if an animal was alive before Yom Tov (and was fit for man, since he could slaughter and eat it on Yom Tov) and then died on Yom Tov, becoming unfit for man, Rebbi Yehudah prohibits feeding it to dogs.

7)[line 10]איתכןISKAN- prepared, designated for use

8)[line 15]לגדלL'GADEL- to raise offspring

9)[line 20]ברירהBEREIRAH

(a)In numerous places in Shas we find arguments among the Tana'im/Amora'im as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah works) or "Ein Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah does not work). Bereirah means making one's action contingent retroactively on future events. Examples of this are: selling an object on the condition that it rains tomorrow; buying or selling today an object that will be selected tomorrow. "Ein Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does not work. An action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains the logic of this rule by saying, "It is not proper for something to take effect, when there remains a doubt on what it will take effect" (see Insights to Chulin 14:3). "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does work.

(b)When the action is contingent on a past event, there is no question that the action works - even if the people involved in the action are not aware as to whether the past event did or did not take place. For example, if a person makes two Eruvei Techumin before sundown on Erev Shabbos, in two different directions, and stipulates, "if the Chacham is presently staying in the town towards the east, I would like the eastern Eruv to work, if not, I would like the western Eruv to work." The man making the Eruv might not know where the Chacham, but when he finds out, the Eruv will have taken effect on the side that he stipulated.

(c)We find many instances in the Gemara where a person may perform an action "on the condition that..." (b'Tenai). For example, a man may buy or sell an object or divorce his wife on the condition that the other party pays or does whatever the first party specifies. If the condition is not kept in the future, the sale or divorce is annulled. This situation is not called Bereirah - see Insights to Chulin 14:5.

(d)Halachically, most Poskim conclude (based on Beitzah 38a) that regarding Biblical questions (mid'Oraisa), we assume that Bereirah does not work (l'Chumra), but with regard to Rabbinical questions (mid'Rabanan), we rely on Bereirah.

10)[line 21]הלוקח יין מבין הכותיםHA'LOKE'ACH YAYIN MI'BEIN HA'KUSIM- one who buys wine from among the Kusim. See Background to Chulin 3:8.

11)[line 21]שני לוגין שאני עתיד להפריש הרי הן תרומהSHNEI LUGIN SHE'ANI ASID L'HAFRISH HAREI HEN TERUMAH - two Lugin [of wine] that I will separate, in the future, are hereby Terumah (TERUMAH \ MA'ASER RISHON \ MA'ASER SHNENI)

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5).

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

12)[line 23]מיחל ושותה מידMEICHAL V'SHOSEH MIYAD- (a) he redeems ("Meichal," short for "Mechalel") the Ma'aser Sheni and then he may drink the wine (RASHI); (b) he may begin ("Meichal," short for "Maschil") to drink the wine (RABEINU GERSHOM to Me'ilah 22a)


13)[line 2]שמא יבקע הנודSHEMA YIBAKA HA'NOD- the barrel (or leather bottle) might break (and the wine will spill out, and he will never be able to separate the Terumah and Ma'asros)

14)[line 3]לכשיבקעLECHESHE'YIBAKA- when it will break [we will worry about it]; i.e. we need not worry that it will break, because such an occurence is so uncommon, and even if it does break a watchman can be appointed to guard it (RASHI to Sukah 24a, Gitin 26a)

15)[line 5]אין אדם מתנהEIN ADAM MASNEH- a person may not stipulate a condition

16)[line 6]אם בא חכם למזרח, עירובו למזרחIM BA CHACHAM LA'MIZRACH, EIRUVO LA'MIZRACH - if the sage comes to the east, the Eruv will be to the east (EIRUVEI TECHUMIN)

(a)A person is allowed to walk only a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city (or dwelling place if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.

(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.

17)[line 7]לכאן ולכאן, לאL'CHAN UL'CHAN, LO- [if, before Shabbos or Yom Tov, a person wants to establish his Eruv Techumin in the direction to which a sage will come so that he can walk to the sage to learn Torah from him, and he thinks that two sages might come, one to the east and one to the west,] he cannot say, "If one sage comes from this direction, and another sage comes from the other direction, I will choose [on Shabbos] which Eruv I want to be valid." This case relies on Bereirah (see above, entry #9), and Rebbi Yehudah maintains that Bereirah is not effective.

18)[line 8]והוינן בהV'HAVINAN BAH- and we ask about it

19)[line 12]כל הכלים הניטלין בשבתKOL HA'KELIM HA'NITALIN B'SHABBOS- all utenstils that may be handled on Shabbos. See above, entry #6.

20)[line 13]מעין מלאכהME'EIN MELACHAH- any form of useful purpose (but it does not have to be the same purpose for which the original utensil was used)

21)[line 13]שברי עריבהSHIVREI AREIVAH- broken pieces of a basin (used for dough)

22)[line 14]פי חביתPI CHAVIS- the top (cover) of a barrel

23)[line 14]שברי זכוכיתSHIVREI ZECHUCHIS- broken pieces of glass

24)[line 15]פי הפךPI HA'PACH- the top of an oil jug

25)[line 16]מעין מלאכתןME'EIN MELACHTAN- a form of their [original] purpose

26)[line 17]לצוק לתוכן מקפהLA'TZUK L'SOCHAN MIKPAH- to pour into them a thick mass of grist, oil and onions

27)[line 23]נולדNOLAD

(a)MUKTZAH - see above, entry #6

(b)NOLAD - When an item did not exist in its present form during Bein ha'Shemashos between Friday and Shabbos, but rather it was created (or was significantly changed) on Shabbos, it belongs to the category of Muktzah known as Nolad ("born"). Utensils that broke on Shabbos did not exist in their present form before Shabbos. Therefore, they are considered Nolad. Similarly, date pits from dates that were eaten on Shabbos are Nolad, since they were part of a fruit when Shabbos entered and emerged as pits only on Shabbos. Moving such items is prohibited according to Rebbi Yehudah, since a person could not have had in mind to use them before Shabbos, when they did not yet exist. It is permitted according to Rebbi Shimon, since he holds that advance positive intention to use an item on Shabbos is not necessary.

28)[line 24]אוכלא דאיפרת הואOCHLA D'IFRAS HU- it is food that has become separated (from its source)

29)[line 26]אין סוחטיןEIN SOCHATIN - it is forbidden to squeeze the liquid out of a fruit (AVOS MELACHAH: SECHITAH)

(a)AVOS MELACHAH - see above, entry #1.

(b)Sechitah, squeezing the liquid out of a fruit, is a form of the Melachah of Mefarek, which is a Toldah of Dash (threshing). The Melachah of Dash consists of separating a natural product from its natural container through treading on it (e.g. wheat from chaff). Squeezing the liquid out of a fruit also separates the liquid from its natural container, the fruit.

30a)[line 28]אם לאוכליןIM L'OCHLIN- if [the fruits have been designated] for food [to eat, and not for their juice]

b)[line 29]אם למשקיןIM L'MASHKIN- if [the fruits have been designated] for their juice [and not to eat]

31)[line 34]מידי הוא טעמא אלא לרב?MIDI HU TAIMA ELA L'RAV?- are we not trying to explain the reasoning of Rav (who says that it is prohibited to eat, on Shabbos, the meat of an animal slaughtered on that day, in accordance with the view of Rebbi Yehudah)?

32a)[line 38]נר חדשNER CHADASH- a new lamp (which has never been used)

b)[line 38]ישןYASHAN- a lamp which has been used

33)[line 40]מוקצה מחמת מיאוס / מוקצה מחמת איסורMUKTZEH MACHMAS MI'US / MUKTZEH MACHMAS ISUR

If an object is so disgusting (Mi'us) that people generally do not use it at all, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to its status on Shabbos. Rebbi Yehudah prohibits moving it because it is considered to be "Muktzah Machmas Mi'us." Rebbi Shimon (who holds of a much narrower definition of Muktzah) permits moving and using it on Shabbos. (See above, entry #6.)