[106a - 53 lines; 106b - 43 lines]
1a)[line 2]בשדפוןSHIDAFON- (a) blight; (b) damage to the crops caused by searing, hot east winds
b)[line 3]בירקוןYERAKON- yellow blight, mildew
2)[line 10, 11]"ותגזר אומר, ויקם לך ועל דרכיך נגה אור""V'SIGZAR OMER V'YAKAM LACH; V'AL DERACHECHA NAGAH OR"- "You shall also decree a thing and it shall be established for you, and the light shall shine upon your ways" (Iyov 22:28) - Elifaz ha'Teimani tells Iyov that if a person is righteous, he will have the opportunity to have all that he decrees come about. Chazal learn that this applies to all true Tzadikim. The Gemara rules that the Machkir can claim that his prayers for the success of his crops only apply to that type of crop that he instructed the Chocher to plant.
3)[line 17]משום לתך דידך הואMISHUM LESACH DIDACH HU- because of your fate (Lasa is a word that means fellowship or company. In the sense of our Gemara it means something that clings to a person such as fate or luck)
4)[line 20]הוה משתייר לי פורתאHAVAH MISHTAYEIR LI PURTA- a portion of my real estate (lit. a small amount) would have been left
5)[line 31]אי הוה חזיתIY HAVAH CHAZIS- if you would have been fit, worthy
(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that:
1.They must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat.
2.The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2).
3.The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b)The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.
7)[line 34]שנים כשני אליהוSHANIM KI'SHENEI ELIYAHU- years like those of Eliyahu ha'Navi, when he prayed to HaSh-m that there be no rain because the wicked King Achav caused the people to worship Avodah Zarah. Eliyahu protested for HaSh-m's honor that the curse of the Torah ("Take heed to yourselves, that your heart not be deceived, and you turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them; And then HaSh-m's anger be kindled against you, and He will close the skies, that there should be no rain..." - Devarim 11:16-17) should be upheld (Melachim I 16:34-17:1, Sanhedrin 113a).
8)[line 34]אינו עולה לו מן המניןEINO OLEH LO MIN HA'MINYAN - it is not reckoned in the [two-year] count [of one who sells an ancestral field] (HA'MOCHER SEDEH ACHUZAH)
(a)A Sedeh Achuzah is a field that came into the possession of its owner's family after the conquest and division of Eretz Yisrael, at the time of Yehoshua bin Nun.
(b)Such a field may only be sold until the Yovel year, at which time it automatically returns to the possession of its original owner (Vayikra 25:25-28). Because of this, when a person sells an ancestral field he normally intends to sell only the Peiros, or produce, of the land until the Yovel year, and not the land itself (Gitin 48a).
(c)Beginning two years after the sale, the original owner may redeem the field from the person who purchased it. He does so by returning the proportion of the money that was paid for the remaining years until the Yovel year (Erchin 29a).
(d)For a discussion of the Halachos of someone who is Makdish (consecrates to Hekdesh) a Sedeh Achuzah, see below, entry #11.
9)[line 40]"[במספר שנים אחר היובל תקנה מאת עמיתך] במספר שני תבואות, ימכור לך""[B'MISPAR SHANIM ACHAR HA'YOVEL, TIKNEH ME'ES AMISECHA;] B'MISPAR SHENEI SEVU'OS YIMKOR LACH"- "[According to the number of years after the Yovel year you shall buy from your neighbor, and] according to the number of years of the fruits he shall sell to you" (Vayikra 25:15).
10a)[line 43]אפקעתאAFKATA- cancellation of obligations; exceptional legislation
b)[line 43]אפקעתא דמלכאAFKATA D'MALKA- a special royal dispensation
11)[line 44]שביעית לא תעלה לו מן הגירוע... נותן סלע ופונדיון לשנהSHEVI'IS LO SA'ALEH LO MIN HA'GEIRU'A... NOSEN SELA U'FUNDYON L'SHANAH - let the Shemitah year not count for the [yearly] deduction [of one who redeems an ancestral field from Hekdesh] ... he gives a Sela and a Pundyon per year (HA'MAKDISH SEDEH ACHUZAH)
(a)See above, entry #8.
(b)If a person was Makdish (consecrated to the possession of the Beis ha'Mikdash) his Sedeh Achuzah, anyone has the right to redeem it from Hekdesh from that day until Yom ha'Kipurim of the Yovel year. If the Makdish redeems it, he must pay to Hekdesh an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value) of the value of the field. If the Makdish does not redeem his field by Yom ha'Kipurim of the Yovel year, but rather it is not redeemed, or another person redeems it, it is given to the Mishmar of Kohanim who are on duty at that time (Vayikra 27:15-21).
(c)When redeeming a Sedeh Achuzah from Hekdesh, its "value" is determined according to the fixed endowment value stated in Vayikra 27:16, i.e. 50 silver Shekels for every parcel of land that is normally sown with a Chomer (1 Chomer = 1 Kor = 30 Se'ah or approximately 216, 248.9 or 432 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley seed (75,000 sq. Amos - see Background to Bava Metzia 102:27:c). However, fifty Shekels are given only if the field was redeemed at the beginning of a new Yovel cycle; the amount decreases proportionally with every year that passes until it is less than two years before the next Yovel. At that point, it is once again redeemed for fifty Shekels per Chomer (ibid. 25a).
12)[line 45]דחזיא למישטחא בה פיריD'CHAZYA L'MISHTECHA BEI PEIREI- it is fit to spread out fruit to dry
13)[line 47]"לא יבשו בעת רעה; ובימי רעבון ישבעו""LO YEVOSHU B'ES RA'AH; UVI'YMEI RE'AVON YISBA'U"- "They shall not be ashamed in the evil time; and in the days of famine they shall be satisfied" (Tehilim 37:19).
14)[line 48]רועה שהיה רועהRO'EH SHE'HAYAH RO'EH- a shepherd who was grazing [his flocks]
15)[line 48]והניח עדרוV'HENI'ACH EDRO- who left his flock [in the fields]
16)[line 49]זאבZE'EV- a wolf
17)[line 49]וטרףV'ARAF- tore [its prey and dragged it to its lair, where it killed it and ate it]
18)[line 49]אריARI- a lion
19)[line 49]ודרסV'DARAS- attacked with its paws or claws [and ate it on the spot]
20)[line 51]"גם את הארי גם (את) הדוב הכה עבדך...""GAM ES HA'ARI, GAM (ES) HA'DOV HIKAH AVDECHA..."- "Your servant has slain both the lion and the bear; [and this uncircumcised Pelishti shall be as one of them, seeing as he has defied the armies of the living G-d]" (Shmuel I 17:36) - David related to King Shaul that once when he was herding his father's sheep, a lion and its three cubs and a bear and its two cubs (MIDRASH SHMUEL 20; YALKUT SHIMONI 2:127) attacked the flock and the bear took one sheep away. HaSh-m instilled David with exceptional might and he killed the bear and saved the sheep. Then the lion turned on David and he was able to grab it by the mane of its jaw and kill it also.
21)[line 51]אי הוית חזית לאיתרחושי לך ניסאIY HAVIS CHAZIS L'ISRACHUSHEI LACH NISA- if you (the owner of the flock) were fit, worthy to have a miracle happen to you, [you would have had a miracle happen such as the one that happened to Rebbi Chanina ben Dosa]
22)[line 52]דמתיין עיזי דובי בקרנייהוD'MASYAN IZEI DUBEI B'KARNAIHU- where the goats (that he was watching for their owner) returned from the forest with bears gored on their horns (as a proof that they were not responsible for the damage for which they were accused) (Ta'anis 25a)
23)[line 5]בתרי זימני הוי חזקהBI'TREI ZIMNEI HEVEI CHAZAKAH
Rebbi is of the opinion that after an event occurs two times, we can presume that it will happen again under the same conditions until there is evidence of a change. Raban Shimon Ben Gamliel argues and maintains that we make this presumption only after the event occurs three times.
24a)[line 10]עד דאתו אריסי מִדַּבְּראAD D'ASU ARISEI MI'DABRA- until a time of the year when at the time that the Arisim return from the fields (a) at two hours before sunset (RASHI); (b) at sunset (TOSFOS)
b)[line 10]וקיימא כימה ארישייהוV'KAIMA KIMAH A'REISHAIHU- Mazal Kimah is above their heads, in the center of the sky (this occurs (a) during the month of Adar - RASHI; (b) at the beginning of Shevat - TOSFOS; (c) during the month of Nisan - ARUCH)
c)[line 10]כימהKIMAH- (a) a cluster of more than 100 stars in Aries (RASHI, TOSFOS), close to the last part of the constellation that rises; (b) the Pleiades (IBN EZRA)
25)[line 13]זרעZERA- after the flood, HaSh-m promised Noach "עֹד כָּל יְמֵי הָאָרֶץ, זֶרַע וְקָצִיר, וְקֹר וָחֹם, וְקַיִץ וָחֹרֶף, וְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה לֹא יִשְׁבֹּתוּ "Od Kol Yemei ha'Aretz, Zera v'Katzir v'Kor va'Chom v'Kayitz va'Choref... Lo Yishbosu" - "While the earth remains, seed time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, [and day and night] shall not cease" (Bereishis 8:22) - This verse lists six separate seasons of the year, each lasting two months. Our Gemara brings the Beraisa with the various opinions of the Tana'im as to when each season starts.
26a)[line 13]זרעZERA- planting time
b)[line 14]חורףCHOREF- winter
c)[line 15]קורKOR- "cold," the end of winter, which is more harsh than winter
d)[line 15]קצירKATZIR- harvest time [of grains]
e)[line 16]קיץKAYITZ- summer (related to the word Ketzi'os, dried figs, which are spread out to dry during this season)
f)[line 17]חוםCHOM- "heat," the end of summer, which is more harsh than summer
27)[line 20]דקבלה מיניה בחרפיD'KIBLAH MINEI B'CHORFEI- he received the field in a sharecropping agreement to sow early [crops] (such as wheat and rye, which are planted in Marcheshvan, at the beginning of the winter)
28)[line 21]באפליAFEILEI- late [crops] (such as barley and various legumes, which are planted in Adar, at the end of the winter)
29)[line 23]תומיTUMEI- garlic; alt. Girsa IBA - a grove [of trees] (ARUCH) or a willow tree (RABEINU CHANANEL)
30)[line 23]אגודא דנהר מלכא סבאA'GUDA D'NEHAR MALKA SABA- on the bank of the Malka Saba River/Canal
31)[line 24]איסתכרISTAKAR- it became blocked
32)[line 28]ולקתהV'LAKESAH- and it was smitten [with blight or was blasted by the wind, which caused it to produce inferior grain]
33)[line 34]בעשר דני חמראB'ESER DANEI CHAMRA- for [the payment of] ten barrels of wine
34)[line 35]תקיףTAKIF- it soured; turned into vinegar
35)[line 37]בעינבי דכדוםINVEI DI'CHADUM- undeveloped or worm-eaten grapes
36)[line 37]ובשדה שלקתה בעומריהSADEH SHE'LAKESAH B'OMAREHA- a field that was smitten while the grain was still in it sheaves
37a)[line 39]תבואהTEVU'AH- [grain] produce
b)[line 39]קטניתKITNIS- legumes
38)[line 40]"שארית ישראל לא יעשו עוולה ולא ידברו כזב, ולא-יימצא בפיהם, לשון תרמית""SHE'ERIS YISRAEL LO YA'ASU AVLAH V'LO YEDABRU CHAZAV V'LO YIMATZEI B'FIHEM LESHON TARMIS..."- "The remnant of Yisrael does no iniquity, and does not speak deceitfully; nor shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth..." (Tzefanyah 3:13).
39a)[line 41]מגבת פוריםMIGBAS PURIM- the collection for the holiday of Purim
b)[line 41]לפוריםL'FURIM- is given to the poor for the needs of their Purim Se'udah, a festive meal with wine eaten on Purim to commemorate the miracle (Esther 9:22; Megilah 2b)
40)[line 42]ואין מדקדקין בדברV'EIN MEDAKDEKIN BA'DAVAR- [all of the money collected is used and] the treasurers are not overly precise with the matter [and do not demand that the poor manage with a smaller allotment so that the extra money can be designated as normal Tzedakah]
41)[line 42]רצועה לסנדלוRETZU'AH L'SANDALO- a strap for his sandal
42)[last line]התנה במעמד אנשי העירHISNAH B'MA'AMAD ANSHEI HA'IR- he made a stipulation in the presence of the people of the city