[17a - 30 lines; 17b - 27 lines]
1)[line 1]כל דבהדי גבה כגבה דמיKOL DEB'HADI GABAH K'GABAH DAMI- any part of the animal that is even with the height of the back (the part of the animal that is normally used), such as the head, is considered like the back (whether the sides of the animal are prohibited to be used or not)
2)[line 6]יום טבוחYOM TAVO'ACH
If Shavuos falls on Shabbos, the Korban Re'iyah and Korban Chagigah are offered on Sunday, which is called the Yom Tavo'ach, "the day of the slaughtering [of the sacrifices]."
(a)Every Jewish male is required to bring a Korban Re'iyah on the three festivals. If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other six days of Pesach. On Sukos it may be brought on the first day or the next seven days and on Shavuos it may be brought on Shavuos or on the six days following the festival.
(b)The Amora'im argue as to whether the primary obligation is to bring the Korban on the first day of the festival. Those who rule as such consider the successive days as "Tashlumin" (compensation) for the first day. Others rule that the obligation is to bring a Korban on one of the days of the festival, not necessarily the first. Accordingly, the first day of the festival on which one is fit to bring a Korban is the day on which he is obligated. The successive days are "Tashlumin" for that day. The practical difference that arises from this argument regards a person who was not fit to offer the Korban on the first day, but became fit on the second day (such as a lame person who became well or a blind person who regained his sight). According to the opinion that the successive days are Tashlumin for the first day, this person is exempt from his obligation since he was not fit to bring the Korban on the first day of the festival. According to the other opinion, he still has an obligation to bring it.
4)[line 22]פז''ר קש''בPaZaR KaSHeV- These words are a mnemonic device listing six ways in which Shemini Atzeres is a distinct festival and not just a continuation of Sukos:
1.PAYIS - on Shemini Atzeres, a lottery was cast to determine who would offer the 10 animals (one ox, one ram, one he-goat and seven sheep) of the Korban Musaf. On Sukos, the Kohanim used a rotation system among the Mishmaros to determine who would offer the seventy oxen, fourteen rams, seven he-goats and ninety-eight sheep that were brought during the seven days of Sukos (Sukah 5:6)
2.ZEMAN - the blessing of "Shehechiyanu... l'Zeman ha'Zeh" is said on Shemini Atzeres (unlike the seventh day of Pesach on which it is not said even though it is also a Yom Tov)
3.REGEL - (a) it is a festival on its own, and is not called one of the days of Sukos (RASHI); (b) it is a festival on its own, and we do not sit in the Sukah (RASHI to Sukah 48a); (c) as in other festivals at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash, one must stay overnight (Linah) in Yerushalayim on the night after the festival (RABEINU TAM)
4.KORBAN - the Korban Musaf on Shemini Atzeres was different from the Korban Musaf of the rest of Sukos; the oxen offered as Olos on Sukos decreased from thirteen on the first day to seven on the seventh day. Each day two rams, one he-goat and fourteen sheep were offered whereas on Shemini Atzeres the Korban Musaf was one ox, one ram, one he-goat and seven sheep
5.SHIR - The Leviyim sang chapters of Tehilim while the Nesachim of a Korban Tzibur were being brought. They sang the same verses of Tehilim that we recite daily as the Shir Shel Yom (Tamid 6:7). On Mo'adim, special chapters of Tehilim were substituted instead of these (Maseches Sofrim 18:2-3, 19:2). They also played musical instruments to accompany the singing. On Sukos, the songs referred to the harvest and to the gifts given to the poor; the song of Shemini Atzeres was of a different nature. RASHI (Rosh Hashanah 4b) cites Maseches Sofrim (19:2) that states that the song of Shemini Atzeres is Lamenatze'ach Al ha'Sheminis (Tehilim 12)
6.BERACHAH - (a) a blessing was said for the king on Shemini Atzeres (Tosefta Sukah 4:10); (b) the blessing that is used during Tefilah and Birkas ha'Mazon on Shemini Atzeres contains the words "b'Yom ha'Shemini, Chag ha'Atzeres ha'Zeh," and not "b'Yom ha'Sukos ha'Zeh" (RASHI to Sukah 48a)
5)[line 24]מי שלא חגMI SHE'LO CHAG- any person who did not bring a Korban Chagigah; every Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos, and bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14)
6)[line 25]תפשת מרובה לא תפשת תפשת מועט תפשתTAFASTA MERUBAH, LO TAFASTA; TAFASTA MU'AT TAFASTA - if you take hold of the larger amount you will not be able to grasp it, if you take hold of the smaller amount you will be able to grasp it
(a)This principle states that if you rule according to (lit. take hold of) the larger amount you will not be able to retain that ruling (lit. to grasp it). If you rule according to (lit. take hold of) the smaller amount you will be able to retain that ruling (lit. to grasp it). That is, where the verse is teaching a number (quantity) but it is unclear what that number is, we assume that it is referring to the smaller number. In our Gemara, where the unknown item (the days of Tashlumin for Shavuos) may be compared to the seven days of Pesach or the eight days of Sukos, we assume that it is referring to the smaller quantity.
(b)The logic behind this principle is that if one is faced with a choice of two numbers and is in doubt which to choose, choosing the smaller number is always preferable, regardless of which of the two numbers was actually the correct one (because included in the larger number is the smaller one). On the other hand, if the larger number is chosen, and the smaller one was the correct one, then an error will be made because the smaller number does not include the larger one. (RASHI, TOSFOS)
When a person offers a Korban, he must stay in Yerushalayim on the following night. This is learned from the verse in Devarim 16:7.